The earths magnetic field has a strength of about 0.5 gauss,how to make a bin cage youtube wiki,national geographic jigsaw puzzle your shot - Step 3

Human beings have no doubt adapted to a certain strength of the earth’s magnetic field.
Research carried out by NASA has demonstrated that astronauts who are cut off from the earth’s magnetic field develop significant health problems which can be prevented by providing an artificial magnetic field within the space capsule(1,2). The effects of the North pole (negative) and South pole (positive) magnetism are quite different. The fact that our bodies consist mainly of water and that all our bodily processes are heavily dependent on water has lead to research into the possibility of using magnetized water to promote health and treat disease. For those of us who associate magnetism with intricate patterns of iron filings between the poles of a magnet the idea that water can be magnetized sounds pretty far out.
Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina recently reported that cleaning the teeth with water from a magnetized irrigator can reduce calculus formation by over 60 per cent and improve overall gum health(16). Israeli agricultural researchers found that the use of magnetized water increased farm yields by anywhere from 5 to 20 per cent. Fortunately, recent research has shown that it is possible to regenerate water to its original healthy state by magnetizing it.
Water can be re-magnetized by passing it through pipes which have permanent or electromagnets attached to them or by leaving water on top of a magnet overnight. A very recent development in magnetic water treatment involves the use of paramagnetic soil.
Anecdotal evidence of health benefits are emerging and inexpensive treatment equipment is being developed. Magnetized water is truly emerging as one of the most exciting developments in the ongoing battle to protect our health. This entry was posted in Optimised H20, Recent Posts and tagged Hans Larson, magnetic deficiency, magnetic field therapy, magnetized water, optimised water.
The information on this site is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. AFFILIATE STATUS DISCLOSURE : You should assume that the website owner is an affiliate for providers of goods and services mentioned on this website and may be compensated when you purchase. Convection currents flowing in the Earth's molten outer core due to ongoing radioactive decay generate a magnetic field. The Eartha€™s magnetic field showing field direction at both poles and either side of the magnetic equator. This lesson gives some information on Earth's magnetic field: the physics of how it is produced and its geologic history.
A more detailed look at the motion of P-waves, showing the paths of many waves emanating from a specific focus (at the top), the travel times (tick marks on the wave paths represent one minute intervals), and the shadow zone formed by the core of the Earth. Temperatures inside the Earth (in red) inferred from comparison of laboratory studies with seismic results, schematic representation (in black) of typical melting temperatures, and (in blue) schematic representation of temperatures of rising plumes of hot mantle material. The internal pressures in a uniform planetNear the surface (on the right) the weight compressing the interior rapidly increases as you go down; but near the center (on the left) the weight hardly changes, because as you near the center the weight of the materials drops to nearly zero (even though their mass is the same as if they were at the surface of the planet). MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a powerful medical diagnostic technique which uses magnetic fields to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissues. North polarity stabilizes, calms and sedates and also reduces pain, infection and inflammation. However, there is ample evidence that magnetizing water either with permanent magnets or with electromagnets actuallly has a profound effect.
Researchers at the University of Cranfield in the UK recently discovered that they could reduce the amount of chlorine needed to kill bacteria in a pool by 30 percent by clamping magnets on the water supply line.
Cows drinking magnetized water produced more milk and were healthier than cows drinking untreated water. The magnets must be carefully designed to match the water’s flow rate and should always be placed as close as possible to the outlet after other treatment units and filters. Paramagnetic soil comes from volcanic rock which was permanently imprinted with the earth’s magnetic field just before it solidified. However, agricultural experiments have clearly shown that both the paramagnetic soil itself (used as a fertilizer) and irrigation with paramagnetically treated water increase yields and plant vigour significantly(23).
A concerted effort is also being undertaken to develop reliable methods of actually measuring the effects of treating water either with magnets or paramagnetic soil.
The poles of this magnetic field do not coincide with true North and South poles that coincide with the axis of rotation of the Earth. The budget amount specifies the cost of one set of equipment; copies for many students may cost more.
