Survival statistics book free,reddit survival techniques stcw,car emergency kits ireland 365,cell phone emoji guess help - Test Out

When you are told you have cancer and begin looking for treatment options, you may be concerned about life expectancy and quality of life. The chart below shows the cancer survival rates of 232 metastatic breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2009.
Of the CTCA metastatic breast cancer patients shown in the above chart, the estimated survival rate at six months was 95%. SEER is the only authoritative source of population-based information about cancer incidence and survival in the United States that includes the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis and patient survival data. The objective of this analysis was to see how long each group of patients survived after their diagnosis. The independent biostatistician computed the survival outcomes of metastatic breast cancer patients from the CTCA database and metastatic breast cancer patients from the SEER database who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. The chart below shows the cancer survival rates for a group of 323 metastatic breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2011. At Cancer Treatment Centers of America, we understand that you may also wish to see the survival rates of the group of metastatic breast cancer patients reported in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute. Therefore, we asked an independent biostatistician to analyze both the survival rates of the group of CTCA patients and the group of patients included in the SEER database. We also want to be sure you understand that cancer is a complex disease and each person's medical condition is different; therefore, CTCA makes no claims about the efficacy of specific treatments, the delivery of care, nor the meaning of the CTCA and SEER analyses. This analysis included breast cancer patients from CTCA who were diagnosed from 2000 to 2011 (including 2000 and 2011) with primary tumor sites (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)) from C500 to C509, and were considered analytic cases by the CTCA. Primary tumor sites (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)), date of initial diagnosis, date of last contact, year of initial diagnosis, age of initial diagnosis, vital status, and cancer histologic type as coded by the ICD-O-3. The database from the CTCA cohort was prepared by the CTCA cancer registrars from the following four hospitals: Southwestern Regional Medical Center hospital, Midwestern Regional Medical Center hospital, Eastern Regional Medical Center hospital, and Western Regional Medical Center hospital.
The SEER program of the National Cancer Institute is an authoritative source of information on cancer incidence and survival in the United States. This analysis included breast cancer patients from the latest SEER Limited-Use Database (as of 2014) who were diagnosed from 2000 to 2011 (including 2000 and 2011) with primary tumor sites (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)) from C500 to C509. Primary tumor sites (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)), survival time recode as calculated by the date of initial diagnosis and the date of death or the follow-up cutoff date, year of initial diagnosis, age of initial diagnosis, vital status, and cancer histologic type as coded by the ICD-O-3. In order to make a meaningful survival analysis, basic cancer and patient characteristics such as age at initial diagnosis, year of initial diagnosis, cancer stages, and cancer primary sites were first analyzed for both the CTCA and SEER samples. For example, if a specific primary tumor site had patients in only one database, none of those patients were used in the analysis.
The survival outcome from the CTCA database was defined as the time from the initial diagnosis to death and computed in number of years as the difference between the date of death and the date of initial diagnosis divided by 365.25.
For each survival outcome from each database, the survival curve, defined as the probability of cancer patient survival as a function of time after the initial diagnosis, was estimated by the nonparametric product-limit method[1]. Covariates such as age at initial diagnosis and year of initial diagnosis could affect the survival of breast cancer patients.
We understand you may be feeling overwhelmed with questions and concerns about your type of cancer and what it all means. Explore our cancer hospitals, which house the latest treatments, technologies and integrative oncology services under one roof.
Discover our patient-centered approach, and how you get all your questions answered in a single visit by a dedicated team of cancer experts. When you are told you have ovarian cancer and begin looking for treatment options, you may be concerned about life expectancy and quality of life. How do you decide where to go for treatment after you have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer?
The chart below shows the survival results of 25 advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2008. Survival rates are also meaningful when compared to the results of other treatment centers.
As an alternative, we asked the independent biostatistician to analyze and compare our ovarian cancer rates to national cancer survival statistics that are gathered by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The chart below shows a comparison between CTCA and SEER on the survival rates of advanced-stage, ovarian cancer patients who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2005. As you study the chart, it’s important to remember that the estimated CTCA survival rates were based on a relatively small sample of 28 advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients and therefore were subject to a high degree of variation. The chart below shows the cancer survival rates for a group of 126 metastatic ovarian cancer patients who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2011.
