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Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany.
It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano]. Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St. In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown.
Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico.
In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance.
This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name. In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula. The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger. Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him.
Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus.
Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them.
These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?.
WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307). To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus. Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond. Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets. WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend. One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores. The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself.
And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history.
Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery. Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary.
As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured.
The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement.
The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections.
Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim.
An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery.
By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days. The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity.
The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection.
The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio. That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school. In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map. DESCRIPTION: It should be emphasized that most of all of the previous maps discussed in these first three volumes have been one-of-a-kind, manuscript maps.
The conservatism of the Higden maps (#232) can be explained by their 14th century model, but in the late 15th century a world map appeared in print which was extremely peculiar and whose antecedents we do not know.
Among the numerous fine woodcut illustrations and genealogical tables are two double-page maps: one of Palestine and one of the world. The world map is oriented to the East with Asia on top and the other two continents below, T-O style, though the three water divisions (Don, Nile, Mediterranean) are not shown (Book II, #205).
This description corresponds completely with the picture on the map and the olive branches also are now clear. Other pictures on the map include two dragons in Libya, crowned kings and a queen in various kingdoms, the Pope in Rome, a figure in the holy land which is perhaps Saint Jerome (a major source for the book), and a phoenix in flames in Africa. This world map is often described as a€?the first modern printed mapa€?, in that it bears no relation to Ptolemy and it is not of medieval schematic type. Of more convincing pictorial quality is the map of Palestine, which, measuring 58 x 40 cm, presents a birda€™s eye view over the hills and seas of the Holy Land. Over 100 places-names and geographic features are identified, with towns and countries named. Arguably the greatest technical advance in human history was the invention of printing, and it is ironic that the first use of this invention in the service of cartography marked a€?the end of an era rather than the beginning of a new onea€? a€“ Tony Campbell.
Winter, H., a€?Notes on the World map in a€?Rudimentum Novitioruma€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 9, p. This map does not have Adam and Eve in the east (at the top), as others do, but shows, on a mountain from which four rivers rise, within a group of trees, two pulpits with a man in each holding a green leaf in a lifted hand.
Of more convincing pictorial quality is the map of Palestine, which, measuring 58 x 40 cm, presents a birda€™s eye view over the hills and seas of the Holy Land.A A  This map is believed to be based upon an important lost delineation of Burchard of Mt. The following information has been compiled to help spread the good news with the hope of placing more people onA the path to greater health, relaxation and happiness.
Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner. Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept.
He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507. Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident.
On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?. Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator. In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America.
This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East).
As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus. Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus). At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript. Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri. The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million. Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe. To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon. He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville. The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him.
After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover.
It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St.
This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World.
The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew. He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin.
That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears.
He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522.
That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504.
Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land).
This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale.
Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world.
The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits.
This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking. Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries.
The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486. The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr. The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera.
To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. Lane January 21 - 23, 1991 No sound files are available for the interview with Justice Coleman. Printed in LA?beck in 1475, the map was an illustration for a universal history in Latin entitled Rudimentum Novitiorum sive chronicarum historiarum epitome [A Handbook for Beginners]. The province of Palestine is more or less in the center, where Jerusalem, unnamed, is represented by a formidable castle.
They are not, however Adam and Eve, but two men, each holding what may be an olive branch in his hand, apparently having a conversation.
They undertook to unite themselves in the pleasures of (worldly) goods and the love of God in one law and in one road to wisdom.
This question is interesting also for the cartographer, considering that it is the first reliably dated printed map. A man-eating devil in northern Asia is already in the process of devouring a victima€™s severed arm.
Each country is represented as a separate hill accompanied by either a figure of the sovereign or several small buildings representing towns. It contains the reproduction of a theological treatise a€?De Adventu Messiea€? taken from a MS.
Beginning with the invention in Europe of the printing process and the publication of the first printed map in 1472, the traditional T-O map in the EtymologiA¦ of St. Sion, the 13th century Dominican from Magdeburg whose account and map of his pilgrimage (Prologus) were widely known throughout late medieval and early renaissance Europe. This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author.
Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians. He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?. The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent.
Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St.
And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America).
In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans. Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri.
A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography. Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era. In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored. By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals.
They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands. The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity. Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr.
Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work.
Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved. In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi.
In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib. Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world.
In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe. In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia.
That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores.
In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license. The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist. WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps.
By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. According to its publisher, Lucas Brandis, it was designed so that a€?poor men unable to afford a library can have a brief manual always on hand in place of many books.a€? The paupers of whom Brandis spoke may have meant poor preachers or friars minor but also may have referred to a growing number of book owners among the merchant class in a thriving commercial city such as LA?beck.
In the west, three columns stand for the Pillars of Hercules at the entrance of the Mediterranean. Schwarz arrives only at the conclusion that the author had been a cleric, and infers from the word noster at a specific place that the author was of Lubeck or its vicinity. We do not know if there was a manuscript version that formed its base, as none has ever been found, but there are a great number of universal histories of this type, which were very popular in the late Middle Ages. Theodore Schwarz describes this image only very briefly, although it is natural to see in them two disputing men, two priests. Shirley.A  The Rudimentum Novitiorum would go on to become more widely known through later French translations under the title Mer des Hystoires. Using a far infrared sauna can help strengthen the bodya€™s immune system by stimulating increased production of white blood cells by the bone marrow and killer T-cells by the thymus.A 2.
There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose. Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia.
However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail.
This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude. All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319). From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name. Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo.
Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman.
Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish. Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame.


In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller.
WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use.
Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name. Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there.
Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind.
The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago. Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean.
Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed.
Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable.
Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. Like Higden, the anonymous author of Rudimentum included several lengthy geographical digressions, one on the world and one on the holy land.
The mapa€™s most striking feature is its conformation of the land as a succession of a€?hillocksa€?, each surmounted by a castle or tower and bearing the name of a province or territory. The scholar Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken thinks they might be a Jew and a Christian having a harmonious discussion, thus symbolizing the unity of the Old and New Testaments. If, however, the second is true, it would be interesting to know why the words of the Majorcan scholar (born 1235) found an echo precisely in LA?beck. We must however note that this would be true only for the version printed in Lubeck but not of possible of the earlier MSS. Von den Brincken notes that the twenty years before the booka€™s publication are barely covered in the history and opines that the printer updated an older work. The leaf, the well-known symbol of peace, might signify here that the disputing men are not enemies, but friends.
The prologue of the treatise shows that the idea on which the drawing in Rudimentum Novitiorum is based is not original.
If, however, the second is true, it would be interesting to know why the words of the Majorcan scholar (born 1235) found an echo precisely in Lubeck.
Far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, lower lactic acid, kill certain bacteria and parasites, and burn calories. The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future.
On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time.
This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it. To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries.
In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two. Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World. Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller.
Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada.
The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D. It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage. The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship. In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P.
The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg.
The Rudimentum is a fascinating world history and encyclopedia structured on medieval Christian theology. Another idea is that they represent Enoch and Elijah, Old Testament characters who went directly to heaven without suffering death. In this grove for a long time they disputed in friendly conversation the advent of the Messiasa€?. Burcharda€™s narrative account appears in its entirety in the same third section as the map of Palestine in Rudimentum Novitiorum. The book was, however, translated into French, maps and all, under the title Mer des Hystoires in 1488. The question is now: is this an original idea of the artist, or is it based on something which existed before? Proponents of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, maintain that using far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps fight infections and even cancer. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names. But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s).
It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery.
In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense.
Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages. On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored.
He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban.
For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol.
In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract. 37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe.
The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505.
Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950.
Paradise is not labeled, but near one of the streams is the word Evilath [Havilah], one of the regions watered by the four rivers mentioned in the book of Genesis.
Sinai are the burning bush and Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law, and, on Calvary, the Crucifixion.A  This map of Palestine is considered the earliest printed regional map. Their argument is supported by the human body itself, which radiates infrared energy for the benefits of warmth and tissue repair.A 3. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents.
Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east. While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara. Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time.
Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business. To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection. And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map. Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen. The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). There is no encircling ocean, and the only labeled sea is a€?Mare Amasorieo,u,,,, in the north, possibly intended for the Caspian Sea.
Or these may be the Master and his Novice, source of rivers and all knowledge; alternatively according to Winter they may represent a€?. The French editor added material on French history and some new illustrations, including a woodcut of the baptism of Clovis. A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns.
This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile].
Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic. In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared. The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. On the re-cut map a few new images appear-ships, birds, and trees-but the basic format was unchanged.
Published in 1475, the illustrated world history, Rudimentum Novitiorum, included two remarkable maps - one of Palestine and this one of the world. This is the heat you feel penetrate your skin when you stand in the sun and miss when you walk into the shade. And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century.
A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia. Of many examples, Nicomedia (from Asia Minor) is shown next to the Pope near Rome and again in Africa, perhaps an error for Numidi, India is north of Persia, which is next to Taprobana. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. The question is now whether the same pictorial representation is not found in possible earlier MSS. When people do not receive adequate amounts of far infrared heat, they often can become ill or depressed.A 4. The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. The challenged typesetter, working backwards, probably had some problems with the difficult geographical names. 4914 of 1381, and 4915, of about the same time), but according to a kind communication from the Bibl.
Far infrared saunas are recognized by health practitioners worldwide as perhaps the most effective method of removing both chemical and heavy metal toxins from the body.
Far infrared saunas are thought to be 7 times more effective at detoxifying heavy metals such as mercury, aluminium, and other environmental toxins than conventional heat or steam saunas. In an article by Carmelo Ottaviano there is a reproduction of a theological treatise a€?De Adventu Messiea€? taken from a MS.
For many chronically ill patients as well as people who are well and wish to stay that way by reducing their toxic burden, the far infrared sauna is the detox method of choice.A 6. Bathing in a far infrared sauna in the early stages of a cold or flu has been known to stop the disease before symptoms occur.A 7. Far infrared heat can penetrate into the skin about an inch and a half to two inches deep and can have therapeutic benefits, such as helping to dissolve fat deposits under the skin. Since toxins may be stored in the fat, the deep penetrating heat of a far infrared sauna can help eliminate them, especially toxins such as heavy metals and acidic compounds.A 8. The radiant heat of a far infrared sauna is efficient because it warms the sauna bather directly.
The body absorbs as much as 93 percent of the heat, causing perspiration and producing a vast array of health benefits.A 9.
Far infrared saunas can help clear cellulite, the gel-like lumps of fat, water and debris trapped in pockets beneath the skin. European beauty specialists routinely incorporate daily far infrared sauna baths in programs to reduce cellulite.A 10. Generally speaking, far infrared saunas are less expensive, easier to install, and require less maintenance than traditional saunas. They come in many sizes and are often quite portable, making them a great choice when limited space is available.A 11.
Far infrared radiant heat provides all the healthy benefits of natural sunlight without any of the dangerous effects of solar radiation.A 12.
Far infrared saunas are more cleansing than conventional saunas because they are designed to generate more than two to three times the amount of perspiration. Unlike in traditional saunas where temperatures range from 140 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit (60 to 105 degrees Celsius), the temperatures of far infrared saunas typically range from 100 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 60 degrees Celsius).A 14.
This allows a person to perspire faster and to tolerate a longer period of time inside the sauna. Typical sessions in a far infrared sauna last 20 to 30 minutes and can be repeated to maximize the benefits.A 15. The lower heat range of far infrared saunas is safer for people with cardiovascular risk factors or fragile health because lower temperatures dona€™t dramatically elevate heart rate and blood pressure.A 16. Far infrared saunas have been used to treat sprains, bursitis, rheumatism, muscle spasms, neuralgia and hemorrhoids.
The effects of toxin, chemical and pesticide poisoning can be greatly reduced by the far infrared saunaa€™s detoxification action. People who work with chemicals, as well as home gardeners who frequently use fertilizers and pesticides, are advised to use far infrared saunas on a regular basis.A 18. Far infrared radiant heat is a form of naturally occurring energy that heats objects by direct light conversion. Direct light conversion warms only the object and does not raise the temperature of the surrounding free air.A 19.
Far infrared sauna use can help promote rebuilding of injured tissue by having a positive effect on the fibroblasts, the connective tissue cells necessary for the repair of injury.
It also can help increase growth of cells, DNA syntheses, and protein synthesis, all of which is necessary during tissue repair and regeneration.A 21.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, far infrared wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns. Wavelengths of between 6 and 14 microns are believed to be the most beneficial to humans and other living things on Earth.A  The human palm emits far infrared wavelengths of between 8 and 12 microns. The energy output from far infrared saunas so closely match the human bodya€™s radiant energy that nearly 93 percent of the saunaa€™s far infrared waves reach the skin.A 22.
Far infrared sauna therapy has helped people with cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart failure and angina. It enhances endothelial nitric oxide, lowering blood pressure and improving cardiovascular function.A 23.
The radiant heat of far infrared saunas has been shown to be especially beneficial to people with sports injuries, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and other chronic pain conditions.A 24.
There are some definite advantages to using far infrared sauna thermal heaters, such as no high heat claustrophobic reaction and better air circulation. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Far infrared heaters heat the body, not the air, so a bather is more comfortable and cooler. Far infrared saunas require 90 percent less electrical energy than conventional saunas, and no plumbing is required for a far infrared sauna.A 26. A 20 to 30-minute session in a far infrared sauna has been touted to burn as many calories as a six-mile run.A 27. Far infrared saunas are now used in health facilities for a range of health problems such as menopause, ulcers, insomnia, asthma, bronchitis, ear infections, and allergies.A 28.