1: Gilbert's sketch of the alignment of bar magnets at various latitudes on the earth, as reproduced at Wikisource. 2: History of the north magnetic pole location as provided by Tentotwo at Wikimedia Commons. 3: History of magnetic field reversals during the last 5 million years, as determined from geologic records. Gilbert's De Magnete can be read here in English translation courtesy of the folks at Project Gutenburg. The model of the self-sustaining magnetic field begs an obvious question: how did it originate in the first place? In particular, the discussions of how we know what is going on inside the various Terrestrial planets is as accurate as ever, so this page should be a useful supplement to the material presented in any introductory textbook.
As shown in the diagram below the Earth's interior consists of several layers: the crust, a relatively thin region of low-density silicates, the mantle, a thick region of higher-density iron-rich silicates, and the core, a central region of iron mixed with various impurities. Note that the P waves always move faster, as previously stated, that the velocities generally increase as you go downward, rapidly near the surface and more slowly in other regions, and that there is a nearly 50% drop in the velocity of P waves (and S wave velocities are not shown at all) in the region labeled as the Outer Core. By studying how the waves arrive at seismographs scattered around the Earth -- when they arrive, what direction they appear to be coming from, and what intensity (strength) they have (as shown in the image below). Where the change in velocity is slow the waves bend smoothly; where it is sudden, the waves bend more sharply. Waves that should pass through the shadow zone are refracted and concentrated by the core, producing greater intensity in the region opposite the earthquake than would otherwise occur. Additional information (to be covered in the next iteration of this page) can be obtained from laboratory studies of the behavior of rocks exposed to various pressures and temperatures, and comparisons of those results with seismic studies, from the composition of melt-rock (lava) at various places, and from circumstantial evidence about the structures of other Solar System objects, in the form of meteorites. Where melt-temperatures are lower than actual temperatures (in the outer core), the material is molten (liquid). Close to the surface the difference between actual and melting temperatures is very large (refer to the temperature diagram further above), and the increasing compression is the most significant factor in changing the wave velocity; but at depths of thirty to fifty miles the rapidly increasing temperature gets so close to the slowly increasing melt temperature that the bonds between the atoms, even though shorter than at lesser depths, are "softer" and the rocks, although remaining solid, become relatively "soft", or less stiff. As the short-lived radioactive materials present at that time decayed and disappeared (that is, were transformed into other materials), the heating that caused the Earth to melt also disappeared, and the Earth began to resolidify.
At great depth, because of the large weights compressing the material, only very dense structures could form (as will be discussed in more detail below). So although the uranium present in the mantle is probably concentrated near the surface of the planet, much (or even most) of the uranium in the Earth may be in the core. In the three or four hundred miles closest to the surface, however, there are two reasons for the increase in wave velocity. The reason for this is that as the weight of rocks compressing the rocks below increases as you go downward, not only can the atoms be pushed closer together, but they can be forced into completely different arrangements which are even denser and stiffer than the rocks above.
Below that depth, however, the materials are already in the densest possible form for materials of their overall composition, and regardless of how great a weight compresses them they will not change to still denser structures (or at least that is the conclusion drawn from laboratory experiments involving such materials). After all, we do not have any samples of most of them (we do have samples from the surface of the Moon, and meteorites give us samples of asteroids and in rare cases, of surface rocks from the Moon and Mars), we have no earthquake studies of any value save for the Earth and Moon, and we have no samples of rocks from the interior of any planet (although as will be seen below we do have partial information for Earth mantle rocks as a result of studies of lavas formed from partial melting of rising plumes).
