Water 21st century challenges 50,how to make a box turtle habitat,emergency manager jobs 2014 - 2016 Feature

After droughts ravaged his parents' farmland, Sixteen-year-old Hassain and his two-year-old sister Sareye became some of the newest refugees forced from home by water scarcity. Presently, Hassain is one of about 1.2 billion people living in areas of physical water scarcity, although the majority of cases are nowhere near as dire. With rapid population growth, and increased industrial demand, water withdrawals have tripled over the last 50 years, according to UN figures. Of all the water on earth, 97 per cent is salt water and the remaining three per cent is fresh, with less than one per cent of the planet's drinkable water readily accessible for direct human uses. Some experts believe the only documented case of a "water war" happened about 4,500 years ago, when the city-states of Lagash and Umma went to war in the Tigris-Euphrates basin. Darwish bets that a battle between south and north Yemen will probably be the scene of the next water conflict, with other countries in the region following suit if the situation is not improved. Water shortages could cost the unstable country 750,000 jobs, slashing incomes in the poorest Arab country by as much as 25 per cent over the next decade, according to a report from the consulting firm McKinsey and Company produced for the Yemeni government in 2010.
It is a story being repeated with various degrees of severity across the Middle East, parts of Asia and even the American south-west. The current tenuous political situation in Egypt means that "if the army wants to divert attention away from criticism it would probably do something against Ethiopia," Darwish said. On the Nile, cooperation would benefit all countries involved, as they could jointly construct dams and lower the amount of water lost to evaporation, says Anton Earle, director of the Stockholm International Water Institute think tank. Water scarcity, and potential conflicts arising from it, is linked to larger issues of population growth, increasing food prices and global warming. In other words, more people and scant resources will invariably lead to discord and violence.
Bolivia, South Africa, India, Botswana, Mexico and even parts of the US have seen vigorous water related protests, says Maude Barlow, author of 16 books and a former senior adviser to the UN on water issues. Strife over water, like conflicts more generally, will increasingly happen within states, rather than between them, Barlow says, with large scale agribusiness, mining and energy production taking control over resources at the expense of other users. Dealing with water refugees like Hassain is a global challenge, and it is expected to get worse. Dealing with these pressures will require improved technologies, political will and new ideas about how humans view their relationship with the substance that sustains life.
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Nerd Night East Bay #41: Fake Fish, Cyborgs, and WarmingApril's Nerd Nite East Bay includes one of our funkier line-ups to date.
The SOFIA Observatory: Revealing the Hidden Universe with Airborne ScienceNASA's SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a flying observatory used by astronomers worldwide to conduct research at primarily infrared wavelengths. A Population Neuroscience Approach to Examining the Effects of Poverty on Adolescent Brain DevelopmentTwenty percent of U.S. Healthy for Life: Evidence to Support Predictive Biomarkers for Lifetime HealthLaboratory testing today is overly focused on statistics-health professionals tend to compare their patients' results to statistical norms, which are skewed to a generally unhealthy population.
Getting to GreenPew polling reveals that the environment is one of the two things about which Republicans and Democrats disagree most. The Diving Physiology and Capabilities of Breath-Hold Divers - 2016 SF Bay ACS PresentationsThe diving physiology and capabilities of breath-hold divers are crucial to their role in the ecosystem and their ability to exploit prey resources. Hard RainBrian Day, NASA Ames, will discuss the history of impacts from space rocks and the on-going threat.
When Demand Outstrips Supply: The Shrinking Water Table and What We Can Do About ItJay and his team have been researching and communicating about water and climate change - in academics, in business, in government and to the general public for over 25 years. Introduction to Maps, Compass Use, and OrienteeringEver feel lost in the woods just looking at a map?
Tipping Points, Adaptation and Transformation in Coupled Human-Ocean SystemsEcological surprises challenge science and society. On the Vulnerability of Biodiversity to Climate ChangeClimate change is projected to emerge as a dominant cause of biodiversity loss. Alcatraz Historic Garden TourBeginning in 2003, the Garden Conservancy formed a partnership with the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and the NPS to rehabilitate the Historic Gardens of Alcatraz.