You dona€™t have to worry about setting the sauna up on a waterproof floor or near plumbing, and you dona€™t have to worry about mildew.A 29. Unlike a traditional sauna, which requires a closed atmosphere to maintain heat levels required for therapeutic results, a far infrared sauna can be used with its door or window completely open if far infrared penetration is the only objective.A 30. Far infrared saunas benefit all your organs of elimination, from your lungs to your liver to your kidneys to your skin.A 31.
Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet. Near infrared light is closest in wavelength to visible light, and far infrared light is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A far infrared sauna is usually warm within 10 or 15 minutes, whereas a conventional sauna can take more than an hour to reach optimal temperatures.A 33. Another option, although quite costly, is to use far infrared bulbs, which can provide warming and stimulating color therapy.A 34. In addition to hemlock, wood choices for far infrared sauna construction include basswood, birch, oak, poplar, spruce and western red cedar. When a wood type is stated to be hypoallergenic, it means that the wood contains minimal allergens and is therefore less likely to cause an allergic reaction. When far infrared heat penetrates a bathera€™s body, he or she can experience a refreshed mind, relaxed mood, reduction of aches and pains, improved metabolism, and systemic regularity leading to an overall feeling of wellness.A 37. Hemlock is a very strong wood that is quite able to withstand the heat of a far infrared sauna. It is also abundantly available, which means the end cost to the consumer is less than it might be for another wood type.A 38. Far infrared radiation is believed to be the only antidote to excessive ultraviolet radiation.A 39.
Certain alternative healing practices such as palm healing, a practice with some 3,000 years of tradition behind it in China, rely on the human bodya€™s ability to emit far infrared radiant energy.A 40.
And weight gain, muscle loss, decreased libido, wrinkles in our skin, and a growing number of aches and pains are probably other distressing concerns.A Some people try to defy nature by undergoing cosmetic surgery, utilizing every a€?anti-aginga€? skin care product available, taking stress management or meditation courses, or relocating to less polluted areas.
These actions may have merits worthy of consideration, but the fact remains that no one, no matter how determined he or she may be, can slow down the passage of time. We start aging even before we are born, and the process does not stop until the day we die.A While our efforts may not influence time itself, they can, however, affect how our bodies respond to and endure it.
Qualified health professionals agree, for example, that regular exercise and good nutrition can have a long-term positive impact on a persona€™s quality of life. As well, avoiding the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun is universally regarded as an effective way to help maintain healthy, youthful skin. And leta€™s not forget how quitting smoking has been shown to improve respiratory health and reduce the risk of cancer in many vital bodily organs. A One activity that has been proven to be of great benefit to the lungs, heart, skin and other organs is far infrared sauna bathing. The rays from a far infrared sauna can help improve cardiovascular functioning, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, reduce fat and cellulite, revitalize skin cells, improve muscle tone and strength, improve nutrition and production of brain chemicals, and much more.A Far infrared sauna bathing also helps to flush toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents from our bodies. Exposure to this highly toxic substance can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, and memory or concentration difficulties. Researchers have also linked lead exposure to Alzheimera€™s disease, a debilitating condition akin to dementia that most people associate with aging.A Various sources likewise suggest a connection between Alzheimera€™s disease and mercury, the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth. By definition, red is the color with the longest wavelengths of visible light, and violet is the color with the shortest wavelengths of visible light. Among the types of invisible light or electromagnetic radiation that reside outside of the optical spectrum are infrared radiation (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Translated from Latin, a€?infraa€? and a€?ultraa€? mean a€?belowa€? and a€?beyond,a€? respectively, so infrared radiation, or infrared light, is literally a€?below red,a€? and ultraviolet light is a€?beyond violet.a€?The German-born astronomer William Herschel discovered infrared light while living in England in 1800, about 20 years after his historic first sighting of the planet Uranus. Measuring the heat from the optical spectrum, Herschel observed that the temperature in the colors increased as he went from violet to red. He also noticed that the temperature continued to increase beyond the color red, into a region of invisible light that Herschel named a€?infrared.a€?Infrared light is divided into three distinct segments with precise ranges of wavelength measured by microns.
Far infrared light is sometimes called thermal radiation or thermal light, and its wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns. The light or energy from sunlight and fire that we perceive as heat is far infrared.The far infrared radiation (FIR) emitted by the sun should not be confused with its deleterious ultraviolet radiation.
Chief among the consumer products utilizing the technology is the far infrared sauna or heat therapy room. A key attribute of far infrared light is its ability to heat an object directly without elevating the temperature of the air surrounding the object. This is called direct light conversion.A Direct light conversion is perhaps best demonstrated when youa€™re outside on a summer day and a big cloud moves in front of the sun. In the shade, you dona€™t feel as warm as when you were basking in the direct path of the suna€™s energy. Yet, by positioning itself between you and the sun, the cloud has blocked the suna€™s far infrared rays from reaching you. Thata€™s the reason you feel cooler even though the temperature of the air around you has not changed.A The value of far infrared light to human health and wellness must not be underestimated. Penetrating as deeply as three inches into our bodies, far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, destroy certain bacteria and parasites, lower lactic acid, and burn calories.Advocates of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, contend that employing such deep-penetrating far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps combat infections and even cancer. Their assertion is supported by the human body itself, which emits infrared energy for purposes of warmth and tissue repair.A Saunas have long been a tried, tested and true source of health benefits.
For centuries, traditional saunas have helped to improve cardiovascular function, promote body detoxification, maintain general health, and foster greater relaxation in sauna bathers around the world.
For many sauna enthusiasts, the traditional hot sauna a€“ the Finnish sauna a€“ remains the preferred route to renewed health and a rejuvenated spirit.A Sometimes called radiant heat saunas, soft heat saunas or heat therapy rooms, far infrared saunas offer most of the same benefits that traditional Finnish saunas do, but they do so at lower, more tolerable temperatures.
While the air temperature in a typical Finnish sauna bath ranges from 170 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit (77 to 93 degrees Celsius), such temperatures arena€™t required in a far infrared sauna to induce optimal bather perspiration.A By penetrating the bathera€™s body and effecting a deep, satisfying heat of just 100 to 130 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 55 degrees Celsius), the far infrared rays can create an enjoyably cleansing, detoxifying and revitalizing experience for the bather.
In fact, many sources claim that the volume of sweat produced during a far infrared sauna bath can be as much as three times greater than in a Finnish sauna bath.
The higher volume of sweat means a faster, more thorough, and thus more beneficial flushing of toxic chemicals and harmful heavy metals from the body.A Far infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth.