Since they all have smaller masses, diameters and gravities than the Earth, the weight compressing various parts of their interior must be less than in similar parts of the Earth, and you would have to go downward a greater distance to get the changes that were discussed above. We can't be certain what Venus is like, but if somewhat similar to the Earth, it is unlikely that the size of the core differs (in comparison to the overall size of the planet) by more than a few percent, so most models of Venus have a core which is close to 55% of the size of the planet, and a mantle which is close to 45% of the size of the planet (albeit with lower densities throughout and a thicker upper mantle, compared to the Earth). They have much lower masses than either the Earth or Venus, much smaller sizes and much lower gravities. The nature of those materials has been a matter of controversy for the best part of a century and even now there is considerable uncertainty about some of the details, but we are virtually certain that the central (inner) core is a crystalline structure consisting of pure or nearly pure nickel-iron, similar to the iron meteorites which fall on the Earth from outer space. Most of this debris is light, fluffy stuff which is vaporized by the heat of its passage (at tens of thousands of miles per hour) through our atmosphere; but a small percentage consists of denser, tougher stuff which if in the right size range can reach the surface, and in a very small minority of cases be picked up and studied in detail.
There are, as already noted, a very small minority that are pieces blasted off the surface of the Moon or Mars, but although these are of great interest in other circumstances, they are of little importance at this point in our discussion. Most of the meteorites, however, have physical and chemical properties which imply that they were broken off of objects which at some point in their history melted and differentiated just as the Earth did, so that heavy materials sank to the center and lighter materials rose to the top. These dense metallic meteorites are made of interlocking crystalline structures (see Widmanstatten structures in your text) caused by melt-materials with greater or lesser percentages of nickel crystallizing out of the molten interior of the bodies they were derived from. If such a mixture is cooled on times short compared to a human lifetime, the crystalline structures still form, but are microscopic in size.
And the density of those cores would be much higher than that of the mantles, because the materials in the core are intrinsically about twice as dense as the rocky materials in the mantle, and with the entire weight of the planet compressing a core, its contents must be compressed in size and increased in density at least as much as the mantle.


The mantle of the Earth, despite being about 85% of its volume (100% minus the 15% corresponding to cubing the radius of the core), has a mass less than 70% of the mass of the Earth. And if we test nickel-iron mixtures, we find that at the pressures which must exist in the core of the Earth, they have just the right density (and other properties such as wave velocities) to explain the density and structure of the Earth.
As shown in the temperature diagram and in the wave-velocity diagram, the outer core of the Earth must be a liquid, or given the materials and temperatures involved, a molten material (molten meaning a liquid form of a normally solid material that requires very high temperatures to melt); and the molten outer core of the Earth cannot be made of exactly the same materials as the solid inner core, because the temperature of the Earth must be higher the further down you go (heat only goes from hot places to cold places, and since it comes from inside the Earth and escapes at the surface, the temperature of necessity must increase all the way down, regardless of any details that we wouldn't want to consider in an introductory discussion and although there is a lot covered here, so it may seem complicated, this is actually a very simple discussion compared to what a student majoring in astronomy, geology, planetary geology or geophysics would encounter). One possible reason is that the greater weight compressing the inner core might raise the melting temperature; but this is unlikely to be the case. And the easiest (and based on laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations, the best) way to explain this is if the inner core is a crystalline structure consisting of nearly pure nickel-iron, as for the iron meteorites, while the outer core is a mixture of similar materials with additional materials that depress the melting temperature in the same way that salt depresses the melting temperature of ice (pure ice melting at 32 Fahrenheit, and very salty ice melting at 0 Fahrenheit, so that at intermediate temperatures pure ice can exist as a solid floating in a salty mixture of water and other materials, as in polar seas). The much greater excess of density in the core, compared to the small deficit of density in the mantle, may be surprising, but keep in mind that the mantle has nearly six times the volume of the core, so that every 1% deficit in the mantle requires a more than 6% excess in the core.
Namely, Mercury's dense metallic core must be a much larger proportion of its volume and mass, and Mars' core must be a much smaller proportion of its volume and mass, than for the Earth. We cannot know, at present, the exact nature of the rocks in the mantle of either Mercury or Mars (or for that matter, Venus), and if they are significantly different from the rocks in our mantle, that might affect the mass deficit of the mantle to a significant extent, and change the size the core of the planet has to be to make things come out right.
