Surviving in the wilderness tips summary,american style movie 2012 trailer,emergency power supply for small computer systems,how to make a emp with a camera 360 - PDF 2016

Grady Powell, Jared Ogden and Rudy Reyes are military survivalists on the National Geographic show “Ultimate Survival in Alaska,” and they show Kathie Lee and Hoda how to turn a water bottle into a fishing pole and the best way to scare off a bear. Fall is very inspiring and magical time, very atmospheric time, and most of all, perfect for outdoor recreation and wilderness adventures. So you decide to have a wilderness adventure for a long day from early morning till as late evening as you can before it becomes dark, or, even for two days, or perhaps for a long weekend. Is there anything more adventurous and romantic than to go hiking for example to magnificent mountain forests with your loved one for a day or two in fantastically beautiful fall weather…? So you pack your things and start your adventure in one sunny, crisp Friday or Saturday morning.
BUT what happens when you go out there, have amazing time, AND, get completely lost by the end of the day..? Anything can happen to anyone when going hiking to large forest areas, mountains and complete wilderness, even if you are somewhat experienced, are pretty familiar with the area, or go there just for a one day’s outdoor recreation. Perhaps you plan a one-day relaxing hike in a large forest area you hiked in before and feel that one bottle of water and an energy bar is enough.
At some point, you step out of the marked routea little, just to see that gorgeous mountain better you just noticed… You hike a little in the forest and admire the views with full focus.
Rescue personnel have repeatedly documented finding lost hikers, campers, hunters, nature enthusiasts and cross country skiers sometimes just a few miles from civilization.
People obviously never expect that they would need to be in the woods for any longer than they planned originally.
The younger and more inexperienced you are, the cockier you usually are for what comes to having adventures in the woods or wilderness vs your safety. And what comes to really adventurous kids… like I was when I was under or barely over 10 years. NOTE; cell phone is not always enough, and it does NOT replace the survival kit even if it was!
When you go to wilderness, you must take into account that even in today’s world there are plenty of areas that are not covered by cellphone networks. An important note regarding cell phones; remember to make sure that your cell phone is fully charged before you go! You must be prepared with a basic survival kit when going hiking, no matter what kind of trip you’ve planned on doing.
If it’s a serious hiking trip for one day in large wilderness forest areas, it’s enough of a reason to prepare with a survival kit. It don’t matter, if it’s just a one day’s hiking trip, if you’ve been in the area before, or, if it’s just a quick idea you got a moment ago and decide to go immediately to some forests, reachable after a short car-drive, to hiking for the rest of the day. Also, always, always inform someone close to you, such as a family member or a friend if you decide to hiking.
The survival kit should be adapted to your personal needs to include extra contacts or eyeglasses, prescription medications and any medical devices that may be required, or anything else that you personally may require should you need to say out there for longer time than you expected. You should update and adapt your survival kit according to the seasons and geography of your planned hiking area. An example for adaptation for geography would include rope and cold weather gear if you were planning a hike in a mountainous region. Keep in mind the items in your survival kit would be in addition to any standard supplies you would normally carry along on a hike or camping trip. Always carry your emergency kit on every outdoor outing and carry one in your vehicle as well. Pack with a little creativity, and you will see that most of the items will fit quite easily in with your other gear. Your survival kit provides you the means to survive extended periods in the wilderness, after the food and water you packed have run out. If your wonderful hiking trip turns into a little more adventurous than you originally expected, or even starts reminding of some nightmare – this is what you must do. If, by the end of the day, or after hiking for pretty long time, you get lost and just suddenly don’t know at all where you’re at, there are some simple things you need to remember and do. The rules of three states that shelter is required within three hours of becoming stranded whereas, you can live for three days without water. Quick shelters can be constructed from tarps or rain ponchos without any tools by draping the material over several poles that are interlocked.  Find a fallen log and pile forest debris on one side leaving room for you lay down as a quick shelter . Water is a priority in any situation, and during the course of your daily life, you may not be aware of the various ways you hydrate yourself. Any water source you find in the wilderness must be filtered and purified before it is considered safe to drink. Filtering is important because debris and sediments in the water will make boiling and chemical purification less effective.