And now, with far infrared heat therapy rooms and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are wisely taking action to benefit from those rays and improve the quality of our own lives.A Benefits of Far Infrared Sauna UseThere are many benefits to be derived from proper and regular use of a far infrared sauna.
Far infrared sauna bathing can improve autonomic functions of the nervous system.Further Applications of Far Infrared EnergyFar infrared saunas are just one example of the application of infrared energy in contemporary society. Other uses of infrared energy have resulted in infrared hair dryers, infrared foot massagers, infrared pillows, infrared underwear, and even infrared leg wraps for horses. There are far infrared ray-emitting paints and wallpaper that combat mold as well as fast-cooking far infrared ovens that reportedly kill E.
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. Far infrared rays are being utilized to purify polluted air, promote growth in plants, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, treat injured athletes, and even encourage new hair growth.Far Infrared Is Essential to LifeFar infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth. And now, with far infrared saunas and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are astutely taking steps to benefit from those remarkable rays and improve the quality of our own lives. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. Similarly, you may not pay much attention to far infrared saunas, but these fantastic devices offer health benefits that you may not be able to afford to ignore any longer.A As time progresses, it seems that the world is becoming an increasingly dangerous place. We live in an age of terrorist activities, nuclear weapons, dictatorships and religious fanaticism.
Costly international conflicts show no sign of abating, and just about everyone feels more insecure and vulnerable than they did a decade ago.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Even in our local neighborhoods, many of us worry about rising crime rates and growing threats to our personal safety.A And, as if those problems were not enough for us to worry about, many of us have major health issues with which we have no choice but to contend. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Not helping matters are all the poisons and contaminants that have found their way into our environment and into our bodies.


Fortunately, though, we are not powerless against these mighty and malicious microscopic menaces. In fact, we can start doing something about them right now - we can start fighting back with far infrared sauna detoxification therapy.A Far infrared saunas are revered by scientists and health professionals around the world for their ability to help flush out many of the toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents that have accumulated deep within the bloodstream, skin and other vital organs of people from all walks of life.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. For individuals affected by mercury toxicity, lead poisoning, and other life-threatening exposures, the far infrared sauna is often viewed as an essential component of detoxification therapy.A If you think that only people in high-risk occupations qualify for far infrared sauna detoxification therapy, youa€™re wrong.
Exogenous toxins, which can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract, are those not produced by the body itself, and examples include mercury, lead, zinc and cadmium.
We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. Sylver writes that a€?this category consists of waste produced by the body in the course of normal metabolic functioning and also pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites) and the waste they excrete. Also known as chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), CFS was once commonly referred to as the a€?yuppie flua€? after about 200 people, most of whom were white, wealthy, young females, come down with a strange illness in 1984. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
National Institutes of Health claim that, for some people, chronic fatigue syndrome can first appear after a cold, bronchitis, hepatitis or an intestinal bug; for others, it can follow a bout of glandular fever.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound.
CDC and CFIDS Association of America announced in 2001 that stress may exacerbate but most likely does not cause the disorder.A On the polemical subject of CFS prevalence, Dr.
Buist asserts that toxins can impede muscle metabolism, causing the pain and fatigability of muscles felt by many fatigued people.A Addressing the Well Mind Association in Seattle, WA, Dr.
The affected persona€™s detoxification system is clogged up or destroyed, they get a backlog of chemicals, and their immune system goes down.a€?A Dr.
Edelson and Deborah Mitchell, authors of What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Autoimmune Disorders, put it like this: a€?The hallmark of CFIDS is overwhelming, persistent, incapacitating fatigue that leaves those afflicted unable to carry on their normal physical functions. Schmidt writes, a€?Researchers at Uppsala University Medical School in Sweden reported that patients with chronic fatigue contain abnormal levels of mercury within their cells. Of patients with chronic fatigue, 45 percent showed mercury hypersensitivity and 49 percent showed lead hypersensitivity. When the metal burden was removed from the body (in many cases, by removing mercury-containing silver dental fillings), 77 percent of patients reported improved health.a€?A If these conclusions are correct, how can sufferers retaliate after the damage of toxic build-up has manifested itself as chronic fatigue syndrome? Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
Lyon recommend far infrared sauna therapy.A a€?For the chronic fatigue patient, a consistent program of infrared sauna therapy will assist the problem of autonomic dysregulation, which is common to the condition,a€? states Dr. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. These symptoms are reduced, as regular sauna therapy induces normal autonomic functioning.A a€?Through extensive research, it has been shown that saunas greatly assist in the elimination of accumulated toxins,a€? Lyon adds. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. It has become well known that people who take regular saunas (2-3 per week) reduce their incidence of colds and influenza by over 65% (a study by the British Medical Association). The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. While many people use saunas primarily for relaxation and stress reduction, the other health benefits are increasing the popularity of saunas.
An often agonizing muscle disorder in which the thin film or tissue holding muscle together becomes thickened or tightened, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pains and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, mild to incapacitating fatigue, and disturbed sleep.A The pain of fibromyalgia is typically felt in the neck, back, shoulders and hands, but it is not exclusive to those areas. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. Based on criteria set in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), a diagnosis of fibromyalgia requires a patient to have experienced widespread pain for a minimum of three months in 11 of 18 tender muscle sites. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. Among those 18 sites are the hips, knees and rib cage.A Other symptoms of fibromyalgia include allergies, anxiety, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, dizziness, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, numbness, and tender skin. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Most sufferers of fibromyalgia are women of childbearing age, but it has also been known to strike men, children and the elderly.As for what causes fibromyalgia, many theories exist.
Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. The Alternative Medicine Guide to Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia and Environmental Illness states that a€?post-traumatic fibromyalgia is believed to develop after a fall, whiplash or back strain, whereas primary fibromyalgia has an uncertain origin.a€? However, in her book Detoxify or Die, Dr.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. Nenah Sylver extols the sauna for its ability to increase cardiovascular activity and white blood cell, enzyme, and norepinephrine, beta-endorphin and possibly thyroxin production. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. As they, in turn, help to enhance circulation, increase waste removal and nutrient absorption, raise metabolism, and promote the elimination of toxins, foreign proteins and microbes, Dr.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Sylver deems the aforementioned benefits of proper sauna use crucial in helping people with fibromyalgia.
Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
She notes a€?there are actually very few health problems that cannot be helped (or would become worse) with sauna therapya€? but advises patients nevertheless to consult with their health providers before beginning sauna therapy.A Dr. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
Rogers and other health professionals insist that the far infrared sauna, radiant heat sauna or heat therapy room is of greater benefit to fibromyalgia sufferers than the traditional hot Finnish sauna because of a fundamental difference between the two styles of sauna.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
Rogers calls the far infrared sauna a€?infinitely more tolerable,a€? particularly for people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or multiple sclerosis, because it can function effectively at a much lower temperature than a conventional Finnish sauna.A a€?Ia€™m convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? declares Dr.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. That such an effective detoxification tool exists should be welcome news to anyone suffering the ill effects of excessive lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic or aluminium in his or her body. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip.