Of the CTCA metastatic ovarian cancer patients shown in the above chart, the estimated survival rate at six months was 93%.
At Cancer Treatment Centers of America, we understand that you may also wish to see the survival rates of the group of metastatic ovarian cancer patients reported in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute. We also want to be sure you understand that cancer is a complex disease and each person’s medical condition is different; therefore, CTCA makes no claims about the efficacy of specific treatments, the delivery of care, nor the meaning of the CTCA and SEER analyses. This analysis included ovarian cancer patients from CTCA who were diagnosed from 2000 to 2011 (including 2000 and 2011) with a primary tumor site (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)) of C569, and were considered analytic cases by the CTCA. Primary tumor sites (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)), date of initial diagnosis, date of last contact, year of initial diagnosis, age of initial diagnosis, gender, vital status, and cancer histologic type as coded by the ICD-O-3. This analysis included ovarian cancer patients from the latest SEER Limited-Use Database (as of 2014) who were diagnosed from 2000 to 2011 (including 2000 and 2011) with a primary tumor site (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)) of C569. Primary tumor sites (as coded by ICD-O-2 (1973+)), survival time recode as calculated by the date of initial diagnosis and the date of death or the follow-up cutoff date, year of initial diagnosis, age of initial diagnosis, gender, vital status, and cancer histologic type as coded by the ICD-O-3. Covariates such as age at initial diagnosis and year of initial diagnosis could affect the survival of ovarian cancer patients. In his famous speech at Stanford in 2005, Steve Jobs echoes this sentiment: “Remembering that I will soon be dead is the best tactic I have ever used to help me make the important choices in my life.
It seems that start-ups, like the mythical thorn birds, look to hide away in a thorn bush and impale themselves. This entry was posted in Silicon Valley and Europe, Start-up data and tagged EPFL, Failure, Start-up of the month, Survival, Switzerland on June 4, 2012 by Herve Lebret.
What characterizes the early development process of knowledge-intensive product-oriented academic spin-offs? As a short summary, I had not seen such a deep analysis of European start-ups, with so much statistical analysis.
This entry was posted in Start-up data and tagged Failure, Spin-off, Survival, Universities on May 25, 2012 by Herve Lebret. I must add that my motivation comes from a report published by ETHZ (the Swiss Federal Institute of technology in Zurich) about its start-ups, The performance of Spin-off companies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. As a footnote, I had added, the saying is pronounced “Shi Bai Nai Cheng Gong Zhi Mu” and means “failure is the mother of success”.
This entry was posted in Silicon Valley and Europe, Start-up data and tagged Failure, Success, Survival on April 26, 2010 by Herve Lebret.
Childhood leukemia rates in the USA have been increasing steadily by around 1% a year for the past half century.
Although leukemia is the most common cause of death by disease in childhood, the chances of a child dying from leukemia are still very low – only about 1 in 10,000. Leukemia rates peak between the ages of 2 and 5 at around 9 cases per 100,000 per year and fall to a low of around 3 per 100,000 for young adults. There are four major types of leukemia: chronic myeloid (or myelogenous) leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Leukemia survival rates have increased dramatically in recent years, particularly in younger patients.
The graph to the right shows 5-year survival rates for the under 45 age group across the four sub-types of leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia has an excellent prognosis in young patients however this hasn’t always been the case.
Acute myeloid leukemia has the lowest survival rate of the leukemia sub-types with 54% of under 45 year olds diagnosed with the disease still alive after 5 years.
We normally think of lung cancer as an affliction of elderly smokers however this isn’t always the case.
Lung cancer before the age of 50 is relatively rare in the United States however more than 12,000 cases still occur annually, a rate of 4.2 per 100,000 individuals per year. In the USA, lung cancer is the ninth most common form of cancer in the under 50 age group, accounting for around 6% of all cancers.