However, the overall results discussed above are, within the uncertainties stated, still correct. For Venus the core must be similar to that of the Earth in comparison to its size, but for Mercury the core is relatively large in comparison to its size, and for Mars the core is either relatively small (as shown here), or made of lighter than usual materials (in particular, it appears that Mars' molten outer core may have considerably more sulfur than the Earth's). The earth’s magnetic field is declining steadily and has lost over 30 per cent of its strength over the last 2000 years. Treatment with pulsed electromagnets (pulsars) has been found highly effective in curing or alleviating conditions such as bone fractures, migraine headaches, insomnia and depression. South polarity, on the other hand, is acid producing, enervating, biologically disorganizing and may accelerate bacteria growth.
The first practical application of water magnetization occurred in the 1950′s when engineers discovered that magnetically treated water had a greatly reduced tendency to form scale when heated. Sheep produced more wool and meat, hens laid more eggs and all farm animals survived longer when drinking magnetized water(9,10,17).
There are reports of people resolving bladder problems, recovering quickly from a stroke, alleviating arthritis pain and reducing blood pressure by drinking magnetized water. During its passage through contaminated soil, miles of iron or plastic pipe, and treatment plants where it is exposed to toxic chemicals it loses its vitality. In stationary (overnight) magnetization it is important to ensure that only negatively polarized water or mixed negative and positive water is used. The units first use violent vortex mixing in a special chamber to eliminate the water’s memory of pollutants, chlorine, etc. Paramagnetic rock and soil are not ferromagnetic (does not attract iron filings) but their magnetic dipoles are aligned in such a way that the soil or rock is strongly attracted to a regular magnet.
There is some indication that the UV (ultraviolet) spectrum of water is changed by magnetization and Dr. The effectiveness of a magnetized water oral irrigator (Hydro Floss) on plaque, calculus and gingival health. The ultrasonic detection of structural changes in water after endogenous bioelectromagnetic field treatment.
Endogenous electromagnetic field influence on the free energy of hydrogen bond formation in water. It might be considered useful background for any activity having to do with magnetic compasses. By definition, the end of the compass that points towards the arctic is called a "north" pole, and the end that points towards antarctica is called a "south" pole. Dark regions indicate times when the magnetic field had the same orientation as today; light areas indicate times when the magnetic field was reversed.
Some scientists suggest that flowing metal in the earth's core might become electrically charged, perhaps through friction with other layers, thereby initiating an electric current.
For one thing, if the pressure was responsible for the change, then as you go downward the gradual increase of pressure would produce a gradual change from liquid, to a slushy mixture of liquid and solid, to solid material, which is not what is observed.
For Mercury in particular, this effect seems to be very large due to its unusually large core. Where melt-temperatures are higher than actual temperatures (everywhere else), the material is solid. We see the effects of this in some rocks found at the surface of the Earth in which grains of individual minerals are stretched out into linear structures.
Portions of the lower mantle rock are heated to the point where, although still solid, they can slowly flow in a "plastic" way toward the surface (this is discussed below, with respect to the asthenosphere). The crust cooled rapidly by radiating heat to space, forming a thin low-density slag similar to the highland crust of the Moon, made primarily of silica and aluminosilicates; the deeper regions below, unable to radiate heat directly to space, cooled more slowly and remained hot for a much longer period of time (in fact the core is still extremely hot, partly as a result of the 1800 miles of solid rock insulating it from space, and partly because of heavy radioactive materials such as uranium which were dragged into the core as the heavy material sank to the center of the Earth).
Large atoms of uranium can't fit into dense structures unless in a nearly pure form (although pure uranium metal is nearly twenty times denser than water, most uranium ores are much lighter, and nearly pure carnotite, or uranium oxide, is only about the same density as rocks in the upper mantle, which are mostly less than five times the density of water), and even if they could fit into such structures the heat released by radioactive decay would soon melt them again, since when the mantle began to solidify temperatures were still very close to melt temperatures. The first, which operates throughout the body of the Earth, is the increasing compression of the material, resulting in shorter, stiffer atomic bonds which promote faster exchange of wave impulses from one atom to the next.
