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The Biggest Bomb on Earth: In 1961, a hydrogen bomb was detonated by the then Soviet Union that still holds the record as the most powerful explosive device ever used.
One might expect that the funding for the production, storage and maintenance of nuclear weapons designated for American national defense would come from the United States Department of Defense, but in fact the actual funding of the US nuclear arsenal can be found in the budget of the Department of Energy. One unexpected discipline that benefits from the advent of atomic bomb technology is the certification of paintings that were supposedly created prior to 1945, when the first Atomic Bomb was tested. In addition to being terrible engines of destruction, sometimes something can be created by a nuclear bomb. Ten percent of the nuclear energy that the United States uses is made from recycled Russian nuclear weapons.
In order to determine the effects of nuclear explosions on human tissue, several animals were placed in the vicinity of Pacific Ocean weapons tests conducted in 1946.
While the military takes great care to make sure that their nuclear weapons do not go astray, in 1961, two of them were accidentally released while the plane carrying them was flying over North Carolina. The Vela Incident occurred over the Indian Ocean in 1979, where a nuclear weapon was dropped in the water. One of the most prolific of the US Nuclear Test sites is in the largely desert state of Nevada, where more than 900 tests, both above and below ground, were conducted between 1951 and 1992. Astronomer and scientific commentator Carl Sagan worked on a project to detonate a nuclear bomb on the surface of the moon.
An underlying fear of all of the workers on the Manhattan Project was that the nuclear fission would cause Earth’s atmosphere to ignite.
During a test of the atomic bomb, one of the cameramen took of his glasses shielded his eyes, and saw the bones of his hand through his skin: just like he was looking at an x-ray. The famous formula E=MC2 defines the amount of power that would be released if matter is converted entirely into energy. A rare nuclear test in outer space in 1962 had the unexpected side effect of turning large portions of the Earth’s atmosphere blue and green.
For everyone who lived in the Bikini Atoll after the atomic weapons testing, the US government continually pays for medical compensation for their health complications. We have all seen horror movies and heard stories about how powerful and destructive nuclear weapons can be.
In addition to heat, other forms of radiation are also released, many of which can injure or kill humans.
People directly in the blast of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II were instantly killed by the intense heat and the massive force of the explosion. Some who were outside the primary blast radius were killed, injured or scarred by the flash of hard radiation from the explosion. Other injuries included damage to the hearing from the sound of the explosion or loss of sight from looking at the brilliant flash created by the device. Birth defects, spontaneous abortions, and cancers, including leukemia, are other long term affects of exposure to areas contaminated by fall out. Nuclear fallout can also cause the destruction of nerve cells, small blood vessels, and seizures.
This can also cause mutations in DNA, resulting in a multitude of health problems and diseases that are irreversible. There are lots of arguments circling around about keeping or destroying nuclear weapons, who should have them, and where or when they should be developed or used. The United States needs to fulfill their existing obligations, along with the rest of the world. A video released called “Duck and Cover” helped fuel the fire of public fear of nuclear weapons. Most people with this specific phobia are very extreme in their outward expressions of their fear. Another great way to combat your fear of nuclear weapons is to talk about it with your friends and family. There are a number of groups working to keep track of these devices and to reduce or eliminate their presence from the global landscape. Greenpeace: While primarily an environmental organization, they are aware of the threat of what nuclear war can do to the population and to the environment.
Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism: A group made up of members from 86 countries which is dedicated to ferreting out and creating effective responses to attempts by terrorist nations and organizations to add nuclear weapons to their arsenal. The ATOM Project: This is an international initiative trying to bring a global nuclear nonproliferation treaty to fruition.
Global Zero: An international group whose aim is to cause the complete elimination of specific weapons systems, especially nuclear weapons systems, which are the greatest threats to global stability and safety. The International Campaign to Ban Nuclear Weapons: As the name implies, this civilian organization is dedicated to the complete elimination of the nuclear option on a global scale, due to the tremendously inhumane nature of these weapons, regardless of the reason behind their use. The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs: An omnibus group looking after the threats caused by all weapons of mass destruction, whether biological, chemical or nuclear.
Members of the younger generations of the 21st century look back with amusement at the fears of the people who lived through the cold war and with the threat of nuclear war.
It is especially an issue as China has entered the equation and while they are a distant number 3 in the ranks of nuclear powers, this Asian powerhouse has a history of ill feelings towards both Russian and America.
Countries never considered a super power before are now nuclear powers, and as such are only a button push away from leveling entire cities and regions.
