The magnetic field of earth is thought to be generated by motions in its,long term food storage oatmeal nutrition,american movie killer hair - PDF 2016

The magnetic field and electric currents near Earth generate complex forces that have immeasurable impact on our everyday lives. ESA's three-satellite Swarm constellation was lofted into a near-polar orbit by a Russian Rockot launcher this afternoon. The Swarm satellites will give us unprecedented insights into the complex workings of the magnetic shield that protects our biosphere from charged particles and cosmic radiation.
Some 91 minutes later, its Breeze-KM upper stage released the three satellites into a near-polar circular orbit at an altitude of 490 km. Contact was established with the trio minutes later through the Kiruna station in Sweden and the Svalbard station in Norway.
All three satellites are controlled by ESA teams at the European Space Operation Centre in Darmstadt, Germany. The lower pair will fly in formation side by side, about 150 km (10 seconds) apart at the equator and at an initial altitude of 460 km, while the upper satellite will rise to a higher orbit, at 530 km.
The launch of ESA's magnetic field mission from Plesetsk, Russia, has been postponed by about a week. Preparations for Friday's launch of ESA's magnetic explorer have reached an important milestone a€“ the constellation is now in the Plesetsk launch tower. After months of intensive training, the Swarm mission control team are ready for liftoff on Friday.
The European Space Agency (ESA) on Friday launched a trio of hi-tech satellites on an unprecedented mission to map anomalies in Earth's magnetic field. British astronaut Tim Peake ran a marathon in space in record time on Sunday, strapped into a treadmill on the International Space Station as thousands ran the London Marathon below.
ESA's Herschel mission releases today a series of unprecedented maps of star-forming hubs in the plane of our Milky Way galaxy. For the 26th birthday of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers are highlighting a Hubble image of an enormous bubble being blown into space by a super-hot, massive star.
Sign up for our NewsAlert service and have the latest space news e-mailed direct to your desktop. Three identical European-built satellites are packed aboard a Russian rocket for launch Friday on a $280 million mission to map the Earth's magnetic field, an invisible bubble around the planet serves as a shield protecting life from solar and cosmic radiation. The satellites are the centerpiece of the Swarm mission, a European Space Agency project chosen for development in 2004 to map the sources and strength of Earth's magnetic field, which appears to be weakening. ESA's Swarm mission has been grounded more than a year to wait on an opportunity for a launch on the Rockot's backed-up flight manifest.
The Rockot's commercial flights are managed by Eurockot, a joint enterprise between Khrunichev and EADS Astrium based in Bremen, Germany. A team of scientists from across Europe is eager to crunch data from Swarm, which promises to reveal how the churning of electric currents in super-heated liquid iron in the Earth's deep interior generates the magnetic field.
There are signs that the magnetic field is diminishing, and the unexplained weakening could be an indication the field is about to flip - something that has occurred on average every 250,000 years. Scientist have a murky understanding of what causes the magnetic field to erode or flip, and Haagmans said there has never been a mission like Swarm, which is designed to distinguish the drivers of Earth's magnetism.
The field behaves like a bar magnet with a north pole and south pole with magnetic field lines stretching into space, creating a bubble known as the magnetosphere. On the side of Earth facing away from the sun, the magnetosphere is blown out like the tail of a comet. The primary force behind the magnetic field is the Earth's internal dynamo, where convection produces electric currents that spiral out of Earth, through the atmosphere and thousands of miles into space. Rocks in Earth's crust retain "remnant magnetism" that adds to the magnetic field generated deep within the planet. Earth's magnetic field is thought to be generated largely by an ocean of super-heated, swirling liquid iron that makes up Earth's outer core 3000 km under our feet. Swarm will also directly measure currents in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, which can disrupt the field coming from the core. One satellite is not capable of examining the inputs of all the magnetic field sources, so Swarm's three spacecraft will offer unique insights.