Filter the water from the container used to collect water into a clean container for purification. Logically if you knew your way, you would not be lost in the first place, and thus logic can tell you that by wandering around you can make it more difficult for rescue personnel to find you.
But on the other hand, it’s not a good idea either to let yourself get too inactive and just remain where you are for long time and get little by little more scared and mentally frozen.
Think of the situation; if it’s yet daylight and you have some time before it gets dark, you can take action and start moving strategically. Even if you have a good flashlight and extra batteries, don’t start aimlessly wandering in the dark forest.  Safe the batteries rather than use them all now in one night. Thrashing and stumbling through the brush in a panic will cause injury, burn up precious energy and you will become dehydrated more quickly. If you decide to leave or feel you have to self-rescue, leave markers along the way for rescue personnel. As difficult as it is once you realize you are lost, you must stop all what you’re doing for a while, and calmly and clearly evaluate the situation. Blundering through the woods will cause injuries and you will use up valuable energy and water.
You will need the energy from what food you do have, to hike out of the wilderness, so save your food until you are ready to begin hiking. Your body loses fluids by breathing, which is more evident in colder climates, when you can literally see the fluids (your breath) evaporating from your body. It cannot be stressed enough you must stop and assess your situation before it gets to dark to make camp. Unless your life is in immediate danger, from being pursued, you should never attempt to hike through the woods at night because the hazards are simply too great.
The dangers of trying to make your way out at night include possible encounters with active nocturnal predators including dangerous reptiles.
To help make it easier for rescue personnel to find you, leave markers by hanging cloth from tree branches or forming arrows on the ground, with sticks or stones pointing in the direction of travel.
Thirdly, you must have energy to make the hike out so if your food supply is limited, save eating. Deciding which way to follow the tracks or power lines is based on your own instincts keeping in mind the tracks came from somewhere and are headed somewhere else, and this generally applies to overhead power lines as well.
Pick a tree or large rock to walk to, and once there focus on another prominent landmark, walk toward it, and so on.
You can also use the sun to stay on course, by knowing the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
Take breaks and sip your water, and always top off your water supply when you have the chance. If rescue personnel realize from tracking you, that you are moving in a straight line they will attempt to predict your course and determine where you might be at a certain time.
Self-guessing yourself is not helpful so maintain the state of mind that you will be found or you will find civilization.
You can walk your way out of the wilderness and depending on the terrain, your physical capabilities and other factors it may take several days. Training, knowledge and confidence in yourself will quell panic allowing you to go about the business of finding your way home. If you love the idea of hiking in the wilderness, remember also to practice your bush craft such as shelter building, water collection, purification and fire starting so you will know what to do when the time comes. Getting stranded in the wilderness can be dangerous when you take into account all of the factors that stand against you, like wild animals, lack of shelter, poisonous plants and limited food and water supplies. You could survive for up to three weeks without food, but remember that food supplies energy to the body, and you will need all of your energy if you are traveling during the day. If traveling during daylight hours, you will need rest, otherwise you might find yourself suffering from exhaustion. It is important to understand basic survival skills, even if you aren't planning to take a hike into the wilderness. Water: Spend time learning about the different ways you can find and purify water for drinking and cooking with.
Weather: It's important to know about weather patterns, as you don't want to be caught unaware when a storm rolls in. Navigation: Even if you don't know much about the area you are stranded in, learning how to navigate and read a compass will keep you from wandering in circles. Communication: Regardless of the technology you carry with you, cell phone batteries will only last for so long. There are a number of safety precautions you will want to employ while you are in the wilderness to ensure your continued health and well-being. Do not leave uneaten food or garbage in your camp area as it will attract unwanted animal attention from predators and hungry wildlife. You never know when an emergency will leave you stranded in the wilderness, and that is why it is essential to spend time now preparing and learning the basics.