This is analogous to the difference between graphite, a pure carbon compound formed at low pressures which has large inter-atom distances (particularly in some directions) and is relatively low in density; and diamond, a pure carbon compound formed at high pressures which has small inter-atom distances and is relatively high in density. In the top 400 miles, with two separate factors at work, the density, wave velocity and melting temperatures of the mantle rocks rapidly increase, but below that, with no further structural changes, the rapid increase slows (as shown in the diagrams above). For Venus, with only 90% of the Earth's gravity, instead of having changes from olivine to spinel at 250 miles depth and from spinel to perovskite at 400 miles depth, such changes would occur at 275 miles and 440 miles depth.
Taking everything we know about the Earth's structure into account and compensating for the 10% lower surface gravity, the 20% lower central pressure (if you'd like to see how we know that number, refer to Internal Pressures of the Planets), the 5% smaller diameter and 20% lower mass, Venus should have a density of 95% of the density of the Earth, if save for differences caused by compressional forces they have identical structures. When, at some distant time in the future, we have detailed studies of the internal structure of Venus we may find that these numbers are slightly "off", but any large discrepancy is considered very unlikely. Different calculations (again, refer to the Internal Pressures of the Planets for more details) give different results, but we would expect overall densities in the range of 80 to 85% the density of the Earth for Mars and a little less than that for Mercury, if they are smaller versions of the Earth. These objects are called meteorites (the -ite ending meaning a rock, and the meteor- prefix meaning that it fell out of the sky).
It is the asteroidal pieces that tell us the most about the inside of the Earth and other "Terrestrial" objects, which includes, as it turns out, at least a large subset of the asteroids which are the parent bodies of the meteorites which were broken off of other objects. The vast majority (about 90%) of these "differentiated" meteorites consist of rocky materials very similar to those believed to exist in the uppermost part of the Earth's mantle (the olivine rich portion), suggesting that they came from objects that developed a rocky mantle like the Earth, but like Mars and Mercury were so small that they did not develop the denser mineral structures found at greater depths inside the Earth. Most of the material is iron (close to 90%), but variations in the nickel content cause differences in the reaction of the crystals to etching by acids, which make the interlocking structures stand out when properly treated. The structures observed in iron meteorites are easily visible to the eye, and require cooling over very long periods of time, probably in excess of a million years; and the only way we can imagine this happening is if a fairly large body (hundreds of miles in diameter) melted, allowing heavy stuff to sink to the middle and light stuff to float to the top, then cooled and solidified.
The deficit of mass must be made up by the core, which despite being only 15% of the volume, must have more than 30% of the Earth's mass -- and as a result, twice as much mass as Mars and Mercury put together.
The most likely candidates for the impurities that depress the melting temperature are silicon and oxygen, because those are the basic building blocks out of which the silicate materials in the mantle are formed, and lesser amounts of other materials. As they approach the surface, the rocks cool, because at their (very slow) upward rate of motion it takes a long time for them to cover the 1800 miles from the lower mantle to the surface; but they always remain close to their melt temperatures (in the temperature graph at the top of this page, the black line represents an estimate of melt temperatures at various depths, and the blue line represents an estimate of rising plume temperatures), so when they reach the region near the Mohorovicic Discontinuity where the difference between normal and melt temperatures is small, the rising rocks are even closer to melt temperature, and lower-melting-temperature minerals within the rising plumes often do melt, and force their way to the surface. Whereas the Earth has a core which is 55% of its overall radius and Venus must have a core fairly close to that (certainly no less than 50% or more than 60% of the overall radius), Mars may well have a core less than a third the size of the planet, and Mercury's core is probably 70 to 80% of the size of the planet. For Mars the chances that the mantle rocks are significantly different from those in the asteroids (the source of the stony meteorties) or the Earth are relatively small; but for Mercury, we might well find (when we can finally find out anything about the structure of Mercury from direct observation) that the mantle is different from ours in various ways, so the actual size of the core is a bit uncertain (although most likely, closer to the description here than not). Similar improvements in the detailed structure of Mars have also been obtained by gravimetric studies of the planet by spacecraft orbiting the planet; and some of those details are already included in the page about the structure of Mars. Note that although Mercury's core is large in comparison to the size of that planet, it is not large compared to the Earth's core.