A Not everyone may believe they have sufficient reason to worry about heavy metal and chemical toxicity, but many experts are urging the skeptics to think again. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery.
Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which can produce a wide range of adverse health effects. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. In adults, lead can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, irritability, and memory or concentration problems. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. A Because their brains and central nervous systems are still being formed, young children under the age of six are especially vulnerable to leada€™s harmful health effects. National Safety Council (NSC), a€?Even very low levels of exposure can result in reduced IQ, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, behavioral problems, stunted growth, impaired hearing, and kidney damage. Lead can also be found in automobile exhaust, pesticides, hair dye, ink, and some glazed dishware.Mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that can be found in tuna and swordfish, latex paint, dental amalgams, vaccines, cosmetics, contact lens solution, fabric softener and tap water, has also been classified by researchers as posing a grave threat to human health. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that no level of mercury can be considered to be safe, as it is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth.A In their book What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, Dr. Like so many other heavy metals, cadmium can be found in air, water, soil and food.A Noting that the highest contributor to cadmium toxicity is cigarette smoke, the Center for Environmental and Integrative Medicine (CEIM) in Knoxville, TN, states that a€?cadmium can weaken the immune system and allow bacteria, viruses, yeast and parasites to proliferate. Cadmium may also promote skeletal demineralization and increase bone fragility and fracture risk. Department of Health and Human Servicesa€™ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).
Eating food or drinking water with very high cadmium levels severely irritates the stomach, leading to vomiting and diarrhea, and sometimes death. Breathing air with lower levels of cadmium, or eating lower levels of cadmium, over long periods of time can result in a build-up of cadmium in the kidneys. This has been seen mostly in workers exposed to arsenic at smelters, mines, and chemical factories, but also in residents living near smelters and arsenical chemical factories. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have all classified inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen.A Since arsenic is found naturally in the environment, humans risk exposure to it when they eat food, drink water, breathe air, or come in contact with contaminated soil or water. The same can be said for aluminium compounds.A People may also be exposing themselves to aluminium compounds when they ingest medicinal products like certain antacids, laxatives and buffered aspirin or have skin contact with aluminium metal, antiperspirants, or other substances that contain aluminium or aluminium compounds. Mercola asserts that aluminium has been linked to serious illnesses such as osteoporosis, extreme nervousness, anemia, headache, decreased liver and kidney function, speech disturbances, and memory loss. He also contends that people who have died from Alzheimera€™s disease have been found to have up to four times the average amount of aluminium accumulated in the braina€™s nerve cells.A Offering its view on the subject, the ATSDR states that exposure to aluminium is usually not harmful but notes that some people who have kidney disease store a lot of aluminium in their bodies. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling.
In these children, the bone damage is caused by aluminium in the stomach preventing the absorption of phosphate, (which is) required for healthy bones.a€?Lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium are just five of an intimidating number of toxins capable of severely compromising your health. Among the other heavy metals most often found at unacceptable levels in the body, according to Edelson and Mitchell, are nickel and tin.
Sherry Rogers writes, a€?The lungs, urine, stool and sweat are the main vehicles the body has for getting rid of nasty chemicals, but by far sweat is the most efficacious. And Mayo Clinic studies show that (utilizing) far infrared energy is the safest way to induce healing sweata€¦ Far infrared sauna technology is the only proven, most efficacious way of getting rid of stored environmental chemicals.a€?A A far infrared sauna has been cited as the best place to sweat because, whereas bathing in a conventional hot air sauna produces perspiration that is composed of approximately 97 percent water and three percent toxins, soaking in a far infrared sauna has been shown to produce sweat composed of about 80 percent water and 20 percent toxins. As well, far infrared saunas can produce up to three times the sweat volume of a conventional hot air sauna while operating at a considerably cooler air temperature range of 110 to 130 degrees versus 180 to 235 degrees for hot air saunas. Ita€™s worthwhile to also note that, according to author and sauna historian Mikkel Aaland, a 15-minute far infrared sauna session can execute the same heavy metal excretion that would take the kidneys 24 working hours.
In other words, sweating in a far infrared sauna can be a very efficient method of detoxification.A Even though sweating is a natural function of the human body, many people do not perspire properly because their skin has been damaged or deactivated by, among other culprits, chemicals in bath water, lotions, soaps and deodorants.
Fortunately for these people, far infrared sauna therapy can greatly help to restore the skina€™s eliminative powers.
Ita€™s just one more way far infrared saunas work to heal bodies compromised by harmful chemicals.A If you are concerned about how harmful chemicals and heavy metals can affect your health, consider the many benefits of owning a far infrared sauna.
Most people have a casual understanding of each of those three, but it is the mercury included in the periodic table of elements that demands greater public contemplation.
For if contemporary society placed more of an emphasis on the pernicious effects of mercury exposure, perhaps fewer people would be victimized by related illnesses and diseases.A Mercury is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has proclaimed that no level of mercury can be regarded as being safe. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced in a 2001 study that one in every 10 American women of childbearing age is at risk for having a baby born with neurological problems due to mercury exposure.A There are three principal types of mercury, and each type presents a serious health hazard to humans. The first type, elemental mercury, is a liquid that gives off mercury vapor at room temperature. Elemental mercury can also enter the bloodstream by permeating the skin.A Inorganic mercury compounds, the second type, can also be inhaled as well as pass through the skin.
Unlike elemental mercury, though, inorganic mercury compounds can also be absorbed through the stomach if swallowed. Elemental mercury, if swallowed, is not absorbed and usually exits the body without causing any harm. Many inorganic mercury compounds are irritating or corrosive to the skin, eyes and mucus membranes.A The third type of mercury, organic mercury compounds, can enter the body by way of all three routes a€“ lungs, skin and stomach. Exposure to any form of mercury on a repeated basis, or even a very high single dose, can lead to chronic mercury poisoning.
According to the New Jersey State Department of Health, chronic mercury poisoning is characterized by three major symptoms:Gum problems.
People with chronic mercury poisoning frequently experience wide mood swings, becoming irritable, frightened, excited or depressed very quickly for no apparent reason. Some people may become extremely upset at any criticism, lose all self-confidence, and become apathetic. Memory loss, hallucinations, and inability to concentrate can also occur.Nervous system impairment.