Please remember that using others' images on the web without their permission is not very nice. His first words when reunited with his parents Kynan and Kimberley were a€?Happy Fathera€™s Daya€™. Grayson was among a party of 15 who had set out on a hike through the one million acre Ashley National Forest in northern Utah.The group had planned to walk four miles to Daggett Lake, setA  up camp for aA  long weekend.
Grayson went missing on Saturday evening after wandering off on his own.Search and rescue teams on foot, horses and mules fanned outA  to look for Grayson overnight. It's vital in any survival situation to make use of anything you find or already have with you. If you have a poncho or any kind of plastic sheeting, you can build several different types of shelters. If you have enough material and want to suspend yourself from the ground, you can create a cot.
The one thing that sets the show apart from any other is that the host and star is all alone.
A few weeks ago, a group of expert skiers got caught in an avalanche out-of-bounds at Stevens Pass in Washington.
A: Can you describe, minute by minute, what you saw and heard during the Stevens Pass avalanche? With regard to myself, I noticed the avalanche coming from the trees above, and within probably two seconds I found myself getting caught.
A: Jeremy Jones told me that he considers an airbag the first thing he takes with him into the backcountry.
ES: I do agree with Jeremy, I would not enter the side or backcountry without an ABS airbag, along with my transceiver, shovel and probe. An avalanche is definitely one of the most destructive forces of nature that is scary and beautiful at the same time. When you board a ship or aircraft, find out what survival equipment is on board, where it is stowed, and what it contains. If you are responsible for other personnel on board, make sure you know where they are and they know where you are. If you are in an aircraft that goes down at sea, take the following actions once you clear the aircraft. Get clear and upwind of the aircraft as soon as possible, but stay in the vicinity until the aircraft sinks. A search for survivors usually takes place around the entire area of and near the crash site. The best technique for rescuing personnel from the water is to throw them a life preserver attached to a line.
When the rescuer approaches a survivor in trouble from behind, there is little danger the survivor will kick, scratch, or grab him.
Before surfacing to breathe and while still underwater, use your hands to push burning fluid away from the area where you wish to surface. If you are in oil-covered water that is free of fire, hold your head high to keep the oil out of your eyes.
Throw out the sea anchor, or improvise a drag from the raft’s case, bailing bucket, or a roll of clothing.
Calmly consider all aspects of your situation and determine what you and your companions must do to survive.
Assign a duty position to each person: for example, water collector, food collector, lookout, radio operator, signaler, and water bailers.
Your best protection against the effects of cold water is to get into the life raft, stay dry, and insulate your body from the cold surface of the bottom of the raft. Note: Before boarding any raft, remove and tether (attach) your life preserver to yourself or the raft.
You can travel more effectively by inflating or deflating the raft to take advantage of the wind or current. If you have an arm injury, the best way to board is by turning your back to the small end of the raft, pushing the raft under your buttocks, and lying back.
In rough seas, it may be easier for you to grasp the small end of the raft and, in a prone position, to kick and pull yourself into the raft. Immediately tighten the equalizer clamp upon entering the raft to prevent deflating the entire raft in case of a puncture (Figure 16-18). In a multiplace (except 20- to 25-man) raft, erect a square sail in the bow using the oars and their extensions as the mast and crossbar (Figure 16-19).
When you have a limited water supply and you can’t replace it by chemical or mechanical means, use the water efficiently. To reduce your loss of water through perspiration, soak your clothes in the sea and wring them out before putting them on again. When desalting kits are available in addition to solar stills, use them only for immediate water needs or during long overcast periods when you cannot use solar stills.
When fishing, do not handle the fishing line with bare hands and never wrap it around your hands or tie it to a life raft.
Never eat fish that have pale, shiny gills, sunken eyes, flabby skin and flesh, or an unpleasant odor.