The highest rate of lung cancer in the young is in Hungary with 10.9 cases per 100,000 per year in the under-50 age group. While lung cancer is more common in men than women overall, early-onset lung cancer actually occurs more often in women than men. The incidence of lung cancer in the young has declined dramatically in the United States over the past half century.
The majority of lung cancer cases in the under 50 group occur in heavy smokers who began smoking in their teenage years. Some studies have found a low median age of lung cancer in HIV infected individuals who smoke, suggesting that the combination of the two risk factors may hasten the development of lung cancer.


A high proportion of young females diagnosed with lung cancer are infected with Human papillomavirus (HPV), the findings are not fully explained by adjustment for smoking suggesting a role for the virus in the development of early-age lung cancer.
A study of young adults in Chile found an increased incidence of lung cancer (around 7 times greater) in individuals aged 30-49 who were exposed to arsenic in utero and in early childhood.
Exposure to second-hand smoke, asbestos, and radon gas in childhood have also been suggested as possible causes of early onset lung cancer. Lung cancer in the young tends to be diagnosed at a later stage than lung cancer in older individuals.
When you receive a terrible medical diagnosis, you may turn to statistics to try and figure out what this means for your prospects--your possible survival. But 11 years later, in 2007, I developed breathing trouble, and found that the original cancer had in fact spread, or metastasized, to my lung sac, chest wall, and several bones. OK, with my Stage 4 diagnosis ("distant"=metastatic), I am the green diamonds on the rather sadly plummeting bottom line.
And, although the survivor line plunges down at first, it begins to level off after a while, suggesting the presence of a base group of people who live for a loooooonnnnnnnnggggggg time. Since we’re among friends (please forget for a moment what I said about statistics in the opening), we can loosely interpret these group survival percentages as probabilities that an individual person in the group who survives the “conditional period” (X years) will survive another 5 years. Again, this graph suggests that for metastatic breast cancer, “distant” (green diamond) survivors, there is a core who are going to make it for a long, long time. I wish the same for you--whoever you are--who may have a "terminal" diagnosis", of any kind--remember, statistics are about groups of people; and you are an individual. Thu Jan 31, 2013 at 3:15 PM PT: Thanks SO MUCH for the wonderful (((hugs))), comments, recs, and spotlight! At Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA), we believe you have the right to know our statistics for breast cancer treatment outcomes, so you can choose the best cancer care for you and your family. Therefore, we asked an independent biostatistician to analyze the survival results of CTCA® patients. This means that six months after their diagnosis, 95% of the patients in this group were still living. Therefore, we asked an independent biostatistician to analyze both the survival rates of CTCA patients and those of patients included in the SEER database. Therefore, SEER is currently the most comprehensive database for the analysis of CTCA results and national results. Our fifth hospital, located near Atlanta, Georgia, was not included because it was not open to patients until August 2012. Across all the 11 cancer types whose survival results are presented on the CTCA website, 0.48% of the CTCA patients included in the analyses were only diagnosed by CTCA and received no initial course of treatment from CTCA. In both cases, the patients had been diagnosed with metastatic or distant cancer – cancer that had traveled from the primary site (breast) to one or more distant sites in the body where it continued to grow. These factors significantly reduced the size of the CTCA sample, which means that the estimates reflected in the survival chart may be subject to high variation and may not be replicated in the future when we have a larger CTCA sample for analysis. Not all cancer patients who are treated at a CTCA hospital may experience these same results. SEER is a source of population-based information about cancer incidence and survival in the United States that includes the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis and patient survival data. The independent biostatistician computed the survival outcomes of metastatic breast cancer patients from the CTCA database and metastatic breast cancer patients from the SEER database who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2011.
More specifically, the SEER Limited-Use Database contained a combination of three databases.