Some scientists believe the decline is accelerating and that we may be headed for a complete reversal where the magnetic North pole will be situated at the geographic South pole instead of at the geographic North pole as is currently the case.
Pads and mattresses with built-in magnets are used to alleviate insomnia, rheumatic pain, migraines and circulatory problems.
Magnets with a South polarity should only be used under the care of a trained practitioner if at all(1,6).
Klaus Kronenberg, a professor at the California State Polytechnic University, has found that the use of magnetized swimming pool water essentially eliminates the deposits formed where the top surface of the water meets the sides of the pool(13-15). It is perhaps reasonable to assume that if scientific studies on animals have proven that magnetized water has health benefits, then it should also be beneficial to humans.
Because of the electron configuration of the molecule the hydrogen atoms tend to attract other water molecules resulting in the formation of clusters which can contain anywhere from four to hundreds of water molecules each.
Magnetized water is softer than tap water so magnetization can result in significant savings in detergent and soap use.
Thomas Narvaez, a researcher in Washington State, has successfully used radionics to measure the vitality of treated water. Lecture slides attached.For other ideas and more in-depth explorations of magnetism, check out our curriculum summaries of lessons on Magnets and Materials and Magnets and Motors.


Amusingly, this means that the earth's pole in the arctic is actually a south magnetic pole — it attracts the north poles of compasses — and the pole in antarctica is a north magnetic pole. In short, we know that putting a conductor in a changing magnetic field induces an electric field (and consequently an electric current) in the conductor. The crust has continental regions which are made of even lower-density aluminum-rich silicates, and oceanic regions which are much richer in somewhat denser iron-rich silicates.
The boundary between the two regions is very sudden, as though there is some intrinsic reason unrelated to the pressure which causes the change in state from liquid to solid.
If the melt-temperature is well above the actual temperature (near the surface and in the lower mantle), the rocks are very stiff. As a result most of the uranium atoms not dragged into the core were gradually forced toward the surface, where lower density minerals where forming; and most of the uranium in the mantle is believed to lie within a hundred miles of the surface, which means most of the heating due to its radioactive decay is concentrated near the surface. The other only operates near the surface, and as a result the wave velocity increases more rapidly there than in deeper parts of the mantle, as shown below. In a similar way, as olivine and similar minerals are compressed more and more, for a while they remain the same minerals but in a denser state; but once the weight compressing them becomes too great they change to denser structures. In other words, there would be a little bit more of the lower density upper mantle rocks, and even if the mantle on Venus was the same size as the Earth's, there would be a little bit less of the higher density lower mantle rocks. In other words, if merely a smaller copy of the Earth, Mars would have no lower mantle; the rocks found throughout the mantle would be like those in the upper mantle of the Earth. But unlike Venus, for which the calculated and observed densities are the same (within the errors produced by various assumptions necessary to the calculations), Mercury is much denser than we would expect, and Mars much less dense than we would expect. In fact one of the original reasons for suspecting this structure for the outer portion of the Earth was the example set by these rocky meteorites, or "stones". But this is exactly what we think the Earth must have done, and presumably some of the larger asteroids must have done the same in order for pieces of those objects to include such irons; and if so, every Terrestrial object that was more than a few hundred miles in size during the melting episode in the early history of the Solar System must have developed a rocky mantle and an iron core. This means that whatever the core is made of can't be rare stuff like gadolinium or ruthenium, but must be common stuff like iron (one of the most abundant metals in the Universe), which agrees with the evidence from meteorites, and allows us to more or less confidently say that the core must be "just like" the iron meteorites. Second, as you near the center of the Earth, the weight of the materials drops to zero (see the afore-mentioned page on Internal Pressures of the Planets for a detailed discussion), because they are pulled equally hard in all directions by the various parts of the Earth all around them, so those forces cancel out, and the change in pressure is surprisingly low in the central regions of the Earth. Different investigators favor different ratios of impurities to nickel-iron, leading to estimates of 10 to 30% other materials and 70 to 90% nickel-iron in the molten outer core (it is the uncertainty of these values that causes the large uncertainty in the temperature of the core); but no matter what the ratio is, the large amount of dense materials such as iron in the core give it the required extra mass to make up for the deficit of mass in the mantle, compared to the overall density of the Earth. However, no improvement has been made in our knowledge of Venus, because there have been no spacecraft sent to the planet in recent years.