At sea, you may become seasick, get saltwater sores, or face some of the same medical problems that occur on land, such as dehydration or sunburn. Note: Some survivors have said that erecting a canopy or using the horizon as a focal point helped overcome seasickness. If flame, smoke, or other contaminants get in the eyes, flush them immediately with salt water, then with fresh water, if available. Whether you are in the water or in a boat or raft, you may see many types of sea life around you. If a shark attack is imminent while you are in the water, splash and yell just enough to keep the shark at bay. When you are in a raft and a shark attack is imminent, hit the shark with anything you have, except your hands. A fixed cumulus cloud in a clear sky or in a sky where all other clouds are moving often hovers over or slightly downwind from an island. In the tropics, the reflection of sunlight from shallow lagoons or shelves of coral reefs often causes a greenish tint in the sky. In the arctic, light-colored reflections on clouds often indicate ice fields or snow-covered land.
Mirages occur at any latitude, but they are more likely in the tropics, especially during the middle of the day.
You may be able to detect land by the pattern of the waves (refracted) as they approach land (Figure 16-20).
The surf may be irregular and velocity may vary, so modify your procedure as conditions demand. Against a strong wind and heavy surf, the raft must have all possible speed to pass rapidly through the oncoming crest to avoid being turned broadside or thrown end over end. If in a medium surf with no wind or offshore wind, keep the raft from passing over a wave so rapidly that it drops suddenly after topping the crest. If rafting ashore is not possible and you have to swim, wear your shoes and at least one thickness of clothing.
If you must land on a rocky shore, look for a place where the waves rush up onto the rocks. On sighting rescue craft approaching for pickup (boat, ship, conventional aircraft, or helicopter), quickly clear any lines (fishing lines, desalting kit lines) or other gear that could cause entanglement during rescue. If you’re planning to go camping in a freezing winter forest, your priorities are of course going to be different from those of other environments. The weather’s not too hot, but at its best can be fresh and nicely warm and ideal for hiking and walking. You decide to go hiking to some beautiful mountainous wilderness forests by yourself, or with your loved one or a friend. No there’s not – that’s one of the most romantic and exciting experiences you two can share. Injuries, unexpected weather events, encounters with wild animals or simply disorientation can leave anyone lost or stranded. Some had already succumbed to dehydration and hypothermia before rescue personnel could find them cause they had nothing with them other than light equipment. Or you can be all grown up too, any age, and still feel over-safe when going to wilderness.
He ended up lost and could finally get back after midnight more than 12 hrs later, little bit after the police was called.
And even if you were in an area that is covered by the network, there MAY be shade areas where you can’t use your cell phone. This way someone knows where you’ve gone – and if they don’t start hearing from you, they can inform the rescuers where you’ve gone. You will of course pack food supplies for overnight camping and typically will have easy to eat foods for hiking such as protein bars, trail mix and so forth. If you have a shovel or you can use a rock, blunt stick, to scoop out some dirt next to the log to provide more space and you can use the excavated soil for more protection from the elements. In frigid climates without proper clothing, you can develop life threatening hypothermia in less than an hour if you cannot find or construct adequate shelter. Juice, coffee, sports drinks, tea and even foods can add to the body’s required daily fluid intake. The container used to collect the contaminated water will have contaminates around the drink line and it can be hazardous to drink from the container until it has been properly disinfected.
You can survive up to three weeks without food and it is very likely you will be rescued before starvation.
Follow any stream or river down-stream or if you are in a coastal area try and find the ocean.
Your heart begins to race and every tree and turn of the trail looks familiar yet when you run to the next turn or familiar looking tree you see emptiness ahead. You MUST be able to think clearly and calmly, that’s the number one thing in finding your way out. Heavy breathing from stress or exertion will increase fluid loss as well as perspiring, urination, and digesting high protein foods. You can also walk off the edge of a cliff or gorge in the dark, fall into a hole, collide with, or trip over any number of things and break a bone.
Now is also the ideal time to collect and purify more drinking water for the hike out beginning in the morning. Forest rangers in some areas scan continually for forest fires by looking for smoke and flame. The most important thing is the water, so if your own water bottles are getting empty, you will need to find a source for water, then filter and boil it and use it as drinking water.
Many towns and cities got their start near rivers and large bodies of water because of the need for water, power for mills and commerce from shipping. Once the sun has reached its zenith, keep it on one shoulder to stay on course and as it lowers, keep the setting sun ahead of you.
