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A B-H curve is used to show the relationship between magnetic flux density (B) and magnetic field strength (H) for a particular material. A second key observation is that the curve demonstrates magnetic hysteresis or 'lag' as the sample is alternatively magnetised in the positive and negative directions. The area enclosed by the B-H curve (shaded light blue above) is proportional to the energy loss as the ferromagnetic material is magnetised with varying polarity by connection to an alternating (AC) power supply. We were contacted by the owner of the apartment above the TS to estimate the field levels inside the apartment.
Magnetic field is linearly correlated to the actual current load, but this can vary during the day depending on the present use. To obtain the detailed snapshot of the magnetic field in the apartment above the TS it is therefore not enough to make only spot measurements, but also 24-hour measurements to evaluate the time variability of the magnetic field and determine worst case condition. For spot measurements we have used Wandel & Goltermann EM field analyzer EFA-3 with the B field probe. After the data are automatically transferred to the server, they could be viewed by everyone through an internet application. According to the Slovenian legislation and the international standards (IEC 61786) the magnetic flux density is measured at the height of 1 or 1.5 m above the ground. But in the apartment, it is not uncommon that the children have their beds on the floor or do they play on the floor and with measurements 1 m above the ground the exposure would be greatly underestimated.

Therefore all the measurements – spot and continuous 24-hour were taken at the height of 0.2 m above the ground.
We used program package Narda EFC-400EP for numerical modeling of the magnetic flux density in the vicinity of the TS. Corresponding material and electromagnetic characteristics are assigned to all the segments and the resulting magnetic field is the sum of the contributions of all the segments. Electrical Corner StoreCheck out our new #Electrical Corner Store with selected Electrician's Books, Testing and Safety equipment and other electrician's stuff!
Science at GlanceOur mission is to be the leading provider of scientific information in the field of power and engineering in general. When initially magnetised, the curve follows points a–b on the graph, but on reducing H to zero, some residual magnetism remains (point c - also known as the remanent flux density).
In the first room there is transformer (Fig ure 1) whereas in the second one both 20 kV and low voltage switchgear is located. First measurements shoved magnetic flux density up to values of 15 ?T inside the apartment above the TS. For 24-hour measurements we have used automatic measurement station PMM 8055 which measures the magnetic flux density continuously 24 hours per day. Every day, the generation and usage of energy produces more pollution than any other single industry.

In order to fully demagnetise the specimen, it is necessary to apply a negative magnetic field strength (point d - called the coercive force).
In general, harder ferromagnetic materials have higher hysteresis losses, since more energy is required to realign the magnetic domains. It consists of measurement probe for ELF magnetic flux density HP-051, control unit with the GSM modem to send the measurements from the measurement station to the server connected to the internet, housing with solar cells and accumulator. Steel, to which a small proportion of silicon has been added, is commonly used for applications such as transformer cores and motor rotors, due to its lower hysteresis loss.
Increasing the magnetic field strength in either direction causes more and more magnetic 'domains' to align with the external magnetic field, but once almost all of the domains have aligned themselves, then little further increase in magnetic flux density is possible.
For smaller applications, such as inductor cores, passive filters, miniature transformers and antennas, then ferrite (a ceramic-like combination of metallic oxides including ferric oxide) is a popular choice.
As H becomes positive, the flux density reduces to zero (point g) and then becomes positive, finally returning back to point b (positive saturation), after which the cycle b–g repeats.

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