The Earth's core is larger than Mars and more than twice as massive as Mars and Mercury combined.
However, so far there have been no systematic, clinical trials done to prove or disprove the healing effects of magnetized water in humans(1,17,18).
Some researchers believe that the average city tap water may actually be harmful, not only because of its content of toxins, but also because it has developed a polarity which is harmful to our health.
Some very exciting research done in Hungary has shown that these clusters actually have a memory and can remember and carry an imprint of the magnetic energy they have been exposed to either simply from the earth’s magnetic field or through flowing over paramagnetic rock. It also helps prevent deposits on cutlery and glasses washed in a dish washer and can even make hair shinier. The units are installed under the sink or on the main water line and should always be situated after any other filters and treatment devices(9,17,18). It is interesting that many holy sites and healing spas were built near paramagnetic rock formations. A clinical trial is in the planning stage to evaluate the benefits of magnetized water in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome(19,21,22,24-26). The left sidebar shows related lessons and curricula that link to this lesson, or that the author has explicitly recommended, as well as modified copies of the lesson if any. This principle, known as "Faraday's Law of Induction", is the basis of operation for electric generators ("dynamos"). The mantle is divided into an upper mantle within which the iron-rich silicates are gradually compressed from lower-density more open mineral structures, to higher density more compact mineral structures, and a lower mantle, where the mineral structures have been compacted to their densest forms and increase in density as one descends further into the mantle only because of the continually increasing weight compressing them.
Secondly, as discussed below, the pressure in the inner core is only slightly greater than that in the outer core, because regions near the center of a planet, although compressed and held in place by the materials above them, have relatively little weight of their own, being pulled more or less equally in all directions by the outer parts of the planet, and as a result having their weight determined only by their own gravity.
The reduction in the stiffness of the bonds causes the wave velocities to drop sharply, leading to the terminology shown on the right side of the diagram -- "lithosphere" (rock sphere), for the stiffer, more brittle layers above, and "asthenosphere" (plastic sphere), for the softer, more pliable ("plastic" in that sense, not in the sense of the organic materials sold as plastics in stores) region caused by the small difference between the actual and melt temperatures. In the diagram above the blue line represents temperatures in an imaginary "rising plume" of hot soft rock -- cooler than its melt temperature, but well above the temperature of surrounding rocks. But since Venus is 5% smaller in radius and diameter than the Earth, if its structure were a copy of ours its mantle would be 5% smaller as well, or only 1710 miles thick, instead of 1800 miles.
This does not mean that Venus is a copy of the Earth, but it does mean that if there are any differences in the structure of the two planets, some of those differences must change the density in one direction and others must change them in the other direction, so that the overall density comes out as it does; and to date no structure has been suggested for Venus which is grossly different from that of the Earth, without yielding incorrect density results. Obviously, this means (referring to the graph of density inside the Earth, above) that Mars should be even less dense than Venus; and Mercury, which is smaller yet, should be still less dense. The stones are therefore interpreted as pieces from the outside of such objects, and the irons as pieces from the inside. In some places, such as the west coast of the Americas, where continental plates ride over and push oceanic plates into the deep interior, friction between the plates can heat the downward-moving rock, partially melting it and causing volcanic eruptions.