If you are following a watercourse, railroad tracks or power lines you will come to a town or highway eventually.
However, it can be done and has been done by hundreds if not thousands of campers, hunters, nature enthusiast and campers.
Find two long, sturdy branches and roll them into the material on each side like a long scroll, leaving about a foot of wood exposed at each end. In the crash scenarios, he might have the wreckage from a small boat, airplane or raft to use. When I competed on the 2010 Freeride World Tour, they gave all the competitors airbag backpacks to use, and I haven’t used anything but an airbag backpack since. That being said, I think the Stevens Pass incident has received enough media attention that people are now aware of the necessity of riding with them and all the shops that are carrying them have been selling out the past few weeks. The only thing we can do is use our knowledge, best judgment, and tools to help us to mitigate the dangers. If I were to stop skiing the friends that I lost would be not be honored, and they would be telling me that I need to keep skiing pow for all of them. Another is to send a swimmer (rescuer) from the raft with a line attached to a flotation device that will support the rescuer’s weight. The rescuer swims to a point directly behind the survivor and grasps the life preserver’s backstrap. Use all available visual or electronic signaling devices to signal and make contact with rescuers. Make sure the main buoyancy chambers are firm (well rounded) but not overly tight (Figure 16-4). A sea anchor helps you stay close to your ditching site, making it easier for searchers to find you if you have relayed your location. Record the navigator’s last fix, the time of ditching, the names and physical condition of personnel, and the ration schedule.
When you are immersed in cold water, hypothermia occurs rapidly due to the decreased insulating quality of wet clothing and the result of water displacing the layer of still air that normally surrounds the body.
If these actions are not possible, wearing an antiexposure suit will extend your life expectancy considerably. Ensure there are no other metallic or sharp objects on your clothing or equipment that could damage the raft. If the CO2 bottle should malfunction or if the raft develops a leak, you can inflate it by mouth. You can use the spray shield as a sail white the ballast buckets serve to increase drag in the water.
Another way to board the raft is to push down on its small end until one knee is inside and lie forward (Figure 16-10). If you don’t have help, again work from the bottle side with the wind at your back to help hold down the raft.
Approach the intersection of the raft and ramp, grasp the upper boarding handle, and swing one leg onto the center of the ramp, as in mounting a horse (Figure 16-17).
If your water ration is two liters or more per day, eat any part of your ration or any additional food that you may catch, such as birds, fish, shrimp. Use as many stills as possible, depending on the number of men in the raft and the amount of sunlight available. In any event, keep desalting kits and emergency water stores for periods when you cannot use solar stills or catch rainwater. There are some poisonous and dangerous ocean fish, but, in general, when out of sight of land, fish are safe to eat. The salt that adheres to it can make it a sharp cutting edge, an edge dangerous both to the raft and your hands. Shark meat spoils very rapidly due to the high concentration of urea in the blood, therefore, bleed it immediately and soak it in several changes of water. No survivor at sea should be without fishing equipment but if you are, improvise hooks as shown in Chapter 8. This spear can help you catch larger fish, but you must get them into the raft quickly or they will slip off the blade. Dry your fishing lines, clean and sharpen the hooks, and do not allow the hooks to stick into the fishing lines. If the birds do not land close enough or land on the other end of the raft, you may be able to catch them with a bird noose. If the patient is unable to take the pills orally, insert them rectally for absorption by the body. Others have said that swimming alongside the raft for short periods helped, but extreme care must be taken if swimming.
The most dangerous are the great white shark, the hammerhead, the mako, and the tiger shark. Their normal diet is live animals of any type, and they will strike at injured or helpless animals.
The jaws of some of the larger sharks are so far forward that they can bite floating objects easily without twisting to the side. Most reported shark contacts and attacks were during daylight, and many of these have been in the late afternoon.
The direction from which flocks fly at dawn and to which they fly at dusk may indicate the direction of land. A good method of getting through the surf is to have half the men sit on one side of the raft, half on the other, facing away from each other. If you have reason to believe that people live on the shore, lay away from the beach, signal, and wait for the inhabitants to come out and bring you in. Face toward shore and take a sitting position with your feet in front, 60 to 90 centimeters (2 or 3 feet) lower than your head. Keep your feet close together and your knees slightly bent in a relaxed sitting posture to cushion the blows against the coral.