Innovation in Diabetes Prevention & Management SymposiumWhat really impacts prevention and management outcomes, where does technology and digital health fit in?
Soil Health Series: Composting Methods & Biological Properties of SoilSoil is the most complex biomaterial on Earth. Twilight HikeTake advantage of this rare opportunity to experience the beauty and rich natural history of this 535-acre preserve as dusk arrives and the animals start to appear.
Guided Nature WalkExperience the beauty and rich natural history of this 535-acre preserve. Our half-day guided nature walks are on Saturdays throughout fall and spring.
Science Saturday: Identification DayBring your shells, rocks, insects, feathers, bones, and plants to Identification Day! Insect Photography Tips, Tools, and Tricks with the Insect Sciences Museum of CaliforniaGet involved in citizen science by helping take photos for a Joaquin Miller Park insect guide! Lake Merritt History WalkDive into LakeMerritt's past with this easy walk near the water's edge. The Digital Water Curtain integrates all the characteristics that must have a 21st century urban furniture element.
Of all the urban landscape elements, street furniture has the closest contact and interaction with humans.
Under the influence of rapid urbanization and globalization, global warming, and a growing emphasis on humanism, urban landscape design (including street furniture) is facing unparalleled challenges and requirements in the 21st century.
Street furniture design involves a wide range of concerns, including function, environment, and meaning. Today and the incoming future, with the continuous development of cities and technology, urban landscape will become a more and more complicated system with numerous kinds of considerations. The people-oriented principle is the primary principle, core idea of urban landscape design and it serves as a foundation for other principles.
Public participation refers to the idea that the designers do not design for the public but design with the public.
Urban designers should have comprehensive understanding of the context, meaning and spirit behind the urban landscape, to integrate them with current needs and technology in order to adapt to the modern society. The premise of street furniture design is that it should be “people-oriented.” It is the core idea of street furniture design and located in the centre of the model. Another important aspect of the people-oriented premise of street furniture design is how the public will make use of street furniture.

Sustainable development refers to development in which the ecological environment is considered equally with economic and social development Constructing an “ecological city,” requires urban designers to factor in the environment during the design process. The aim of people-oriented design is to serve all different types of people, including male and female, old and young, and those with and without a handicap. The original function of street furniture is to satisfy psychological needs of people in public places. It is important to note that aesthetic is not about individual street furniture with bombastic and complex appearance and style.
Secure installation enables street furniture to adapt to the variable environment and maintain its best performance.
Street furniture is one of the significant elements of the urban landscape and contains a wide range of concern. Street furniture, as part of the urban landscape, is an important element experienced by residents and visitors, mostly on the streets and in other urban spaces. The Digital Water Curtain design as urban furniture comprises all requirements listed above, becoming a new nature element to be taken into account for urban designers. The Digital Water Curtain has sufficient lighting provided at night for security and spectacular illumination for the water wall displays. The DWC is highly interactive with the people through the use of interface drivers like smarphones and laptops.
The DWC can be used as video projection support to create a large size information and advertisement display.
The Digital Water Curtain is a 21st century type of fountain of new nature adapted to nowadays urban landscaping requirements. By 2030, 47 per cent of the worlds population will be living in areas of high water stress, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Environmental Outlook to 2030 report. Scarcity is defined as each person in an area having access to less than 1,000 cubic meters of water a year. But Adel Darwish, a journalist and co-author of Water Wars: Coming Conflicts in the Middle East, says modern history has already seen at least two water wars.
Some analysts believe Israel continues to occupy the Golan heights, seized from Syria in 1967, due to issues of water control, while others think the occupation is about maintaining high ground in case of future conflicts.
Eighteen of them are in the Middle East and North Africa, including Egypt, Israel, Somalia, Libya and Yemen. Yemen's capital Sanaa, from where president Ali Saleh left the country after he was injured during protests, could effectively run out of water by 2025, hydrology experts say. Living in one of the driest countries on earth, Yemenis depend on fresh water from rapidly depleting underground aquifers and infrequent rainfall.