I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
The earliest and most frequent symptom of chronic mercury poisoning is a fine tremor of the hand. A person with chronic mercury poisoning may also experience difficulty balancing and walking.A In What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, authors Dr. Research has demonstrated that the bodya€™s tissues, especially in the brain, kidneys, jaw, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, absorb and store mercury.a€?A With such research findings having caught the publica€™s attention, some people have begun insisting that their dentists use composite fillings, also known as a€?white fillings,a€? as a non-toxic alternative to amalgam fillings. As well, some dental patients are demanding that their existing amalgam fillings be removed and replaced with composite fillings.A In her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. Rogers writes, a€?Autoimmune disease, heart disease, high cholesterol and triglycerides, chemical sensitivity, allergies, antibiotic-resistant infections, depression, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, leukemia and just about any symptom you can think of have improved once sufficient accumulated mercury was removed from the teeth and body.a€?Going a step further, Dr. Daniel Royal, member of the Nevada State Board of Homeopathic Medical Examiners, states, a€?While removal of amalgam fillings stops further poisoning from mercury fillings, you still need to detoxify the body to eliminate the residual effect from mercury that remains behind in the body. Royal calls the sauna a useful adjunct to safe mercury removal because it induces profuse sweating. One reason is that far infrared saunas, also known as radiant heat saunas or soft heat saunas, can effectively function at temperatures lower than those characteristic of traditional hot Finnish saunas.
Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat. The findings of this study make a strong case that far infrared saunas are simply better detoxification devices than conventional hot saunas.A Before you begin a sauna detoxification program, or if you suspect that you suffer from mercury poisoning, you should discuss your plans or share your suspicions with a qualified health professional. And if you decide to purchase a far infrared sauna for any of its many therapeutic properties, be sure to research your choices thoroughly, as satisfied sauna buyers are typically well-informed sauna buyers.A Opening the Sauna Door to Better Healthby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa You may think of a home sauna as being little more than a luxury, an object that offers pleasure and comfort but is ultimately inessential to your well-being.
However, the results of decades of research may just convince you of what sauna enthusiasts have believed for centuries a€“ that regular sauna bathing offers significant, perhaps even life-saving, health benefits.A A chief objective of any sauna bath is to make you perspire, and perspiration is a natural, necessary function of the human body. Ita€™s a means by which the body can rid itself of extra heat and water and eliminate harmful toxins that have, over time, built up inside it. Included among these toxins are mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminium.A The health benefits of sauna bathing, however, go beyond aiding detoxification. As your body increases sweat production to cool itself during a hot sauna bath, your heart increases blood circulation.
Heart rate, cardiac output and metabolic rate all increase, while diastolic blood pressure decreases, helping to improve overall cardiovascular fitness.A Sauna bathing may also contribute to healthy weight loss.
A letter in a 1981 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association asserted that a€?a moderately conditioned person can easily a€?sweat offa€™ 500 grams in a sauna, consuming nearly 300 calories, the equivalent of running two to three miles.
A heat-conditioned person can easily sweat off 600 to 800 calories with no adverse effects.
While the weight of the water lost can be regained by rehydration with water, the calories consumed will not be.a€?A Most irrefutable are the claims that regular sauna bathing helps to relieve stress and promote relaxation. It has been demonstrated time and time again that spending just a few minutes in a hot sauna bath can reduce anxiety levels, sooth nerves and warm tight muscles.
Not only has sauna bathing been shown to encourage deeper, more restful sleep, far infrared sauna therapy has proved effective in alleviating pain associated with arthritis, backache, bursitis, fibromyalgia, headache, sprains, strains and other muscular and skeletal ailments.A a€?I am convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? contends Dr. And while the condition known as Raynauda€™s disease has perhaps not received as much attention as those previously mentioned, credible sources suggest that sauna bathing can benefit its sufferers as well.A Raynauda€™s disease is a condition that causes some areas of your body, such as your fingers, toes, ears, cheeks, tongue, and the tip of your nose, to feel numb and cool in response to cold temperatures or stress.
Named after Maurice Raynaud, the French physician who first described it in 1862, it is a disorder of the blood vessels that supply blood to your skin. During a Raynauda€™s attack, these arteries narrow, limiting blood flow to affected areas.A Accurately discussing Raynauda€™s can be challenging for some people, as two types of it exist, and each type has two names. What most laymen generically call Raynauda€™s disease could be either primary Raynauda€™s or secondary Raynauda€™s.A Primary Raynauda€™s, the most common form of the disorder, is what physicians and medical textbooks correctly refer to as Raynauda€™s disease. Although anyone can develop the condition, primary Raynauda€™s mainly affects women between the ages of 15 and 40. Ita€™s also more common in people who live in colder climates.A Secondary Raynauda€™s, also known as Raynauda€™s phenomenon, is caused by an underlying problem like scleroderma, Sjogrena€™s syndrome (both connective tissue diseases), lupus (an autoimmune disease), rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disease), hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland), diseases of the arteries (such as atherosclerosis and Buergera€™s disease), carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve damage, or chemical exposure. As well, people in certain occupations, such as those who operate vibrating tools, may be more vulnerable to secondary Raynauda€™s.A Most typically, cold temperatures provoke Raynauda€™s attacks. Just taking an item out of your freezer, putting your hands in cold water, or exposing yourself to cold air could trigger one.
For some people, however, cold is not even necessary; emotional stress is enough to instigate an episode.
In both cases, the body seems to exaggerate its natural response of trying to preserve its core temperature by slowing blood supply to its extremities. During an attack, which can last from less than a minute to several hours, affected areas of your skin usually first turn white. As your blood circulation improves, the affected areas may turn red, throb, tingle or swell.
Raynauda€™s attacks may grow more severe over time.A If the condition becomes severe, blood circulation to your extremities could permanently diminish, resulting in deformities in affected areas like your fingers or toes.
Also, skin ulcers or gangrene could develop if an artery to an affected area becomes completely blocked.A Depending on the cause and severity of symptoms, treatment can take many forms. Medications may include alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, or vasodilators, all of which help relax blood vessels. For example, during a session in either type of sauna, the bathera€™s heart responds to the sauna heat by increasing blood flow and perspiration production to cool the bathera€™s body. In this way, sauna bathing is a form of cardiovascular exercise.A Perspiring in a sauna, especially a far infrared sauna, also helps the body rid itself of harmful toxins that have built up over time.
With experts having already drawn the connection between nicotine, secondhand smoke and Raynauda€™s, this benefit is certainly noteworthy.A As anyone who has stepped into a sauna seeking relief from muscle aches, sports injuries or ailments such as arthritis or fibromyalgia should already know, sauna bathing also offers a proven way to alleviate pain. A clinical study conducted at Sunnybrook and Womena€™s College Health Science Centers at the University of Toronto confirmed that far infrared therapy can bring about significant improvements in both subjective measures of pain and discomfort associated with Raynauda€™s disease.A Lastly, sauna bathing fosters relaxation and stress relief. To those Raynauda€™s sufferers whose attacks are caused by emotional stress, as well as to the innumerable Raynauda€™s sufferers whose emotional stress is understandably caused by their attacks, this news is likely very welcome.A If you think you may be suffering from Raynauda€™s disease or Raynauda€™s phenomenon, be sure to discuss your concerns with a qualified health professional.
