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The complete KFM instructions include patterns to be cut out and used to construct the fallout meter. If Xerox copies of the patterns are used, they should be checked against the originals in order to make sure that they are the same size as the originals. These instructions, including the heading on this page and the illustrative photos, can be photographed without additional screening and rapidly reproduced by a newspaper or printer. If a nuclear war ever strikes the United States, survivors of the blast and fire effects would need to have reliable means of knowing when the radiation in the environment around their shelters had dropped enough to let them venture safely outside.
During a possible rapidly worsening nuclear crisis, or after a nuclear attack, most unprepared Americans could not buy or otherwise obtain a fallout meter -- an Instrument that would greatly improve their chances of surviving a nuclear war. Untrained families, guided only by these written instructions and using only low cost materials and tools found in most homes, have been able to make a KFM by working 3 or 4 hours. Before building a KFM, persons expecting a nuclear attack within a few hours or days and already in the place where they intend to await attack should work with the following priorities: (1) build or improve a high-protection-factor shelter (if possible, a shelter covered with 2 or 3 feet of earth and separate from flammable buildings).
3.Then read ALOUD ALL of each section following Section VII before beginning to make the part described in that section. A FAMILY THAT FAILS TO READ ALOUD ALL OF EACH SECTION DESCRIBING HOW TO MAKE A PART, BEFORE BEGINNING TO MAKE THAT PART, WILL MAKE AVOIDABLE MISTAKES AND WILL WASTE TIME. 4.Have different workers, or pairs of workers, make the parts they are best qualified to make. 5.Give workers the sections of the instructions covering the parts they are to build--so they can follow the step-by-step instructions, checking off with a pencil each step as it is completed. 7.After completing one KFM and learning to use it, if time permits make a second KFM--that should be a better instrument. A KFM is a simple electroscope-ionization chamber fallout meter with which fallout radiation can be measured accurately. To take accurate readings, the air inside a KFM must be kept very dry by means of drying agents such as dehydrated gypsum (easily made by heating gypsum wallboard, "sheetrock") or silica-gel. An electrostatic charge is transferred from a homemade electrostatic charging device to the two aluminum-foil leaves of a KFM by means of its charging-wire. When the two KFM leaves are charged electrostatically, their like charges (both positive or both negative) cause them to be forced apart.
A KFM-maker who wants visual proof that his instrument can be partially or wholly discharged by ionizing radiation should persuade his dentist to place the charged KFM about 20 inches directly below a typical dental X-ray machine. To read the separation of the lower edges of the two KFM leaves with one eye, look straight down on the leaves and the scale on the clear plastic cover. If a KFM is made and maintained with the specified dimensions and of the specified materials, ITS ACCURACY IS AUTOMATICALLY AND PERMANENTLY ESTABLISHED BY UNCHANGING LAWS OF NATURE.
The millimeter scale is cut out and attached (see photo illustrations on the following page) to the clear plastic cover of the KFM so that its zero mark is directly above the two leaves in their discharged position when the KFM is resting on a horizontal surface.
2.exposing it to radiation for a specified time in the location where measurement of the dose rate is needed -- when outdoors, positioning the KFM about 3 ft. 5.using this table to find what the dose rate was during the exposure -- as will be described later. Instructions on how to use a KFM are given after those detailing how to make and charge this fallout meter.
To get a clearer idea of the construction and use of a KFM, look carefully at the following photos and read their captions. B.Charging a KFM by a Spark-Gap Discharge from a Tape That Has Been Electrostatically Charged by Being Unwound Quickly. NOTE:In these photos, the paper scale is taped to the top of the transparent plastic-film cover. 3.Doorbell-wire, or other light insulated wire (preferably, but not necessarily) a single-strand wire inside the insulation -- 6 inches. 4.Any type of clean, fine thread that has not been anti-static treated will serve to suspend a KFM's leaves. To minimize the chance of using a piece of monofilament or other thread that has been soiled and thus changed into a poor insulator, always first remove and discard the outermost layer of thread on any spool that has not been kept clean in a plastic bag or other packaging after being initially unwrapped.
During a worsening crisis or after an attack, neither thread that has not been anti-static treated, nor unwaxed dental floss, nor clean 2-pound or 4-pound monofilament line may be available.
7.Band-Aid tape, or masking tape, or freezer tape, or Scotch transparent tape, or other thin and very flexible tapes -- about 2 square inches.
12.Several small, transparent plastic bags, such as sandwich bags, to cover the KFM when it is exposed where fallout particles may get on it and contaminate it. 6.Two 1-quart Mason jars or other airtight containers, one in which to store anhydrite and another in which to keep dry the KFM charging devices. 1.An airtight container (such as a large peanut butter jar) with a mouth at least 4 inches wide, in which to keep a KFM, along with some drying agent, when it is not being used. 1.For a KFM to measure radiation accurately, the air inside its ionization chamber must be kept very dry. 6.Since anhydrite absorbs water from the air very rapidly, quickly put it in a dry airtight container while it is still quite hot.
7.To place anhydrite in a KFM, drop in the pieces one by one, being careful not to hit the leaves or the stop-threads.
8.To remove anhydrite from a KFM, use a pair of scissors or tweezers as forceps, holding them in a vertical position and not touching the leaves.
1.Remove the paper label (if any) from an ordinary 8-ounce can from which the top has been smoothly cut.
One person should hold the can over the paper-covered stick while a second person cuts the can little by little along the marked cutting line. Next, smooth the cut edge, and cover it with small pieces of freezer tape or other flexible tape.
4.Sharpen a small nail, by filing or rubbing on concrete, for use as a punch to make the four holes needed to install the stop-threads in the ionization chamber (the can). 5.Have one person hold the can over a horizontal stick or a round wooden tool-handle, that ideally has a diameter about as large as the diameter of the can.
6.The stop-threads can be installed by using a needle to thread a single thread through all four holes.
Before threading the thread through the four holes, tie a small toggle (see the preceding sketch) to the long end of the thread.