Recent scholars, including Thomas Homer-Dixon, have analysed various case studies on environmental degradation to conclude that there is not a direct link between scarcity and violence. Back in the Kenyan refugee camp, on the front line of the worlds water crisis, Hassain hopes to start a new life, away from the parched fields, dead cattle and social violence ruining communities in his native Somalia. 21st Century Water Resources supplies purified drinking water to walk-in customers, dealers and corporate establishments.
We have established a solid base of satisfied and loyal clients through hardwork, honesty and consistency in distributing quality drinking water.
Each year the brightest minds in youth advocacy, health, and technology gather at YTH Live to showcase what works, share ideas and learnings, and launch new collaborations.Join us from April 24-26, 2016 at Hotel Kabuki in San Francisco. First, Stuart Gripman will teach you about the fake fish concocted by the notable naturalist John James Audubon. The unique capabilities of this mobile observatory enables scientific investigations ranging from our own Solar System origins to how stars and their accompanying planetary systems are formed. While the nature and timing of abrupt changes in ecological organization and function remain poorly understood, emerging evidence points to the existence of regime shifts across a variety of ecosystems worldwide. Coastal ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest have sustained human-wellbeing for thousands of years. Let's take a journey through deep time and across the planet to critically evaluate the evidence for an impending climate-mediated extinction crisis. Participants are divided into small groups and paired with a trained Bouverie volunteer to explore the mixed evergreen forest, flower-carpeted oak woodland and rugged chaparral. Natural science experts from the Bureau of Land Management will do their best to identify those mystery flowers, feathers, and rocks from your yard, while their archaeologists will be on hand to tell you more about cultural artifacts. Discovery Day is the Romberg Tiburon Center's annual open house, when we invite the public to visit our marine lab on the Bay and see marine science in action. It is one of the essential elements of the urban environment that contributes to humans and their activities.
Although comparatively small in scale, street furniture plays a significant role, along with other urban landscape elements such as architecture and urban space, in determining the quality of an urban environment and in representing the image of a city. The  21st  century  onwards  (today  and  the  coming  future):  a  new  era  of information and technology, when urban landscape design is facing unparalleled challenges.
The continuously and rapidly developing technology, transportation system and internet increase and enhance the contact among people throughout the world. More importantly, people are at the core of urban design; cities and urban landscapes are designed to satisfy different human needs and solve different human problems in cities. Besides providing a safe, healthy, convenient, and comfortable urban environment and ensuring the security of life and joyful social activity, urban design needs to consider human feelings toward the urban environment (space, feature, image) in terms of contextual, spatial, cultural, psychological, aesthetic aspect, to heighten the quality of urban environment and create an aesthetic, modern and entire urban space.
The concept of sustainable development is already a significant consideration of today’s urban development. An ecological city is one in which the natural and human environments are in harmony so that humans, society, and the natural environment can survive and grow equally and sustainably. It causes no wastage and pollution to the environment but on the other hand adds value and function to street furniture. Street furniture should be able to satisfy the users’ physiological and psychological needs through its usage, comfort, quantity, accessibility, arrangement and aesthetics. The appearance and style of street furniture should be thoughtfully designed to create a pleasing environment by providing artistic and visual comfort to the public. Street furniture, such as the Digital Water Curtain are commonly installed by rooting it underground, or by locking it on the ground, or by providing it with a firm and solid foundation. It includes systematic monitoring, sufficient cleaning and repairing, and immediate replacing of damaged street furniture.
Compared to other urban landscape elements, street furniture has the closest relation and interaction with users in contributing to the urban environment and urban life.
The DWC is very safe, respecting local regulations about water treatment, filtration and water quality.

All control units are placed out of reach, impossible to vandalize, with insulating systems when connected with electricity. It can be used as an interactive billboard writing texts sent from a computer connected to internet.
The DWC is open to interact with people through Controlidor software, updating it continuously, to be ready for new communication technologies, being at the same time a playful, refreshing and iconic landmark in the urban landscape.
We used to have crops." As global warming alters weather patterns, and the number of people lacking access to water rises, millions, if not billions, of others are expected to face a similar fate as water shortages become more frequent. Some analysts worry that wars of the future will be fought over blue gold, as thirsty people, opportunistic politicians and powerful corporations battle for dwindling resources.