Meanwhile, youa€™d be wise to investigate the many ways a home sauna, be it a traditional Finnish sauna or a far infrared sauna, can improve your health and happiness.A Insomnia and the Far Infrared Saunaby Pertti Olavi JalasjaaYoua€™ve wisely avoided sleeping pills, but it seems as if youa€™ve tried almost everything else to get a better nighta€™s sleep.
The comforting heat of a sauna works to induce healthy perspiration, assist respiratory function, benefit blood pressure, stimulate endorphins, cleanse skin, and relieve sore, tired muscles. By raising your body temperature in a sauna bath right before bedtime, you compel it to normalize itself afterwards, and ita€™s this temperature readjustment following the sauna bath that helps to improve the quality of your sleep.A Of course, other effects of the heat bath can certainly contribute to improvements in your sleep. Regular sauna bathers routinely report that soaking in a hot sauna helps them rid their minds of the anxieties, frustrations and worries that may have been plaguing them prior to bathing. And by helping to alleviate any existing physical pain like headaches, muscle strain or joint stiffness, a sauna bath can effectively disarm many of the aggravations that might have impeded truly restful sleep.A Home saunas are available in many styles and sizes. Around the globe, doctors, researchers and other professionals have discovered the tremendous value of using sauna heat to help increase the human bodya€™s white blood cell count, stimulate its immune system, facilitate detoxification, and produce a state of general relaxation that is vital to the healing process.A In many countries, experts continue to research the therapeutic properties of the sauna.
Chuwa Tei, professor of medicine and chair of the department of internal medicine at Japana€™s Kagoshima University, and his colleagues have demonstrated saunasa€™ usefulness in treating heart patients.A In one study, Tei and his colleagues compared 25 men with at least one risk factor for heart disease, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or smoking, with a group of 10 healthy men.
Each study participant spent 15 minutes in a 140-degree Fahrenheit (60-degree Celsius) dry sauna, followed by 30 minutes in a bed covered with blankets, once a day for two weeks. The researchers then measured how well the participantsa€™ blood vessels expanded and contracted, a sign of the health of the vessels.
The researchers also found that the sauna therapy lowered participantsa€™ blood pressure slightly.
The results of the study should be encouraging to anyone concerned about blood vessel diseases like atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and erectile dysfunction.In earlier studies, Tei and his colleagues demonstrated that sauna therapy improved the blood vessel function in hamsters with chronic heart failure. The hamsters that received sauna therapy also lived about three weeks longer than those that didna€™t receive sauna therapy.A German researchers recently studied 22 kindergarten children who took weekly sauna baths and compared them to a group of children that did not take any sauna baths.
Both groups were followed for 18 months and closely monitored for any occurrence of ear infections, colds, or upper respiratory problems. The researchers found that the children who did not take the weekly sauna baths took twice as many sick days as their counterparts.A Other findings suggest that it may be more than the heat of a sauna that is so advantageous to human health.
Tests have indicated that the practice of tossing or splashing water on heated rocks in a traditional Finnish sauna produces a high quantity of negative ions in the air.
Research has concluded that air abundant with negative ions offers great benefits, while a lack of negative ions or a higher ration of positive to negative ions in the air we breathe can cause physical harm.And while a June 2001 edition of The St. Lying above the 60th parallel, the southern boundary of the Arctic Circle, northernmost Finland receives little sunlight during the winter, which typically begins in November and lasts at least until May.
Throughout all of Finland, winter days are remarkably short, with the sun low on the horizon even at midday.
In the far north, the period known as a€?kaamosa€? or polar night, during which the sun never rises above the horizon, is nearly two months long.A Light deprivation is a serious concern during Finnish winters, particularly in areas where continuous darkness stretches several weeks.
Many experts believe it could explain why Finland has one of the worlda€™s highest suicide rates.
Each year, 14 percent of northern populations reportedly experience the a€?winter blues,a€? and another six percent suffer from the more serious Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a type of clinical depression that, by definition, afflicts people only at certain times of the year.
A In addition to depression, common symptoms of SAD include anxiety, fatigue and low energy, irritability, increased sleeping, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite, most notably carbohydrate cravings.A For many people, Seasonal Affective Disorder is a seriously disabling illness that prevents them from functioning normally without continuous medical treatment. For others, it is a mild but debilitating condition that causes discomfort but not severe suffering. This milder form of SAD, called Subsyndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder, is what most people perceive to be the aforementioned winter blues.A Yet another form of SAD is Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder (RSAD), and it typically strikes during the late spring or early summer and lasts throughout the warmer months. Also known as summer depression, RSAD is characterized by decreased sleep, weight loss, poor appetite, and other symptoms. Because treatment options can differ for SAD and RSAD, ita€™s important to note that the information in the following paragraphs pertains specifically to SAD a€“ in other words, winter depression.A According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs), psychotherapy, and light therapy.
Certain sources claim that, in addition to being used to treat SAD, insomnia and jet lag, light therapy can also be beneficial for people suffering from skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis and vitiglio.A For treating Seasonal Affective Disorder, the most commonly used phototherapy equipment is a portable lighting device known as a light box. The patient sits in front of the box for a prescribed period of time that can be as brief as 15 minutes or as long as several hours.
The duration and frequency of light therapy sessions often depend on the patienta€™s physical needs and lifestyle. As one might surmise, light therapy sessions for SAD typically begin in the autumn months and continue throughout the winter, sometimes even into the early spring.A The light box may be mounted upright to a wall or slanted downwards and set on a table. The light from a slanted light box is designed to focus on the table upon which it sits, so patients may look down to read or enjoy other sedentary activities during their phototherapy sessions.
Patients using an upright light box must face the light box, although they dona€™t need to look directly into the light. As for the brightness of the light utilized, the light sources in these light boxes typically range from 2,500 to 10,000 lux (units of illumination).