The first toggle and all of the four holes also should be covered with tape, to prevent air from leaking into the can after it has been covered and is being used as an ionization chamber. 2.Fold the aluminum foil to make a 2-ply (= 2 thicknesses) sheet approximately 4 inches by 4 inches. 4.Fold this 4-ply sheet to make an 8-ply sheet (8 sheets thick) approximately 2 inches by 2 inches, being sure that the two halves of the second-fold edge are exactly together. 6.Hold the FINISHED-LEAF PATTERN on top of the 8-ply aluminum foil sheet, with the pattern's THIRD-FOLD EDGE on top of the third-fold edge of the 8-ply aluminum sheet. 7.While holding a straight edge along the THREAD LINE of the pattern, press with a sharp pencil so as to make a shallow groove for the THREAD LINE on the 8-ply aluminum sheet.
9.While holding a straight edge along the indented THREAD LINE, lift up the OPEN EDGE of the 8-ply sheet (keeping all 8 plies together) until this edge is vertical, as illustrated. 10.Open the flat-folded hem of the finished leaf until the 8-ply leaf is almost flat again, as shown by the pattern, from which the FINISHED-LEAF PATTERN has already been cut.
Be very careful not to touch the two 1-inch parts of the thread next to the outline of the finished leaf, since oil and dirt even on clean fingers will reduce the electrical insulating value of the thread between the leaf and the top rim of the can. 13.With the thread still taped to the paper pattern and while slightly lifting the thread with a knife tip held under the center of the thread, slip the finished leaf under the thread and into position exactly on the top of the leaf outlined on the pattern page. 14.While keeping the thread straight between its two taped-down ends, lower the thread so that it sticks to the two plastic strips. 15.With the point of the knife, hold down the center of the thread against the center of the THREAD LINE of the leaf. 17.Loosen the second two small pieces of tape from the pattern paper, but leave these tapes stuck to the thread. The instructions in step 11 are for persons lacking "one hour" epoxy or the time required to dry other types of glue.
WARNING:The parts of the thread that will be inside the Can and on which the leaf will be suspended must serve to insulate the high-voltage electrical charges to be placed on the leaf Therefore, the suspended parts of the thread must be kept very clean. 1.In preparation for suspending the leaves inside the can, make two shallow notches in the top of the rim of the can.
2.Use the two small pieces of 'ape stuck to the ends of a leaf-suspending thread to attach the thread to the outside of the can. 4.Cover with tape the parts of the threads that extend down the outside of the can, and also cover with more tape the small pieces of tape near the ends of the threads on the outside of the can. 5.To make the SEAT, cut a piece of a wooden pencil, or a stick, about one inch long and tape it securely to the side of the can along the center line marked SEAT on the pattern. 2.From a piece of clear, strong plastic, cut a circle approximately the same size as the paper pattern. Just below the top of the rim of the can, bind the covering plastic in place with a 1 :4- inch-wide piece of strong tape. Keep vertical the small part of the tape that presses against the rim of the can while pulling the length of the tape horizontally around the can so as to bind the top of the plastic cover snugly to the rim. Finding a dose rate: If before exposure a KFM reads 17 mm and if after a l-minute exposure it reads 5 mm.
Doorbell wire with an outside diameter of about 1116 inch is best, but any lightweight insulated wire, such as part of a lightweight two-wire extension cord split in half, will serve. If a very thin plastic has been used for the cover, a sticky piece of tape may need to be attached to the end of the bare-ended adjustment thread, so both threads can be used to hold the charging wire in a desired position. Try to charge the leaves enough to spread them far enough apart to give a reading of at least 15 mm, but no more than 20 mm after the KFM has been gently bumped or shaken to remove any unstable part of the charge.
Put fresh drying agent in your KFM and then charge and test the KFM in a location where it is not exposed to abnormal radiation. 1.Be sure the pieces of anhydrite in the bottom of the ionization chamber (the can) are in a single layer, with no piece on top of another and the top of no piece more than 112 inch above the bottom of the can.
5.If you cannot charge the KFM while in an area of heavy fallout, take it to the place affording the best protection against radiation, and try to charge it there. If a KFM or other radiation measuring instrument gives unexpectedly high readings inside a good shelter, wipe all dust off the outside of the instrument and repeat the radiation-measurements.
By charging a KFM while it is inside a dry-bucket with a transparent plastic cover (see illustration), this fallout meter can be charged and used even if the relative humidity is 100% outside the dry-bucket. 1.Remove the handle of a large bucket, pot, or can preferably with a top diameter of at least 11 inches.
2.Cut out a circular piece of clear plastic with a diameter about 5 inches larger than the diameter of the top of the bucket. 3.Make a plastic top that fits snugly but is easily removable, by taping over and around the plastic just below the top of the bucket.
6.Reduce the length of two ordinary plastic bread bags (or similar plastic bags) to a length that is 5 inches greater than the height of the bucket. 9.Make about a quart of anhydrite by heating small pieces of wall-board gypsum, and keep this anhydrite dry in a Mason jar or other airtight container with a rubber or plastic sealer. 10.Make a circular aluminum-foil cover to place over the plastic cover when the dry-bucket is not being used for minutes to hours.
NOTE: Our fallout shelters come standard with a 12-person Swiss-made chemical and biological air filtration system with both electrical and hand-powered capability.
To some extent, our shelters also provide blast protection, depending upon proximity to and power of a blast. The most inexpensive approach to installing a Safecastle fallout shelter is to opt for a shelter with a 32″-square blast-door hatch.
Is designed by a structural engineer to withstand tremendous physical forces, to include up to 330 mph winds (while many competitors’ are made for 250 mph winds, if at all). Includes prepackaged magnesium anodes for corrosion protection that adds many years to the already long life expectancy of these shelters and delivers triple the expected life span of some others’ shelters. It offers the optional security vault feature, adding to the value and functionality of the shelter and the types of protection it will offer your family. Includes the optional safety feature of an 8-ton hydraulic jack in case anything like a fallen tree or debris blocks the exit door. The shelter is to be installed so that the roof is approximately three feet below the surface of the ground above it. A seal-able opening is provided to allow for your home’s heating and air conditioning to maintain comfort in the shelter (consult with your local HVAC professional).