In an area where temperatures are below freezing, your primary goal is to keep warm because one of the greatest risks is hypothermia.
Before you know the sun has set and it’s dark and there you are in some mountainous forest area and have no idea where you are.
So, first, I walked along one larger road, and then went to a smaller road and walked there for some time, and finally went to the snowy forest after walking on the road for some time.
Luckily though in today’s world a person usually can be tracked down based on the cellphone signal in a case of emergency, even if it was just a weak signal. Knowledge and skill will quell panic, so it is important you become familiar with all your survival tools and materials.
Once again, your survival kit is in addition to any food or water supplies you would traditionally carry.
This is true to some extent but in the hours leading up to dehydration, the body’s functions are limited. Use an empty can with a hole in the bottom as a filtering device or use a two-liter plastic soda bottle with the top half cut off.
Instead maintain your head and mind clear, calm down, and start thinking calmly and clearly which of the two options RIGHT NOW in that moment is the best. Look for railroad tracks and power lines and follow in whatever direction your instinct tells you. Your ability to think will be as important in saving your life, as any tools or materials you have in your pack. You do not know if you will find any water sources on your hike, so when you have the opportunity, always top off your water supply using approved collection and purification methods.
The warmer the weather, the more you’re gonna need water, even if it’s pretty mild fall weather . Use this method if you are not walking along railroad tracks or moving downstream alongside a river or stream.
You will burn too much energy and increase your risk of dehydration and injuries such as a twisted or broken ankle. A bit of discarded climbing rope, some ripped plastic sheeting or even an old hiking boot can be of great use in the woods.
For a basic shade shelter, all you need to do is spread the material out so you can get under it.
If you have rope but no tree to tie into, tie it around a medium sized rock and bury it 6 to 8 inches into the ground.
For seven days, Stroud hauls his camera equipment around and documents his journey in the first person. Freeskier Elyse Saugstad survived the slide thanks to her airbag backpack, a product which is now flying off the shelves at outdoor sporting goods stores. Checking the avalanche forecast and understanding the terrain and snowpack you are going to ski is imperative. To keep these environmental hazards from becoming serious problems, take precautionary measures as soon as possible.


Satisfying these three basic needs will help prevent serious physical and psychological problems. Relax; a person who knows how to relax in ocean water is in very little danger of drowning.
By controlling your breathing in and out, your face will always be out of the water and you may even sleep in this position for short periods.
It is probably the best stroke for long-range swimming: it allows you to conserve your energy and maintain a reasonable speed. For example, raise a flag or reflecting material on an oar as high as possible to attract attention. However, if your situation is desperate, you may have to signal the enemy for rescue if you are to survive.
Without a sea anchor, your raft may drift over 160 kilometers in a day, making it much harder to find you. Also record the winds, weather, direction of swells, times of sunrise and sunset, and other navigational data. The rate of heat exchange in water is about 25 times greater than it is in air of the same temperature. Remember, keep your head and neck out of the water and well insulated from the cold water’s effects when the temperature is below 19 degrees C. Army and Air Force inventories can satisfy the needs for personal protection, mode of travel, and evasion and camouflage. The raft’s insulated bottom limits the conduction of cold thereby protecting you from hypothermia (Figure 16-8). You can further modify these rafts for evasion by partially deflating them to obtain a lower profile. Some may be automatically deployed from the cock-pit, while others may need manual deployment.
You can successfully sail multiplace (except 20- to 25-man) rafts 10 degrees off from the direction of the wind.
If the raft has no regular mast socket and step, erect the mast by tying it securely to the front cross seat using braces. Have the passengers sit low in the raft, with their weight distributed to hold the upwind side down. Keep your body well shaded, both from overhead sun and from reflection off the sea surface. If you are so short of water that you need to do this, then do not drink any of the other body fluids.