The areas where water scarcity is the biggest problem are some of the same places where political conflicts are rife. Senegal and Mauritania also fought a war starting in 1989 over grazing rights on the River Senegal. Commentators frequently blame Yemen's problems on tribal differences, but environmental scarcity may be underpinning secessionist struggles in the country's south and some general communal violence. The likelihood of outright war is low, he says, but there is still "a lot of conflict" which "prevents joint infrastructure projects from going ahead". Instead, he believes inequality, social inclusion and other factors determine the nature and ferocity of strife.
Then, Kara Platoni will speak about some of the ways people are hacking their perception abilities. Children from low-income families often experience greater chronic stress, which may allow poverty to become biologically embedded by altering key aspects of brain development. President Nixon created the EPA and President Reagan tackled the hole in the ozone and acid rain. No wonder – there's a LOT of information on maps; and, like any tool, a compass can be very frustrating if not understood.
Join the very knowledgeable Stephen Andrews (UC Berkeley Professor, specializing in soils) for a hands-on class to discover the basics of creating a successful compost, and  how the soil foodweb drives the sustainability of nearly all living things on Earth. A desirable living environment should be able to satisfy different physical activities, and also provide psychological commitment and recognition. Designers should learn and understand the needs and values of the inhabitants as well as the context and background of the place from the public, whilst the inhabitants should learn and understand the techniques and related knowledge of designing an environment from the designers.
Sustainable development  aims  to  maintain  a  harmony  of environment, society and economy. Therefore, street furniture should continuously evolve to adapt to the ever-changing situation. However, it is not possible to control how individuals will use and treat street furniture. Because street furniture is part of the urban environment, its design should be committed to sustainable   development, which   benefits   human   survival,   thus fulfilling its people-oriented premise. Natural elements like plantings and Digital Water Curtains can be introduced or used as part of the street furniture to have harmonious coordination of both natural and artificial landscape elements.
Universal design means that different types of users should be able to use street furniture conveniently and easily. The durability and stable performance of street furniture should also be guaranteed  in  order  to  maximize  its  function,  therefore,  the  concern  of  technique including installation and maintenance is needed. The aesthetics of street furniture is about providing pleasing, colorful and inspiring environment to the public and their urban life. These installations secure the stable placement and avoid collapse by natural or human forces.
The maintenance duty shows the level of operation and the system of government or relevant parties that manage street furniture.
Street furniture is also a way to improve the environment today where most of urban forms and spatial arrangements are shaped in cities. Enhancing the identity of a city or a district can also deepen its residents’ sense of belonging and sense of recognition. The materials are chosen to be unbreakable and tough to avoid easy breakage and damage, and slip-proof materials for pavers, stairs, and slopes are recommended to be placed around the wet area. It is highly cost efficient and environment friendly with very low energy consumption, using energy saving LED lights and little water flow for the system, recirculating always the same water while the compensation tank might be refilled with rain water. There are different levels and ways to develop public participation, for example, public forums, special public working groups, public visit to the place of development, exhibition, discussion of design concepts, and public interviews. It implies that the principles are equally important, and coordinate and interflow with one another.
New culture and technology may influence street furniture design with the addition of new elements, whereas antiquated elements ought to be abandoned in the process of evolvement. Flexibility and freedom should be included in street furniture design to achieve the highest fulfillment of using street furniture in different ways. To make street furniture fully practical, it should be designed to provide a safe living environment and accord with urban policy and regulations of different countries.
To achieve this, some simple and reasonable additional shaping on details (without creating pressure on the production cost) can efficiently increase the aesthetic level of street furniture and make them special from one another in different places. Careful selection of materials and installation methods can lower the consumption of resources and the frequency of maintenance to minimize operating costs. The identity of a place should be maintained not to promote tourism but rather to preserve the spiritual and cultural continuity of its people. On the other hand, citizenship education helps to guide the public in using street furniture in an appropriate way to avoid causing human harm or damage to street furniture. People create urban landscapes and street furniture to satisfy their needs; therefore, the construction and facilities are specifically designed for urban life. Elegant street furniture also beautifies the environment and enhances the quality of the urban landscape. Some types of street furniture, such as plantings, fountains, water views and sculptures, are intended to be decorative, thus their aesthetic executions are particularly emphasized.

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