There are inlets for electrical lines and openings for TV cable, telephone, cell phone antennae, etc. An advanced sewage system, an additional escape hatch, and entryway extensions are available at additional cost. Of course, the space is utilitarian – it also makes for excellent additional storage space or a room for your workshop.
A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion.
After a nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed to neutrons from the explosion, absorbs them, and becomes radioactive.
A basic fallout shelter consists of shields that reduce gamma ray exposure by a factor of 1000. Usually, an expedient purpose-built fallout shelter is a trench, with a strong roof buried by ~1 m (3 ft) of dirt.
Dry earth is a reasonably good thermal insulator, and over several weeks of habitation, a shelter will become too hot for comfort.
Unfiltered air is safe, since the most dangerous fallout has the consistency of sand or finely ground pumice.
Effective public shelters can be the middle floors of some tall buildings or parking structures, or below ground level in most buildings with more than 10 floors.
It is possible to construct an electrometer-type radiation meter called the Kearny Fallout Meter from plans with just a coffee can or pail, gypsum board, monofilament fishing line, and aluminum foil. US military moving back into Doomsday base a decade after it was abandoned: Shield against EMP attack? Built between 1961 and 1966, The Cheyenne Mountain Complex was designed to be impervious to a Soviet nuclear attack. The military installation was constructed under 2,000 feet of granite inside the Cheyenne Mountains of Colorado. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Soviet threat seemed a relic of the past; so in 2006 the military abandoned the Cheyenne complex, moving its NORAD headquarters to Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado.
Although the military is pretty tight-lipped on exactly who is moving back into the Cheyenne complex, and refuses to specify the ultimate purpose of that move, it looks like some of the reasoning may be to protect the military from an EMP attack. Peter Pry, executive director of the EMP Task Force, a bipartisan congressional commission, is saying the move is meant to protect sensitive military electronics from a potential EMP attack. Pry said a $700 million contract, awarded to the Raytheon Corporation, will upgrade electronics inside Colorado’s Cheyenne Mountain facility.
The move back into the Cheyenne Mountain base in Colorado is designed to help the military protect the command’s sensitive sensors and servers from a potential electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack, military officers said. In a Pentagon press conference on April 7, 2015 Gortney told reporters that Cheyenne may still be needed. This 25-ton blast door in the Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker is one of the main entrances. While a number of nations possess the technology required to launch an attack, how likely they are to do so is really up for debate. I give an applaud to US Millitary,and pray for Gods protection to each an every one of them there in EMP,just as they are moving down there,long lives the US Millitary.
The US millitary moving to EMP,will also help them to protect their Nation,and i belive that they will succeed to relocate to EMP,may God help them achieve their target. There are several super powers moving, in leaps and bounds I might add, to TRY and remove the crown from USA as the leading superpower. We have the weakest president in 100 years, the weakest military in 200 years and a voting population that has the collective intellect of a ham sandwich. An impending bomb attack would make you think of ways on how to build a bomb shelter, any type of defense structure designed to provide protection against the damaging effects of a bomb. During the cold war, countries like the United States, Russia and other industrialized nations built shelters for high-ranking government officials. At present, there are plenty of companies that are manufacturing ready-made dwellings, but they are quite expensive and may be way out your budget.
Others who do not have money to spare will of course try their best to construct the shelter with their own hands and have family and friends to help them out. Prior to building the bomb shelter, you should be aware of the soil conditions within your immediate vicinity. The reason you must be concerned about the soil is that you need to dig deep into the earth and the soil must not cave in once you start working underground.
When the construction underground is finished, it is time to stock-up on supplies of water, canned goods, clothes and other provisions that may be needed for a lengthy stay underground. An underground accommodation as expected is cramped by any standards, but a modest bomb shelter must have the following: bunker beds that fold up with lower bunks and that could be used for sitting down. The shaft must be sealed with a blast door at the top and bottom for added protection when a blast occurs. An emergency hatch must be constructed at the rear portion of the fallout shelter and it should be shorter than the entry hatch. Put stakes to measure off where your construction will be and cordon the area off, so no one could just get into your construction site. After you finished digging and placing logs and poles on top of the trench, make sure that the logs have a measurement of at least one foot wider than the trench. Install make shift beds if you know how to construct a bunk bed or you can use old blankets and pile them up one on top of the other.

Air is important for every person residing in a bomb shelter because shelters that do not have a proper ventilation system would make people inside suffer from carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide poisoning.
Each individual inside the shelter must have an adequate space of twenty square feet if possible to provide sufficient space for the person to eat, sleep and store supplies needed.
A fallout-proof bomb shelter must have correct shielding which should be ten times the thickness of any quality material because it can help in reducing the gamma ray exposure in half. Bomb shelters must have an effective cooling system because after sometime in the underground, the temperature rises and the bomb shelter becomes hot.
Therefore, the shelter must have heavy flaps that can be swung from the hinges on the ceiling and they must open in one direction and can be closed the other way around. Public shelters can be constructed within the middle floors of tall buildings or inside parking structures. A bomb shelter must have supplies that are needed as follows: picks, shovels, hammer, large containers of water, a portable stove and many other necessities to get by.
It is based on the number three which is normally used to measure the extent on how long humans can survive in case of a nuclear bomb blast. To be able to survive a nuclear bomb detonation is to be in another place when it goes off. With the presence of terrorist and small nations that have the ability to produce a one-to-10-kiloton of nuclear bomb, studies show that the advice of staying in a shelter for a certain length of time is not the best key for survival, at least not in all cases.