In comparison, average indoor lighting typically ranges from 300 to 500 lux, and a sunny summer day is roughly 100,000 lux.A Before undergoing any light therapy treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder, be sure to discuss your concerns and options with a qualified health professional. If you believe that you suffer from SAD, it is vital that you receive a proper diagnosis from a physician experienced in treating mood disorders. As well, certain risks (like potential eye strain, hypomania and headache, among others) are associated with phototherapy, especially for people who are photosensitive, so consulting with your doctor and an ophthalmologist could prevent additional problems from arising during or after your treatments. If you decide to pursue light therapy treatments without the assistance of a qualified health professional, be aware that different companies hold decidedly different stances on exactly what constitutes light therapy. A Among the health-related companies that are now making light therapy part of their business are manufacturers and retailers of home saunas. It is a logical development since far infrared sauna therapy has repeatedly been proven to be an effective form of light therapy. The light found in a far infrared sauna is, of course, far infrared light, a type of invisible light located below the optical color red in the electromagnetic spectrum.A An indispensable part of life on Earth, far infrared light has long been used by humans to purify polluted air, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, promote growth in plants, and more. Little did the early sauna bathers of Finland realize centuries ago that their beloved heat baths might someday become a source of hope and healing, not just for the people of their own country but for everyone who finds the dark days of winter hard to weather.A Sweat and Far Infrared Saunas- Here's the Skinnyby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa For whatever reason, most people feel uncomfortable talking about perspiration. For example, ita€™s not unusual to hear someone remark that he or she a€?sweateda€? over an academic assignment, a€?worked up a sweata€? on the tennis courts, or a€?lost a pint of sweata€? while awaiting an important decision. But these are simply colloquial expressions that many of us utilize to make a point about our mental or physical stress or exertion related to a particular undertaking or event. After all, to do so, polite society decrees, would be in poor taste.A And yet much could be gained if people felt free to discuss the natural biological process of perspiration without fear of judgment or reproach. When we perspire in a far infrared sauna, we help our bodies rid themselves of the countless toxins like mercury, lead, cadmium and other contaminants that have accumulated within us over time.
As well, by intensely sweating in a far infrared sauna we benefit our hearts, lungs, kidneys and other organs that are essential to our survival.
Far infrared sauna bathing has also been proven to promote pain relief, muscle relaxation, and emotional tranquility.A For people suffering from certain skin diseases, far infrared sauna bathing can be particularly therapeutic. As the far infrared heat induces an increase in blood circulation to the skin, the bodya€™s defence against chronic skin conditions like acne, eczema and psoriasis is considerably bolstered. As well, thorough sweating helps unclog the skin of whatever unhealthy remnants of soap, lotions, deodorants or makeup may be unnecessarily lodged in its pores. Dead skin cells are also effectively flushed away by a good sweat in a far infrared sauna.A Increased blood flow and decreased toxins and foreign material in our skin mean more natural nutrients and fewer reasons for irritations and disease. Elasticity, texture, tone and color can all noticeably improve after just a few sessions in a far infrared sauna. These benefits are available even if your skin has suffered harsh damage from excessive exposure to the sun.A You dona€™t have to talk about perspiration if you dona€™t want to. If you live a mostly sedentary lifestyle and therefore dona€™t perspire much on a regular basis, you must take action for the sake of the health of your heart, lungs, skin and other vital organs.
People face stress at home, at work, at school a€“ anywhere opportunities to react to internal or external stimulation exist.A That stimulation can come from a disagreement with a spouse, a conflict with a co-worker, criticism from a teacher, bad news from a doctor, and so on.
And the stimulation need not be negative; people often become stressed when they start new jobs or enter into new relationships. Even a big, surprise win at the casino can cause stress.A A little stress isna€™t necessarily a bad thing. Stress during a job interview can help you give the best answers to the people asking the tough questions.
These hormones are not harmful in moderate amounts, but cortisol is secreted excessively in response to chronic stress and is extremely toxic in these larger amounts.A a€?Cortisol actually kills and disables your brain cells,a€? says Dr. Chronic exposure to cortisol causes the mental haziness, forgetfulness and confusion that is associated with aging.a€?A People under stress may also be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. Stress causes arteries to constrict and blood to become stickier, increase the probability of an artery-clogging blood clot. As well, people who regularly experience sudden increases in blood pressure caused by stress may, over time, develop injuries in the inner lining of their blood vessels.A Studies suggest that chronic stress may increase a persona€™s chances for developing infections, having strokes, experiencing flare ups of multiple sclerosis, and suffering gastrointestinal problems like peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Chronic stress has also been linked to the development of insulin resistance, a key factor in diabetes. And ask anybody who has ever suffered from headaches, insomnia, skin disorders or sexual dysfunction if they believe that stress was at least partly to blame for their woes, and then construct your own conclusions about how damaging stress can be to onea€™s health and well being.A If you think you have a serious condition that has been caused or made worse by certain stressors in your life, you should discuss your concerns with a qualified physician. If, however, youa€™d like to improve the quality of your life by learning how to better cope with stress, many options exist. Perhaps your first focus should be on discovering the remarkable benefits of relaxation.Relaxation decreases blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates, releases muscle tension, and eases emotional strains. In their quests for greater relaxation, some people choose biofeedback while others opt for massage therapy. Studies indicate that soaking in a hot sauna bath can help improve respiratory function, increase cardiovascular strength, reduce and remove body toxins, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, relieve headaches, and cleanse and beautify skin. Sauna bathing can also increase blood circulation, relaxing tight, tired or aching muscles by providing them with more oxygen.A If youa€™re searching for a healthy way to alleviate the stress in your life, consider purchasing a home sauna.
Residential saunas are available in a range of styles and sizes, from pre-cut Finnish sauna kits to outdoor barrel saunas and far infrared heat therapy rooms.
Seemingly ubiquitous advertisements and TV commercials for antiperspirants continue to convince generations of consumers that perspiration is an undesirable, offensive bodily function.
While no one would dispute that sweat can be quite unwelcome in important social and business situations, it would be imprudent not to acknowledge the necessity of perspiration and understand the critical role it plays in human health.A Sweating is an essential function of the human body, as essential as eating, breathing and sleeping. Skin is sometimes called a€?the third kidneya€? for this very reason.A Your body eliminates various toxins through a variety of metabolic processes, one being urination and another being perspiration.
The kidneys filter waste materials from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine.
The temperature in a traditional Finnish sauna is usually between 180 and 200 degrees Fahrenheit (80 and 95 degrees Celsius). The two types of sauna operate differently, but, at their respective temperature ranges, working up a sufficient sweat in either type should be achievable for even the most inexperienced sauna bather.A Using high heat to induce perspiration has a great number of benefits.
In addition to decreasing the amount of toxins and heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, in your body, an intense sweat bath in a sauna can help cleanse it of other impurities like cholesterol, nicotine, sodium, and sulfuric acid. By improving blood circulation, regular sauna bathing can help draw the skina€™s own natural nutrients to the surface, leading to better tone, texture and elasticity. Thata€™s why sauna bathing is being increasingly included in high-intensity treatment programs for skin ailments like acne, eczema and psoriasis.
Some beauty specialists in Europe even claim the sauna can be quite a powerful weapon in the war against cellulite.A As beneficial and therapeutic as sweating in a soothing hot sauna may be, however, it is imperative that bathers not allow the experience to dehydrate them. As well, be sure to discuss your plans and expectations with your personal physician before you take to the sauna for the first time, as he or she should know of any existing conditions or limitations that pertain specifically to your health and might impact your sauna use.A As for all those advertisements and TV commercials that say sweating is bad, forget about them, and start doing what you know is best for your health.



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