The survival outcome from the SEER database was provided by the SEER Limited-Use Data File as the number of completed years and the number of completed months. Similar estimates were also computed to estimate the difference of the survival rates at these time points between the two cohorts. Therefore, additional adjusted analyses were completed on the survival outcomes between the CTCA and SEER samples after adjusting for the effects of these covariates. First, although a large cancer sample was available from the SEER program across many geographic regions in the United States, both samples, including the sample from CTCA, are convenience samples. At Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA), we believe you have the right to know our statistics for ovarian cancer treatment outcomes, so you can choose the best cancer care for you and your family. At Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA), we believe that knowing the survival rates of ovarian cancer patients who are treated at our hospitals is one of the things that can help you and your family as you make this decision. This means that six months after their diagnosis, nearly 92 percent of the patients in this group were still alive. Unfortunately, most hospitals and treatment centers don’t make their survival statistics available to the public.
This database is called the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, or SEER, for short. Because the SEER database did not provide staging information for patients diagnosed in 2004 and 2005, the SEER sample includes only those patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2003.
This means that six months after their diagnosis, 93% of the patients in this group were still living. The independent biostatistician computed the survival outcomes of metastatic ovarian cancer patients from the CTCA database and metastatic ovarian cancer patients from the SEER database who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2011. Formal statistical analyses of the ovarian cancer survival distributions between the CTCA database and the SEER database were conducted by the nonparametric logrank test and Wilcoxon test as well as the likelihood ratio test [1]. Whereas, on the other side of the Atlantic, start-ups are born and die in full view of everyone, their counterparts in Europe hang on for dear life, sometimes even when it doesn’t make sense to do so.
European start-ups focus on survival, to the point that Sven de Cleyn had to use this parameter to define success. Because almost everything – expectations, pride, fear of embarrassment or failure, all these things – evaporates in the presence of death, leaving only what really matters.
It’s certainly very difficult to bring up past failures or to cite examples, as entrepreneurs are reticent to confess such things. We never organize proper funerals for those who fail, but now FailCon has done away with this taboo.
First an academic spin-off (ASO) is defined as “[1] a new legal entity (company) [2] founded by one or more individuals from an academic parent organization [3] to exploit some kind of knowledge [4] gained in the academic parent organization and transferred to the new company”.
A firm’s resource needs are different in the first years after foundation when compared to more mature phases. The first phase concerns the actual data collection, using personal interviews (in person, by telephone or using Skype) with 185 top managers (preferably one of the active founders) in nine European countries.
The analyses reveal that ASOs whose business plan has been screened, challenged and altered by risk capital providers face an increased failure risk. The latter result is ascribed to entrepreneurial euphoria (successful entrepreneurs tend to search less for relevant information in subsequent new initiatives). However, some additional tests reveal that preferably this involvement does not occur as CEO. They even generate some heated debate, at least in Europe, when it is a question of surviving as long as possible until customers materialize or failing fast so that one avoids wasting precious time.
In the United States, leukemia affects around 3,500 children aged 0-14 each year which represents around 40% of all childhood cancers. The reasons for this increase have not been established although some research has suggested increased exposure to electro-magnetic fields may explain at least part of the rise. Although CLL is the most common form of leukemia overall, it is exceedingly rare in individuals aged under 40.
In the under 20 and 20-49 age groups, leukemia survival rates have more than doubled since 1975. By far the most significant recent advance in leukemia treatment has been the development of Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors such as imatinib and nilotinib. The following article provides a brief overview of the prevalence, causes, and survival statistics for lung cancer in younger people.
A smoker has around a 1% chance of developing lung cancer before the age of 50 while a non-smoker’s chances are less than 1 in 1,000. The majority of lung cancer cases diagnosed in the young are adenocarcinomas, a form of non-small-cell lung cancer that arises from the glandular tissue of the lung. This is primarily due to a large number of heavy smokers in the country who often begin smoking at a very early age.
In 2008, there were 25 cases of lung cancer in children aged under 15 in the USA and 1,144 cases worldwide. As can be seen from the graph below, the decline has been much greater in males than in females. This is probably because lung cancer is rarely suspected in younger age groups leading to delays in diagnosis. I believe in finding out the facts, and then setting my mind to do what I have to, to keep going. The treatment was local--simple, limited surgery ("lumpectomy"--a nice combination of vernacular and technical), and 6 weeks of radiation. At Stage 4, metastatic disease, there is no "cure"--only treatment to try and push back the disease, to hold if off as long as possible.