The explosion dispersed blast of about 50 percent that carries a radiation of approximately 35 percent and an ionizing radiation of about five percent on the first explosion that would produce 10 percent fallout. To be able to make it through the first stage of the explosion, you must go to the nearest evacuation site or stay in place if you are located within a protective building and stay put for 24 hours until you are advised to leave sooner. What you must be concerned about is how to avoid falling debris, falling buildings and fire. The radiation exposure, which you will come in contact with, will be offset by the protection of the better bomb shelter. The possibility of a nuclear blast from a five-kiloton bomb is assumed from the fact that the bomb was made by current terrorists or small states that do not have very sophisticated technology to create a more sophisticated bomb.
There you have the ways on what it takes to build various kinds of bomb shelter according to your preference as well as ways on how to survive a bomb attack, which let’s hope never happens because of catastrophic effects, including damage to properties, disruption of work and injuries or loss of lives. If you keep the KFM instructions intact, during a worsening crisis you will be able to use them to help your friends and thousands of your fellow citizens by making them available for reproduction.
Civil defense teams could use broadcasts of surviving radio stations to give listeners a general idea of the fallout radiation in some broadcast areas.
It is understandable, easily repairable, and as accurate as most civil defense fallout meters.
However, this instrument is so simple that it could be made even after fallout arrives provided that all the materials and tools needed (see lists given in Sections V, VI, and VII) and a copy of these instructions have been carried into the shelter. At the same time, make and install a KAP (a homemade shelter-ventilating pump) - if instructions and materials are available.
For example, a less skilled worker should start making the drying agent (as described in Section VIII) before other workers start making other parts.
The head of the family often can give better answers if he first discusses the different possible interpretations of some instructions with other family members, especially teenagers.
To use a KFM, an electrostatic charge must first be placed on its two separate aluminum-foil leaves. When fallout gamma radiation (that is similar to X rays but more energetic) strikes the air inside the ionization chamber of a KFM, it produces charged ions in this enclosed air.
Unlike factory made radiation measuring instruments, A KFM NEVER NEEDS TO BE CALIBRATED OR TESTED WITH A RADIATION SOURCE.
A reading of the separation of the leaves is taken by noting the number of millimeters that the lower edge of one leaf appears to be on, on one side of the zero mark on the scale, and almost at the same time noting the number of millimeters the lower edge of the other leaf appears to be on, on the other side of the zero mark. Note that the charged tape is moved so that its surface is perpendicular to the charging-wire. A 12- inch ruler rests on the SEAT and is held vertical, while the reader's eyebrow touches the upper end of the ruler. It is better to tape the scale to the under side of the cover, where it is less likely to be damaged. Johnson and Johnson's Extra Fine Unwaxed, drawn out of its dispenser without splitting it, makes quite satisfactory leaf-supporting threads. However, most American homes have an excellent insulator, very thin polyethylene film - especially clean dry cleaners' bags. Tape only the two 6-inch-wide ends to a piece of paper (such as a brown grocery bag), so that the film is held flat and smooth on the paper. Clear vinyl (4 mils thick) used for storm-proofing windows is best, but any reasonably stout and clear plastic will serve.
Tissue paper, newspaper, or facial tissue such as Kleenex, or toilet paper are satisfactory for charging, but not as durable. The original length of these bags should be at least 5 inches greater than the height of the bucket. Keeping a KFM very dry greatly extends the time during which the drying agent Inside the KFM remains effective.
This granular form of anhydrite remains light blue as long as it is effective as a drying agent; it turns pink when it becomes ineffective. An excellent drying agent (anhydrite) can be made by heating the gypsum in ordinary gypsum wallboard (sheetrock). To drive the water out of the gypsum molecules and produce the drying agent (anhydrite), heat the gypsum in an oven at its highest temperature (which should be above 400 degrees F) for one hour.
The pieces should almost cover the bottom of the can, with no piece on top of other pieces. Then a second person can use the sharpened nail and a hammer to punch four very small holes through the sides of the can at the points shown by the four crosses on the pattern. Use a very clean thread, preferably nylon, and do not touch the parts of this thread that will be inside the can and will serve as the insulating stop-threads. Be sure that one lower corner of the FINISHED-LEAF PATTERN is on top of the exactly square corner of the 8-ply aluminum sheet. Also using a sharp pencil, trace around the top and side of the pattern, so as to indent (groove) the 8-ply foil.
Remove the straight edge, and fold the 8-ply aluminum along the THREAD LINE so as to make a flat-folded hem.
Prepare to attach the aluminum-foil leaf to the thread that will suspend it inside the KFM. To make a 5-ply leaf, start by cutting out a piece of foil approximately 4 inches by 4 inches.
Persons using glue instead of tape to attach the leaf to its thread should make appropriate use of the pattern on the following page and of some of the procedures detailed in steps 12 through 18. THEN, BY PUTTING TWO OTHER PIECES OF TAPE THIS SAME SIZE ON TOP OF THE FIRST TWO PIECES, TAPE THE THREAD ONTO THIS GUIDE SHEET, AND LATER ATTACH A LEAF TO THE TAPED-DOWN THREAD.
Or use epoxy or other waterproof glue to attach the parts of the threads on the outside of the can securely to the can. Be sure the upper end of this piece of pencil is at the same position as the top of the location for the SEAT outlined on the pattern. Then it is best to cover all the sides of the finished KFM with clear plastic tape or varnish.
If this small part of the tape is kept vertical, the lower edge of the tape will not squeeze the plastic below the rim of the can to such a small circumference as to prevent the cover from being removed quite easily.
Then tape the SCALE to the under side of the plastic cover, in the position shown on the pattern for the cover, and also by the drawings.
To avoid discharging the charge onthe plastic to the fingers, keep them away from the edges of the paper. Or at least keep the charging paper and the hard plastic charging strip dry in a sealable container, such as a Mason jar, with some drying agent. If the charging-wire has been held in charging position by its sticky-ended adjustment-thread being stuck to the top of the clear plastic cover, it is best first to pull down a little on the bare-ended adjustment-thread, and then to move, pull down on, and secure the sticky-ended adjustment-thread to the side of the can so that the lower part of the charging-wire is close to the underside of the clear plastic cover. Especially when exposing a fallout meter outdoors where there is fresh fallout, keep the instrument in a lidded pot, plastic bag, or other covering to avoid the possibility of having it contaminated with fallout particles and afterwards getting erroneously high radiation measurements. The pieces of this dehydrated gypsum need not be as uniform in size as is best for use inside a KFM, but do not use powdered anhydrite.