If the sea is rough, tie yourself to the raft, close any cover, and ride out the storm as best you can. Wear gloves, if they are available, or use a cloth to handle fish and to avoid injury from sharp fins and gill covers.
Unravel the threads and tie them together in short lengths in groups of three or more threads. Other sharks known to attack man include the gray, blue, lemon, sand, nurse, bull, and oceanic white tip sharks. If you hit the shark on the nose, you may injure your hand if it glances off and hits its teeth.
During the day, birds are searching for food and the direction of flight has no significance. A mirage disappears or its appearance and elevation change when viewed from slightly different heights. When a heavy sea bears down, half should row (pull) toward the sea until the crest passes; then the other half should row (pull) toward the shore until the next heavy sea comes along. This position will let your feet absorb the shock when you land or strike sub-merged boulders or reefs. Do not swim through the seaweed; crawl over the top by grasping the vegetation with overhand movements.
Your vision becomes blurred and you will develop severe headaches, possibly even hallucinations.
Water therefore, must boil longer at lower temperatures to destroy all waterborne contaminates. Add five drops of iodine to the container, seal, shake well and allow 30 minutes before drinking.
Travel in one direction as the terrain allows, and be mindful that most people will walk in circles if they cannot focus visually on a landmark. Proceed aboard slowly, but your body weight should pull it tight as long as it's wrapped with enough material. We discussed what we were going to ski (the safest route down), how we were going to ski it, and initiated a buddy-system. Once again I just tried to remain calm knowing that eventually someone would get to me, which took about ten minutes.
Everyone must have all the necessary proper equipment such as a transceiver, shovel, probe, and what will most likely be added to that list, an airbag backpack. Use the available resources to protect yourself from the elements and from heat or extreme cold and humidity.
The least acceptable technique is to send an attached swimmer without flotation devices to retrieve a survivor. The body’s natural buoyancy will keep at least the top of the head above water, but some movement is needed to keep the face above water. Air expands with heat; therefore, on hot days, release some air and add air when the weather cools.
You can adjust the sea anchor to act as a drag to slow down the rate of travel with the current, or as a means to travel with the current.
Wearing life preservers increases the predicted survival time as body position in the water increases the chance of survival. The raft may hit the water upside down, but you can right it by approaching the side to which the bottle is attached and flipping the raft over. Then grasp an oarlock and boarding handle, kick your legs to get your body prone on the water, and then kick and pull yourself into the raft. Pad the bottom of the mast to prevent it from chafing or punching a hole through the floor, whether or not there is a socket. To prevent falling out, they should also avoid sitting on the sides of the raft or standing up. Normally, a small amount of seawater mixed with rain will hardly be noticeable and will not cause any physical reaction. These other fluids are rich in protein and fat and will use up more of your reserve water in digestion than they supply. There are some fish, such as the red snapper and barracuda, that are normally edible but poisonous when taken from the waters of atolls and reefs. Do not confuse eels with sea snakes that have an obviously scaly body and strongly compressed, paddle-shaped tail. Consider them all edible except the Greenland shark whose flesh contains high quantities of vitamin A. If the glare from the sky and water causes your eyes to become bloodshot and inflamed, bandage them lightly.
Other animals such as whales, porpoises, and stingrays may look dangerous, but really pose little threat in the open sea. If you must defecate, do so in small amounts and throw it as far away from you as possible. The continued cries of seabirds coming from one direction indicate their roosting place on nearby land. If caught in the undertow of a large wave, push off the bottom or swim to the surface and proceed toward shore as above. But then  I got caught in the snow as there was snow almost till my waist, I remember that clearly. That is why it is extremely important you know how to collect and purify any water source if you become stranded.
In other word if you cannot find a water source and or do not have the means to collect or purify that water you will not physically be able to build a shelter and forage for food.
Pour the contaminated water from the vessel used to collect the water and allow it to filter into a clean canteen for chemical purification or a container to boil the water. If the water is cloudy even after filtration, you can double the drops and wait an additional 30 minutes.