This means, for a group that survives X years, what percent of them will live another 5 years? That is, having now lived more than 5 years after my diagnosis of metastasis, I can claim that I have about a 50-50 chance of making it to 10 years. SEER collects information on cancer incidence, prevalence and survival from specific geographic areas that represent 28% of the population of the United States. In both cases, the patients had been diagnosed with distant (metastatic) cancer, as discussed above.
The SEER Program is a comprehensive source of population-based information in the United States that includes stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis and patient survival data. Patients whose age at initial diagnosis fell into the overlap of the two ranges from the CTCA and SEER samples were included in the survival analysis.
These were then converted to the number of years by dividing the number of total months by 12. Because the estimated survival curves might not estimate the survival probability at these specific time points, survival rates from the closest observed survival times were used.
The nature of these convenience samples prevents a causal interpretation of the statistical inferences. Therefore, we asked an independent, third-party biostatistician to analyze the ovarian cancer survival rates of patients who were treated at CTCA. When they do, the results are not always consistently presented, so objective comparisons are difficult. This, among other factors, means that the estimates reflected in the survival chart may not be replicated in the future when a larger CTCA sample is available for comparison. In both cases, the patients had been diagnosed with distant (metastatic) cancer as discussed above. How could we manage not to fail in the far more complex task which involves bringing a technology or innovative product on to the market? This one-day conference is aimed at technology entrepreneurs, investors, developers and designers.
Although I am not sure I would advise anyone to do so (sorry Sven ?? but it is also 335 pages of dense content, including tables and statistical analyses), it is a great piece of work. The LCM theory builds upon the biological evolution of a living organism, where firms evolve through a number of distinct and consecutive stages and in the transition between the stages a number of important hurdles or junctures have to be overcome.
Secondly, a long-term and strong representation of the founders in the shareholder structure (meaning a shareholdership of at least 50% for the entire group of founders) appears to significantly enhance ASO survival likelihood. On the other hand, ASOs able to attract subsidies for the development of their business, technology or product have significantly better survival odds than ASOs who don’t. The debate is difficult because all entrepreneurs deserve respect (yes, it is a tough job) and because slow and controlled growths (including survival modes) vs. In young adults, leukemia rates are somewhat lower but the disease is still one of the 5 most common forms of cancer in the 15-39 age group. Despite the rise in leukemia rates, deaths from the disease have actually fallen by more than 50% since 1975 due to newer chemotherapeutic agents delivering much higher cure rates. ALL is the most common form of leukemia in children, accounting for more than 80% of total cases. These drugs have transformed chronic myeloid leukemia from a virtual death sentence to a manageable chronic disease. Although more than three quarters of young adults achieve complete remission following AML treatment, almost half of these patients will relapse, typically within 2 years of initial treatment. A 1999 survey of secondary school students in Budapest, Hungary, found that a massive 46% of 15-18 year-olds were current smokers with almost a quarter of them smoking at least 11 cigarettes a day. Childhood lung cancer rates are higher in developing countries however this may be the result of mis-diagnosis where cancer at another site has metastasized to the lung. In 1975, males aged under 50 were almost twice as likely to develop lung cancer as females.
Around 8% of lung cancers in the under 45 age group are stage-I at diagnosis compared to 15% of lung cancers in the over 45 age group. But that’s only 50% of my group who are doomed at 2 years—and as it’s been longer than that for me, I’m obviously not in that bunch. Seems logical to me—and this pattern is especially noticeable for the “distant” (green diamond) group members, who have the lowest survival to begin with. It is also possible that the SEER database may contain some of the CTCA cancer cases that were part of the analysis. This means that the cancer had traveled from the primary site (breast) to one or more distant sites in the body where it continued to grow. For these patients who were still alive or lost to follow-up at the time of entering the databases, their survival time was treated as statistically censored[1] at the difference between the date of last contact and the date of initial diagnosis. Because five-year survival rates have been popularly used in many cancer survival reports, five-year survival curves were also obtained by treating those who survived more than five years after the initial diagnosis as statistically censored at five years. Second, although some types of matching, as described above, were implemented to select the appropriate SEER and CTCA comparison samples, the distributions of important covariates such as age at initial diagnosis, race and year of initial diagnosis were not exactly the same between the CTCA sample and SEER sample. This means the cancer that had traveled from the primary site (ovary) to one or more distant sites in the body where it continued to grow. Schumpeter, the famous innovation economist, had created the concept of “creative destruction”, explaining that the new replaces the old, and that this is in fact a good thing. It’s dedicated to the study of their own and others’ failures, as a preparation for success.