A 4-gallon bucket having a top diameter of about 14 inches and a depth of about 9 inches is ideal. One-inch-wide cloth duct tape, or one-inch-wide glass-reinforced strapping tape, serves well. Then make the radial cuts (shown by dotted lines) outward from the small holes, out to the solid-line outlines of the 3 inch by 4 inch hand-holes, so as to form small flaps.
Make this cover with a diameter about 4 inches greater than the diameter of the top of the bucket, and make it fit more snugly with an encircling loop of rubber bands, or with string. The primary differences between our storm shelters and our fallout shelters are found in modifications to the door, steps, and air vents to make them virtually impervious to radiological, biological, or chemical contamination. A small circuit box is included and attached to the wall, as well as fixture and switch boxes. When this material condenses in the cloud, it forms dust and light sandy material that resembles ground pumice. The required shielding can be accomplished with 10 times the amount of any quantity of material capable of cutting gamma ray effects in half. The two ends of the trench have ramps or entrances at right angles to the trench, so that gamma rays cannot enter (they can travel only in straight lines). The simplest form of effective fan to cool a shelter is a wide, heavy frame with flaps that swings in the shelter’s doorway and can be swung from hinges on the ceiling.
Such large particles are not easily ingested into the soft tissues of the body, so extensive filters are not required. The thickness of the upper floors must form an effective shield, and the windows of the sheltered area must not view fallout-covered ground that is closer than 1.5 km (1 mi). During the height of the Cold War, it served as the United States Militarya€™s primary command and control center against long-range Soviet bombers, ballistic missiles, and a nuclear attacks. Since 2013, the Pentagon has awarded contracts worth more than $850 million for work related to CheyenneA Mountain. In my opinion, this is one of the worst case scenarios that we can think of, because it could shut down the entire countrya€™s power grid for years, possibly permanently.
Second thought I am thankful for our military, defense amd strategic defense teams whom have the needed knowledge and their efforts to prevent disasters. The increase in ALL military activity makes this, IMO, blatantly obvious, especially since its focused along the west coast. Yes, we are ripe for the picking and I expect a coordinated nationwide terrorist attack any day.
It seems that an EMP is the preferred weapon of just about every enemy nation, and terrorists. Where to build the bomb shelter is important but the most important thing is to know where the initial blast of the bomb will be because both the blast and succeeding fallout are very catastrophic.
The shelters which were commonly known as bunkers then were erected underground or within the confines of buildings and were strong enough to handle a nuclear blast and the ensuing radiation fallout that will take place. If you want to build your bomb dwelling on a small budget, then consider doing it yourself. Many would like to have the comforts of home they were used to, so they would opt to have a modest bomb shelter that would have the basic necessities like rooms, a dining area and a toilet. The following would provide an outlook on the different ways on how the build a modest shelter, how the build one on a budget and how to build a correct or precise modern bomb shelter. The soil condition will vary with the seasons, so you must know the right time when to start doing the layouts and the digging.
After you have dug deep enough for an entry into your proposed bomb shelter, start with masonry or concrete works. A non-electric composting toilet must likewise be available and separated from the sleeping quarters. In addition to these security features, you will need a grenade sump must be constructed at the floor directly below the hatch for additional protection against any form of blast. The emergency hatch would be a very important part of the shelter, especially when the entry or main hatch is compromised. There may be a difference on how it is done from the way on how a modest bomb shelter is constructed, but the objective of being safe remains the same. It does not need a fancy design, but its plan should show the measurements you need in order to build your bomb shelter. Otherwise, you can look for a place that is close by because it would be impractical to build your bomb shelter in a far away location because it could be difficult to get there when a bomb detonates. Also make a list of the construction materials you will need like bricks, cements, gravel and sand, steel bars, wood planks and others.
The first part of the construction process will have to do with digging in order to get below the surface of the earth. After putting the logs on top of the trench, cover any cracks you see with leaves or cloths. To build the shelter, a trench with a strong roof must be buried under three feet of earth. Buildings, which have more than ten floors, can house a bomb shelter underground because the thickness of the above floors provides an effective shield against the blast and fallout of a bomb. Remember, humans cannot survive more than three seconds of the blast and cannot live for more than three minutes without air. But since most sturdy structures might have been damaged, it is still better to take shelter in the basement of a less intact dwelling than have no cover at all, at least blocking fifty percent of the radiation fallout.
If the wind is constant, the dangerous effect from the fallout plume can be avoided by walking at right angles to the plume.
Although any of these may be some drastic effects and what the case presents, there is another course of action that can be taken instead of just staying in one place. In the midst of a five-kiloton explosion, a good shelter is basically a still-standing, multi-story building that can provide adequate shelter it its mid-upper floors; or at the center of a large concrete building or within an undamaged basement. But if a good or better shelter is less than 15 minutes away, then stay put in your current shelter area for not longer than 30 minutes and transfer to the better shelter.
It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The reader is urged to use these extra patterns to make KFM's in normal peacetime and to keep the complete instructions intact for use during a recognized crisis period. However, the fallout radiation can vary widely from point to point and the measurements are likely to be made too far from most shelters to make them accurate enough to use safely. Occupants of a fallout shelter should be able to minimize the radiation doses they receive. In the United States in 1986 the least expensive commercially available dose-rate meter that is accurate and dependable and that measures high enough dose rates for wartime use is a British instrument that retails for $375.
The most skilled worker should make and install the aluminum-foil leaves (Sections X and XI).
These charged ions cause part or all of the electrostatic charge on the aluminum-foil leaves to be discharged. A KFM is used with a watch and the following table that is based on numerous calibrations made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sum of these two apparent positions of the lower edges of the two leaves is called a KFM reading.