You can fashion a tent shelter by running rope down the center of the poncho between two trees, then staking the sides into the ground with sharp sticks to create an A-frame. Just get a 6-inch stick and attach it to the line a few inches from where it meets the material.
The aspect of the slope we were going to ski was at an avalanche rating of considerable—which on a scale of one to five, it’s a three. I was tossed all around over and over, not really sure which way was up or down half the time.
After the first person got to me and unburied me the others in our party started to arrive to the scene and we began to find the other buried victims.
It must be noted though that an ABS backpack is for when everything goes wrong, rather than being an enabler to ditch common sense and forego avalanche safety. If you cannot float on your back or if the sea is too rough, float facedown in the water as shown in Figure 16-2. Be sure a passing ship or aircraft is friendly or neutral be-fore trying to attract its attention. There are two variations of the one-man raft; the improved model incorporates an inflatable spray shield and floor that provide additional insulation.
If you are weak or injured, you may partially deflate the raft to make boarding easier (Figure 16-14). If you decide to sail and the wind is blowing toward a desired destination, fully inflate the raft, sit high, take in the sea anchor, rig a sail, and use an oar as a rudder. Both eels and sea snakes are edible, but you must handle the latter with care because of their poisonous bites. Sharks in the tropical and subtropical seas are far more aggressive than those in temperate waters.
Use the oars or paddles and constantly adjust the sea anchor to keep a strain on the anchor line. To increase your odds of survival in the wild, as well as making it easier for rescuers to locate you, here are some tips: 1. Subsequently, you must compromise by constructing a field expedient shelter to meet your immediate needs.
Another simple lean-to shelter can be made by tying two opposite corners of the poncho to trees. After four of us skied the first section of our route to a safe zone in old growth trees, the 5th skier set off a slide on top of us. One was no more than 3 feet to my left, several feet down, and another about 30 feet above me, about 5 feet down. Also, when entering side-country there can be a false sense of security, one must not become complacent just because you’re next to a resort.
If the enemy detects you and you are close to capture, destroy the log book, radio, navigation equipment, maps, signaling equipment, and firearms. Follow the steps outlined in the note under raft procedures above when boarding the raft (Figure 16-9).
The spray shield helps keep you dry and warm in cold oceans and protects you from the sun in the hot climates (Figure 16-11). When the sea anchor is not in use, tie it to the raft and stow it in such a manner that it will hold immediately if the raft capsizes.
The struggles of a wounded animal or swimmer, underwater explosions, or even a fish struggling on a fishline will attract a shark. These actions will keep the raft pointed toward shore and prevent the sea from throwing the stern around and capsizing you.
Remain in the raft, unless otherwise instructed, and remove all equipment except the preservers.
The other end slants diagonally to the ground and can be secured with stick stakes or heavy rocks. That skier and 3 of us were caught, while the 5th skier was able to situate himself between 2 tree trunks and hold on so he was not swept in.
The avalanche sped up and slowed down at times, but probably lasted about 45 seconds in all.
When closed, it forms a pocket for the current to strike and propels the raft in the current’s direction.
Hold the lines attached to the comers with your hands so that a gust of wind will not rip the sail, break the mast, or capsize the raft. Fix your daily water ration after considering the amount of water you have, the output of solar stills and desalting kit, and the number and physical condition of your party. Use a heavy piece of wood as the main shaft, and lash three smaller pieces to the shaft as grapples. When using bait, try to keep it moving in the water to give it the appearance of being alive. Winter forests can be very scary, so you need to know what kinds of flora and fauna thrive in the area. The avalanche was approximately 2700′ in length, 32 inches deep at the crown, and propagated 200 feet wide.
That gives you a lot of time to think, and even though I had some bad ideas of what may fate could be I ultimately tried to remain calm as to not waste energy or breath. Also edible are the partly digested smaller fish that you may find in the stomachs of large fish. In the video, the forest is dotted with spruce trees, which can be a good source of fire and warm shelter. It was a nasty avalanche as we were swept through heavily treed terrain and into a tight creek bed that finally spewed us out at the bottom. Either signal ashore for help or sail around and look for a sloping beach where the surf is gentle.



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