In the first few months after launch, ground controllers will guide each of the satellites to different orbits.
Built by EADS Astrium in Germany, each of the satellites could be plugged into any position in the Swarm constellation. The two lower satellites will fly less than 100 miles apart, each receiving magnetic field signals at slightly different locations in space to map the field's global variation. The satellites each carry an extendable 4-meter, or 13-foot, boom holding two magnetometer instruments to detect the magnetic field. Engineers designed the satellites, which have their own magnetic fields, with special care to eradicate as many of their magnetic disturbances as possible. Technicians tested the satellites in a clean room with wooden floors, minimizing the potential of metals to disturb Swarm's magnetometers. Scientists say the Swarm mission will help them learn how the magnetic field is evolving, why it is weakening and the data could be used in navigation and communications applications involving satellites, which are sensitive to changes in the magnetosphere. Licence fees: A licence fee will be charged for any media (low or high resolution) used in your project.
Scientists are now claiming that Earth's magnetic field could potentially reverse itself in a shorter time frame than ever before thought possible. Based off of data collected by the European Space Agency's satellite group known as 'Swarm,' a significant weakening of Earth's magnetic field has apparently been observed in just the past six months. According to the ESA, we can think of the magnetic field surrounding our planet as a giant protective bubble that helps shield us from the harmful solar and cosmic radiation traveling through the reaches of space.
Normally, a reversal in the Earth's magnetic field is thought to begin with a weakening of its strength, followed by a reversal in the poles and then a re-strengthening.
Another potential problem posed by this situation is the effect additional radiation could have on our satellite technology. Also, with a weakened magnetic field, Earth would be susceptible to higher doses of radiation from solar storms and solar flares, which occur periodically and send huge amounts of solar radiation out into the surrounding solar system.
These findings could shed light not just on the magnetic field of the moon, which is now extremely weak, but on that of asteroids and other distant worlds, investigators added. Earth's magnetic field is created by its internal dynamo, which itself is generated by the planet's churning molten metal core. Models of the moon's core suggest its dynamo should have lasted only until about 4.1 billion years ago. Researchers have proposed two possibilities to explain why the moon's dynamo lasted so long.
The cosmic-impact idea is supported by the fact that the moon experienced massive collisions until around 3.7 billion years ago, such as the one that created the 715-mile-wide (1,150 kilometers) Mare Imbrium, among other craters. Now, a new analysis of the biggest lunar rock brought back to Earth by Apollo 11 astronauts in 1969 reveals the moon's dynamo lasted about 160 million years longer than previously thought, well after the last of the largest crater-forming impacts hit the moon.
The ancient magnetic field of the moon was about as intense as Earth's current surface magnetic field.
Learning more about how the moon's dynamo originated and developed could yield insights into the dynamos of smaller objects, such as asteroids, and larger bodies, such as planets. Many questions remain about the moon's magnetic field, such as why it was so intense late into lunar history and how it disappeared over time. The scientists detailed their findings online May 6 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Does an Italian village filled with cigarette smoking centenarians hide the secret to long life? For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others. Although we know that the magnetic field originates from several sources, exactly how it is generated and why it changes is not yet fully understood. For four years, it will monitor Earth's magnetic field, from the depth of our planet's core to the heights of its upper atmosphere. They will perform precise measurements to evaluate its current weakening and understand how it contributes to global change.

The satellites will be lofted into a 304-mile-high orbit by a Russian Rockot launcher, a decommissioned nuclear missile upgraded to put spacecraft into orbit.
A series of failures with the Breeze upper stage triggered several delays, and the Russian military put higher priority on launches for the Russian government, leaving Swarm to wait its turn.
On the day side of Earth, the solar wind compresses the magnetosphere and charged particles stream around the planet and follow field lines into the poles, spawning the colorful auroras. And the oceans create their own magnetic field from tides and circulation patterns, according to scientists. Acting like the spinning conductor in a bicycle dynamo, it generates electric currents and thus the continuously changing electromagnetic field. Two of the spacecraft will drop down to about 285 miles in altitude, and the third satellite will boost its orbit to about 329 miles, according to Floberghagen. The higher-altitude satellite will orbit on an entirely different trajectory to see how the field changes over longer time scales. Built in Denmark and France, the sensors will provide the highest accuracy magnetic field measurements ever made in space, according to ESA. The engineers went over the rest of the satellites' components and analyzed how they might throw off Swarm's magnetic field data, creating a catalog allowing scientists to compensate for known measurement errors.
In an extra measure of caution, the magnetic test facility was also in the middle of the forest away from other buildings that could have magnetic influence.
Without a strong magnetic field surrounding our planet, the satellites in orbit face stronger radiation and could potentially be damaged by it.
The blue lines represent the magnetic field lines, which extend from the magnetic poles near the North and South poles. Deproost, ORB, BelgiqueThis illustration shows one suggested mechanism for creating an ancient magnetic field on the moon. Research increasingly suggests that the moon once had a dynamo as well, with evidence of magnetism found in lunar rocks returned by Apollo astronauts. One possible explanation is that giant cosmic impacts set the moon lurching enough to drive its dynamo. In contrast, if precession drove a lunar dynamo, the moon could have continuously possessed a magnetic field until as late as 1.8 billion years ago. This makes it about 1,000 times stronger than the moon's present surface magnetic field, researchers said. The presumption here is that Mr Erdogan conspired to murder a man who caused him embarrassment.
Over the next three months of commissioning, their scientific payloads will be verified and they will move to their respective operational orbits.
About 91 minutes later, after completing one lap around Earth, the Rockot's Breeze KM upper stage will simultaneously deploy the Swarm satellites in orbit from a custom-built connecting adapter built by Khrunichev, the Rockot and Breeze KM contractor.
Magnetic field lines (blue) can be seen emerging from the south magnetic pole and converging at the north magnetic pole, which is offset from the geographic north pole (white line) by 11 degrees. The magnetic field, which is thought to be generated by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's core, protects Earth from high-energy radiation from the Sun. Another explanation has to do with how the moon's core spins around a slightly different axis than its surrounding mantle layer, generating wobbles - known as precession - that could dramatically stir its core.
The field, which closely resembles that of a bar magnet, is thought to be generated by the dynamo effect. The shape of the magnetic field channels charged particles from the Sun towards the poles, where they impact atmospheric gases and cause the aurorae. Inside the Earth's outer core, convection heating causes cells of ionised metal to rise and fall in a circular motion.

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