This photo was taken looking straight down at the upper edges of the two flat, 8-ply aluminum leaves. The charging- wire has been raised to an almost horizontal position so that its lower end is too far above the aluminum leaves to permit electrical leakage from the leaves back up the charging-wire and into the outside air. The lower edge of the right leaf is under 8 on the scale and the lower edge of the left leaf is under 6 on the scale, giving a KFM reading of 14. Most unwaxed dental floss is too thick and stiff for properly suspending KFM leaves, but, since dental floss is not a twisted thread, you can make flexible strand-threads from it.
The strong clear plastic used to wrap pieces of cheese, if washed with hot water and soap, is good. Or use silica gel with color indicator, that is dark blue when effective and that turns light pink when it becomes ineffective. To cut the can off smoothly, use a file, or use a hacksaw drawn backwards along the cutting line. Make these holes just large enough to run a needle through them, and then move the needle in the holes so as to bend back the obstructing points of metal.
Flatten the 8 thicknesses of aluminum foil with the fingers until they appear to be a single thin, flat sheet. Fold it to make a 4-ply sheet approximately 2 inches by 2 inches, with one corner exactly square.
Attach these two pieces of tape to the finished 8-ply aluminum leaf with the sticky sides up, except for their ends.
In l986 most sewing threads are anti-static treated and are too poor insulators for use in a KFM. Cover the two "TAPE HERE" rectangles on Pattern (C) with pieces of tape, each piece the size of the rectangle. Or use tiny droplets of epoxy, applied with a needle, to secure the side edges and to hold down the hem.
Model airplane cement requires hours to harden when applied between sheets of aluminum foil. Make flat-bottomed notches by first filing a V-shaped notch, and then using a fine-toothed hacksaw blade to make the notch rectangular. To keep this tape sticky (free of paper fibers), the paper on the can should be covered with transparent tape or varnish.
Carefully push the CHARGING-WIRE through this hole (thus stretching the hole) until all of the CHARGING-WIRE below its Band-Aid-tape stop is inside the can.

To avoid contaminating the charging end with sweaty, oily fingers, it is best to mark the other end with a piece of tape, and to hold it only by its taped end.
If after 3 hours its reading has decreased by 1 mm, or less, this means that its leaf-suspending threads are good insulators and that your KFM can reliably measure dose rates as low as 0.03 roentgens per hour (30 milliroentgens per hour).
Stretch the plastic smooth across the top of the bucket, and tie it in place, preferably with strong rubber bands looped together to form a circle. When taping, do not permit the lower edge of the tape to be pulled inward below the rim of the bucket. Though not essential, an aluminum-foil cover reduces the amount of water vapor that can reach and pass through the plastic cover, thus extending the life of the drying agent. The door has a heavy-duty, pick-proof, hardened-steel, dead-bolt lock that can only be opened with your key. Before buying, please email us so that we can confirm that you are in an area that this company will deliver to. To make the overburden waterproof (in case of rain), a plastic sheet should be buried a few inches below the surface and held down with rocks or bricks.
Any exposure to fine dust is far less hazardous than exposure to the gamma from the fallout outside the shelter.
I mean for god sakes, they are moving back into a complex that hasnt been active for decades, hoping it will protect from an EMP.
By building your own bomb shelter not only do you save money but you get the opportunity to design and build your very own bomb shelter. The finishing touches and division works inside the shelter need not be too intricate just a simple one would do though. A main hutch, which opens above ground using a vertical ladder at the entrance, must be constructed to provide access to and from the shelter. The entry point of the emergency hatch should be opening inward just right under a foot of sand and above ground, it should be concealed. It must have an entry hatch, an inward opening emergency hatch and could shelter four (4) people and their immediate supplies for duration of twenty-eight (28) days. When you have accumulated your construction supplies, it is time to start building your underground shelter.
Assign a task to each family member depending on their strength to help out with the construction process. After being absolutely sure that dirt cannot get into the living space you have dug, place the soil that you have dug out on top of the logs for added protection. It is also best to keep in mind that when you are building your own shelter, the utmost priority would be how to get natural ventilation without the use of electricity.
A door must either be built to swing upwards or downwards depending on your location and purpose of constructing the shelter. They cannot also survive extreme exposure conditions and cannot live without water for three days or without food for more than thirty days. But when it does and you were caught unaware or have not reached the bomb shelter you constructed the following are some tips on how to survive after the blast. Let’s take an example wherein the expected scenario would be a 5-kiloton explosion that explodes in a building with a height of 60 meters or 200 ft. You should also take into consideration that the radioactive materials take time to fall on the ground especially near the blast site, but being exposed to the radiation is the least of your concern.
By calculations, if an adequate shelter is less than five minutes away by walking, it would be wise to go there immediately after the blast. The strategy of moving to a better shelter will offset your exposure when you started moving and transferring. David's responsibility was to protect people in case of any disaster or cataclysm that might occur. Therefore, each shelter should have some dependable method of measuring the changing radiation dangers in its own area. In order to effectively minimize the radiation doses, a dependable measuring instrument is needed to determine the doses they receive while they are in the shelter and while they are outside for emergency tasks, such as going out to get badly needed water.
Also store at least 15 gallons of water for each shelter occupant-- if containers are available. Many dental X-ray machines are not accurately calibrated, nor do they produce gamma rays, so such tests should not be used in an attempt to check the accuracy of a KFM. To be sure the reading eye is always at this exact distance, place the lower end of a 12-inch ruler on the SEAT, while the upper end of the ruler touches the eyebrow above the reading eye.
The drawing appearing after the photo illustrations shows the lower edges of the leaves of a K FM appearing to be 9 mm on the right of zero and 10 on the left, giving a KFM reading of 19 mm. At this angle the leaves are barely visible, hanging vertically side by side directly under the zero mark, touching each other and with their ends even.