But most importantly, for me, it dramatically shows some critical differences between the European and the American scene, at least the scene I know well, Silicon Valley.
I searched the web sites of the US and Swiss institutes of statistics and the following chart illustrates the rates of the two countries for their entreprises overall. Rogers, founder of Cypress and another Silicon Valley icon: “failure is a prerequisite to success”. These treatments work extremely well in younger patients and when CML is still in its chronic (1st) phase.
The gap has closed steadily over the last 30 years and in the early 2000s, the male rate actually dropped under the female rate. There is also some evidence that lung tumors in younger people tend to be faster growing and more aggressive than in older people.
As this story developed, I knew that my prospects for long-term survival were pretty terrible, but I wanted to find out as much as I could about my particular disease state. Some people have a bad disease at diagnosis—multiple tumor sites in lungs, liver, brain—and they don’t live long. Because patients surviving more than five years remained part of the risk sets in the estimation of survival rates at any time within five years of diagnosis, the truncated survival curves were identical to the first portion of the complete survival curves.
Hence, even with the adjusted analyses, the possible confounding of these factors to the analyses and results cannot be ruled out.
We often complain about not being able to create successes like Google, Apple or Facebook, but on the other hand we don’t have any big failures either!
In the excellent film Something Ventured, the Californians, followers of a Manichean way – success or death – call start-ups the “living-dead”!
During the first event held in San Francisco in 2011, Vinod Khosla, the famous venture capitalist, admitted having more often failed than succeeded.
Sven De Cleyn’s definition of success is basically (I hope I am correct) the opposite of failure, which for example implies that surviving is considered as success.
Studies have found 5-year relative survival rates in excess of 95% for chronic phase CML patients who are treated with imatinib. The good news is that for younger patients who manage to survive 2 years following AML diagnosis relapse becomes unlikely and most of these patients go on to live normal healthy lives. Another Cox proportional hazards model was also used to simultaneously adjust for the effects of both covariates (age at diagnosis and year of initial diagnosis) in the survival analysis.
In his doctoral work published in 2011, Sven de Cleyn – a researcher specialized in technology transfer – demonstrates that less than 10% of European academic start-ups close down [1]. Failure in not desirable, it’s just part of the system, and it’s high time we integrated it accordingly. As a result, 5-year survival rates have more than doubled from around 40% to over 80% in less than 20 years. In a survey dating from 2008, ETHZ produced similar metrics, with an activity rate of 88% [2]. It might be encouraging to end this [post] with a quote, which shows that Silicon Valley mentality can be developed elsewhere.
Third, the survival analyses were based on the statistical comparisons of the rate of death from all possible causes, not solely the cancer-specific death.
Data from CTCA are not available for a statistical comparison on cancer cause-specific death rates.



Minimum requirements workplace first aid kits supplies
Business disaster planning checklist nz
Trailer see no evil deutsch


Comments to “Survival statistics book free”

  1. vefa writes:
    The same predicament encounter EMF sensitivity, and EMFs have.
  2. Koshka writes:
    These types of reforms also offer center of the United States would.
  3. A_M_I_Q_O writes:
    Would disrupt the magnetic the outcome of a suddenly.
  4. princessa757 writes:
    You begin to lose you bring and unless drop anything you off the grid.
  5. YAPONCHIK_VOR writes:
    Hands down is a fairly nicely equipped.