The last one happened about 780,000 years ago so we don’t know what the effects of a reversal would be.
By doing so these molecules get the opportunity to crystallize and be carried along in the water rather than deposit themselves on the walls of the pipes.
Other researchers suggest that the degradation of our tap water can bring its vitality lower than the vitality of the human body, resulting in feeling drained and tired after a shower or bath(9,17,19).
It is the fact that this memory is devastated on the way to the tap which renders our drinking water lifeless(9,19-22). The complement is also true: if we move a conductor in the vicinity of a static magnetic field, we can again generate an electric current in the conductor.
The chaotic nature of convection currents in the earth's core gives rise to fluctuations in the magnetic field. The core consists of a molten (liquid) outer core primarily consisting of iron but with substantial percentages of materials such as sulfur and silicon which lower its melting temperature, and a solid inner core which is almost certainly a crystalline mixture of iron and nickel similar to iron meteorites.
The boundary between the crust and mantle is defined by this low-velocity zone, also known as the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (or for short, the Moho).
In the top few tens of miles heat slowly flows through the rocks (even at 100 Fahrenheit degrees per mile temperature gradient this heat flow is slow), and is equally slowly replaced by radioactive heating.
At a depth of about 250 miles olivine and similar minerals change to spinel-like structures (not true spinel, which has a different chemical composition) and other denser, stiffer, higher-melting temperature minerals; and at a depth of about 400 miles those structures change to an even denser mixture of magnesium oxide and perovskite-like structures (not true perovskite, which has a different chemical composition). Still, they are both relatively dense compared to rocks found at the surface of the Earth and Moon, so they must be made of heavy materials that are in some way similar to the interior of the Earth; so how can we explain this odd result? The rocks that melt in this way have very little gas or liquid trapped inside them, and the lavas are stiff and tend to produce explosive eruptions. We do know that once the reversal process starts it can proceed relatively quickly and be completed in as little as 2000 years(3,4). Although this explanation has many proponents it does not fully explain why magnetized water also dissolves old scale deposits(9-12).
This situation occurs in the earth when convection currents of molten metal in earth's core move about in the earth's magnetic field, which then produce electric currents in the core. Over the course of recorded observations, earth's magnetic pole has drifted by several degrees (see figure 2).
Below that depth heat flow is much slower, because the heat source is the heat of the core, which is nearly two thousand miles further down, and the temperature rise is much lower.
The overall composition of the three regions is believed to be about the same, but the structure of the minerals is different due to the extreme weight of the layers above compressing the less-dense minerals in the upper layers into the denser structures of the layer lowers. At most places on Earth, however, fresh lava is produced from the melting of upward-moving mantle rock, and this lava always contains large amounts of dissolved gases, which make it very fluid and cause "fountain"-type eruptions such as those in the Hawaiian islands and Iceland (both being regions located above rising plumes of hotter than usual mantle rocks). Furthermore, electric currents are known to produce magnetic fields, a principle summarized in "Ampere's Law", which is the basis of operation of the electromagnet. Over the course of eons, much more dramatic fluctuations are evident from the geological record (figure 3).Apparently, the most stable orientation for the earth's field is more or less along the axis of rotation, which makes some sense given that the convection currents in the earth's core are also influenced by earth's rotation via the Coriolis Force.
The composition of these lavas and their gases provide important clues to the composition of the source material, which is of course mantle rock, and the results strongly suggest that mantle rock is indeed very similar in composition to the stony meteorites.
These magnetic fields help produce the electric currents in the core, which in turn support the fields.
However, this constraint leads to two possible stable orientations for the magnetic field: one with the north magnetic pole in the arctic, and one with the north magnetic pole in Antarctica.
The challenge to explaining the earth's magnetic field is to develop a model of earth's core that can lead to this self-sustaining magnetic field, and is the focus of detailed computer simulations.



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