Heating in a hot oven or in a can over a fire reactivates them as drying agents and restores their blue color. Or heat the pieces over a fire for 20 minutes or more in a pan or can heated to a dull red.
Then to keep from bending the can while cutting, wrap newspaper tightly around a stick or a round wooden tool handle, so that the wood is covered with 20 to 30 thicknesses of paper and the diameter (ideally) is only slightly less than the diameter of the can.
Wrap the pattern snugly around the can, gluing or taping it securely as it is being wrapped. Then the thread can be pulled tightly down the side of the can and the second small toggle can be taped securely in place to the side of the can.
Then cut two other pieces of tape each the same size and use them to ONTO the thread ONTO the guide sheet, on top of the 'TAPE HERE" rectangles.
Each of the two marks on the attached thread MUST rest exactly in a notch (or on the top of the rim of the can, if you are unable to make notches).
Be careful not to cover with tape any of the division lines on the SCALE between 20 on the right and 20 on the left of 0. If the handle-supports interfere with stretching a piece of clear plastic film across the top of the bucket, remove them, being sure no sharp points remain. Any door base that extends above the top of the shelter more than the standard 30″ base, has to be hauled separately from the shelter. Much of this highly radioactive material then falls to earth, subjecting anything within the line of sight to radiation, a significant hazard. That’s not exactly something that any small military would do, and not end up getting nuked off the face of the planet for. In case the emergency, the hatch is opened and the sand would start falling into the shelter and so that the residents could exit. Every time a substantial quantity of soil has been dug out, remove it from the area with buckets. Blast doors must be designed to absorb the shock wave of a nuclear blast by bending and then returning to its original position and form. Now he keeps on doing it through teaching others about how to prepare and survive flood, earthquake or even war. Also, such an instrument would permit them to determine when it is safe to leave the shelter for good. However, in about 6 hours the silica gel or anhydrite drying agent in a KFM removes this additive and the monofilament becomes as good an insulator as even strands of unwaxed dental floss. Place alight so that its reflection on the film enables you to see the edge of the film that you are preparing to cut. Plastic film made from cellulose (such as Flex-O-Pane) and roasting bags are too permeable to water vapor. A fallout shelter is designed to allow its occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has decayed to a safer level. Thus, a practical fallout shield is ten halving-thicknesses of packed dirt, reducing gamma rays by 1024 times (210). Why would they do this unless they had some intel making them think that there is some major credible threat? Dig a trench as deep as you would like, but remember that the lower you are underground the more protection you have. These threads are almost parallel and touch (but do not cross) each other where they extend over the top of the rim of the can. Then separate strands while pulling one way on the end of the strand-thread that you want and the other way on the unwanted strands. Then use a very sharp, clean knife or clean razor blade, guided by the edge of a firmly held ruler, to cut 9 strips, of which you will select the best two. Office of Civil Defense (now the Federal Emergency Management Agency) have shown that modern Americans can live and sleep for two weeks on a concrete floor.
I’m not sure who would be stupid enough to invade a country where damn near every household has firearms and ammo, and is willing to defend their country to their last dying breath, but what I do know, is any foreign threat wont touch me or my family, so long as I am physically capable to prevent it. In addition, it renders the area defenseless since cars, trucks, planes, electronics, communications, computers, etc. Use only a clean needle to touch and separate the strands in the middle 6 inches of the 12-inch-long piece of unwaxed dental floss. When cutting, hold the knife almost horizontal, with the plane of its blade perpendicular to the taped-down film. So the army cannot defend itself, the people will eventually die from lack of food, electric, medicine and resources, while retaining the infrastructure of the area untouched.
More serious complications than discomfort are likely to result if occupants have to huddle together on a bare floor especially if the floor is damp earth.
Russia has been the leader in EMP technology, it is the preferred weapon of Iran and Israel, for that matter, and we know that Al Quida have plans to use it, as well. CHAIRS, BENCHES, AND BUNKS The father of the previously described Utah family of six knew that the members of his family would be most uncomfortable and probably would have sore backs if they spent the required 72 hours of continuous shelter occupancy huddled on the floor.
I think the odds of being a victim of this weapon is much greater than many people believe. Four small wooden boxes served as food containers during the drive to the shelter-building site. There were discomforts: the adults found the two plywood bunks too narrow, and the plywood was so hard that all the family members used their sleeping bags for padding rather than for needed warmth on chilly nights. The father and oldest son, whose turn to sleep was during normal waking hours, had trouble sleeping in such a small shelter while the lively 4-year-old son was awake.
Covering earth walls with plastic or bed sheets makes for a cleaner shelter, with less earth falling in the faces of people who sleep on the floor. Bedsheets on the walls make a shelter brighter, but are flammable and a potential fire hazard.
The plastic film prevented the earth walls from drying and crumbling as a result of the hot, dry desert air pumped through the shelter during the day.
Three rural families in a wooded area of Tennessee built this expedient blast shelter in 48 hours, including the time spent felling trees and making furnishings. With such a small air-exhaust opening- only 4 square inches (10 square centimeters) per person a fully occupied shelter of this size would soon become dangerously overheated in warm or hot weather, even though a good low-pressure expedient shelter-ventilating pump (a KAF or a Directional Fan) were to be used. BEDSHEET-HAMMOCK AND CHAIR On the last night of the Utah family's shelter stay it was clear that the six members would win the cash bonus offered them for their 72-hour occupancy of the shelter starting immediately after they completed building it.
Therefore, the author showed them that night how to make boat-shaped hammocks out of bedsheets. With three members sleeping in hammocks, two on the plywood bunks, and one on the floor, all six could sleep at the same time. In the Utah family's shelter, the floor was made comfortable by covering the damp earth with pieces of polyethylene cut from trash bags, then placing strips of shag rug over the plastic.
In a SmallPole Shelter that is 6 feet wide, a greater number of people can sleep or sit comfortably at the same time if Bedsheet-Hammocks and Bedsheet-Chairs are used rather than benches or a combination of benches and overhead bunks. Book Page: 120 In an evacuation during a real crisis, carrying comfortable folding chairs and the materials to make wooden bunks would not be advisable. If the family car were loaded instead with an equivalent weight of additional food and clothing, the members' prospects of surviving would be improved. But in an actual crisis evacuation, a family planning to occupy a shelter with a strong roof should take along a bedsheet for each member. The other lightweight Items described in the instructions for making a Bedsheet-Hammock and a Bedsheet-Chair also should be carried. By following the instructions at the end of this chapter, a comfortable hammock can be made and quickly converted to a comfortable suspended chair when not needed for sleeping.
Hammocks hung high off the floor and above other sleepers must be strong, securely suspended, and cupped so that it is impossible to fall out accidentally. This is why the instructions emphasize using a double thickness of bedsheet and folding the cloth so as to make the hammock boat-like, with high sides. Easily compressible materials, such as those used in a sleeping bag, are squeezed so thin under a person's body that they lose most of their insulating value. Pads of newspapers about an inch thick, protected by cloth coverings, will reduce heat losses.
The best insulation is a quilt, fastened to the underside of a hammock by attaching it with rows of stitches every few inches and at right angles to each other. Figure 14.5 shows a Bedsheet-Hammock that had been quickly converted into a Bedsheet-Chair and hung near a shelter wall.
It occupies less than half the floor space used by the two hammocks shown in the preceding illustration. If a reclining seat is desired, the two support-points on the ceiling to which the chair-arm cords are attached can be located farther out from the wall. Enough padding material should be placed in the bowl-shaped seat of a Bed sheet-Chair to make it rather flat. The three cords suspending the chair should be adjusted for length so that the sitter's feet can rest on the floor and the edge of the chair seat does not press on the undersides of his thighs. During the London Blitz of World War 11, many of the people who sat night after night in shelters on folding chairs with canvas seats developed serious leg conditions. This precaution is particularly important if the shelter is hot and its occupants are sweaty. ADVANTAGES: * The hammock can be made in a few minutes, once you have the materials and the knowhow.
Before beginning work, someone should read aloud all of the instructions for making the hammock.
Select a strong double-bed sheet (one containing polyester is best) and use a ruler or tape measure to avoid guessing at measurements. With the sheet folded, mark the center of each of the two folded ends; then hold one end up. Make each pleat about 2 inches wide; make the left corner of each pleat about 1 inch lower than the left corner of the preceding pleat, when the sheet is being held as illustrated.
Use your left hand to hold the completed pleats in place, while making new pleats with your right hand. When one-half of the upper end of the sheet has been folded into pleats almost to the CENTER MARK, adjust the pleats so that the CENTER MARK is about 4 inches below the STARTING CORNER. Continue making 2-inch pleats on past the CENTER MARK, but make the right corner of each pleat about 1 inch higher than the right corner of the preceding pleat. When the pleat-folding is completed, the STARTING CORNER and the other corner should be at the same height (4 inches) above the CENTER MARK.
Tie the hammock-supporting rope tightly around the end of the sheet about 3 inches below the edge with the CENTER MARK. Then tie string or small strips of cloth about 1 inch wide around it, spaced 4 to 6 inches apart, to keep the rolled-up cloth from unrolling.) 8. Bend the pleat-folded end of sheet downward around the hammock rope, so that the knot of the hammock rope is uppermost. To keep the sheet from being pulled through the encircling hammock rope, bind the doubled-over end of the sheet with cord (or with narrow strips of cloth) about 1 inch below the rope. Repeat the procedure (4 through 9) with the other end of the double-folded sheet, thus producing a boat-shaped hammock with its two sides each about 8 inches shorter than its lengthwise center section. To prevent a hammock rope from being rubbed directly against fixed metal, make a loose loop of strong wire (best if doubled) through the crossed nails; tie the hammock rope to this free-moving wire loop. To suspend the hammock from a wooden wall, use the same type of crossed-nails supports, with the nails driven in one above the other. For comfort and safety, hang the hammock with the head end 18 inches higher than the center and with the foot end 24 inches higher than the center. To make sure that the hammock is strong enough, two persons should place their open hands on its centerline and put all of their weight on the hammock.
To suspend hammocks and hammock-chairs from a pole roof that is not being built under fear of immediate attack, use loops of strong wire around the poles at the planned support points. 123ab ORNL-DWG 77-17394 Book Page: 124 MAKING A SUSPENDED BEDSHEET-CHAIR A Bedsheet-Hammock may be quickly converted into a comfortable Suspended Bed sheet-Chair so that a shelter occupant can sit comfortably, yet occupy less floor space during the daytime. From this end, measure 52 inches (4 ft 4 in.) along each side-edge of the hammock (see sketch), and mark these two spots. Suspend the top of the back of the chair to a suspension point on the ceiling at least 4 inches out from the wall, and adjust the length of this suspending rope so that the chair arms will be about the same height from the floor as the arms of an easy chair (see sketch).
Suspend the arms of the chair from two suspension points 20 inches apart and 20 inches farther out from the wall than the suspension point of the back of the chair.
Adjust the lengths of all three suspending ropes so that the 'chair seat is the right height for the person sitting in it.
When both feet are flat on the floor, the front edge of the seat should not press against the undersides of the thighs. To simplify repeated conversion of the hammock to a chair, mark the spot on each of the 3 suspending ropes where each is tied to its suspension point on the ceiling; also mark the spot on each suspending rope for a chair arm where each is tied to its suspension point on a chair arm.
If enough light rope or strong cord is available, the easiest and quickest way to connect and disconnect the arm supports is to suspend each arm with a double strand of rope, looped around an attachment point as illustrated by the sketch of the attachment point.

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Comments to “Survival skills during nuclear disaster youtube”

  1. 562 writes:
    And expecting it to absorb all the possibility of spoilage and.
  2. narko writes:
    Fantastic to have and I feel you need to try to retailer that stuff nonetheless, any.
  3. SmErT_NiK writes:
    Lessen some of the EMP, it will will get the job us.