Another problem is that after the breakup of the Soviet Union, many nuclear safeguards have fallen into disarray, which could lead to either an unplanned nuclear incident or, just as bad, working nuclear weapons disappearing and falling into the hands of terrorist nations around the world. While many fear the coming of World War III, where the remaining super powers will unleash their arsenals, an equally disquieting fear is that countries with a history of aggression and terrorism will obtain the essentials for creating their own nuclear bombs. While total nuclear disarmament may still be a dream, the measures in place to reduce the massive stockpiles of nuclear weapons will help to add stability to a dangerous situation. The problem is difficult to define as most counts focus on the nuclear devices themselves, and not the delivery system required to make it true weapon. To anyone who has read about or lived through the arms race of the 20th century will not be surprised that these two superpowers are at the top of the list for nuclear bombs, and by a hefty margin.
Some people might be surprised to learn, however, that in this contest, Russia scores in the number one slot with 7,700 devices to America’s 7,100. Representing Europe are two neighbors across the channel, France and Britain, ranking number 3 and 5 with 300 and 225 nuclear devices respectively. Tied for 6th with 120 warheads each are India and Pakistan, two other neighboring countries who share a long border and a longer history of animosity towards each other.
Other nations may also have access to an ally’s nuclear arsenal under various treaty agreements. The problem with so many weapons out there is that it doesn’t take much to push a regime over the nuclear edge.
Even the countries with smaller arsenals and a lack of long range attack capabilities are an issue. While many countries are genuinely working to reduce the total number of weapons both in their own arsenals and worldwide, other countries are looking to join the list of nuclear powers.
The threat of a nuclear war has hung over the world since the first military use of an atomic weapon in 1945. Nuclear Disarmament: to reduce the total number nuclear devices in existence, ideally down to zero. Antarctic Treaty (1959): One of the first international weapons agreements, this treaty recognized the unique strategic danger that military installation and weapons sites in Antarctica would present. Limited Test Ban Treaty (1969): This treaty recognizes and addresses that there is a danger to the world population not only from nuclear attacks, but from the side effects of the development and testing process itself. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (I and II): A set of treaties worked out in the latter part of the 200th century which tried to reduce the total number of nuclear weapons systems in use.
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972): This controversial treaty tries to address one of the main issues behind the arms race, which is weakening the ability of one side to destroy the other, thus upsetting the balance of power. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005): This treaty was designed to address a new nuclear threat posed by the possibility of nuclear weapons or material coming into the possession of nations or organizations who engage in acts of terrorism on a regional or global basis.
In this high paced, on line, 140 character or less obsessed world, it is easy to forget that behind the imaginary conflicts and threats projected by our Christmas and Summer blockbusters lie real, tangible threats with a power every bit as devastating as any alien armada or zombie swarm.
Iran could be allowed a small peaceful nuclear program, should an agreement be reached in diplomatic talks, US Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Wendy Sherman said on Saturday night in Jerusalem.
She spoke both publicly and privately with Israeli journalists as part of a drive to solicit support for the diplomatic process, which she said is the best way to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. Sherman arrived in Israel on Friday to update officials on the talks held this week in Vienna between Iran and the P5+1 countries (US, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany). Last week, the sides set a framework for negotiations toward a final agreement that is expected to be hammered out by July 20.
Israel has said that Iran will continue to be a nuclear threat as long as it has the ability to enrich uranium, and that a peaceful nuclear power program does not require that ability.
Sherman noted that in the first month of the process, Iran appeared to have met its commitment, although she noted that it is just the start of a very long road. She said she had explained the need for patience when she met with the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, which favors additional sanctions.
The US and Israel are joined in the goal of ensuring that Iran does not have nuclear weapons, but do not agree on every tactical approach, she said.
She promised that a comprehensive agreement would address all concerns and that the US would maintain its veto power until it is certain that the nuclear danger had been thwarted. Sherman said progress had been made in Vienna and that a framework had been reached to guide negotiations for the next five months. This article provides an overview of the issue of nuclear weapons and Africa, with particular emphasis on the process that led to the establishment of an African nuclear-weapon-free zone. Africa became a nuclear-weapon-free zone in July 2009 when the Treaty of Pelindaba entered into force. Notwithstanding the African nuclear-weapon-free zone Treaty, African states have not, to date, been significant actors in the international discourse addressing the elimination of nuclear weapons.
This presumption triggers an examination of the background, current status and prospects of African states joining forces in the work for a world free of nuclear weapons.
Following this introduction, the development and establishment of the African nuclear-weapon-free zone will be presented. In 1990, the UN General Assembly approved a new resolution that called for the implementation of the 1964 Declaration and the establishment of a meeting of experts ”for the preparation and implementation of a convention or treaty on the denuclearization of Africa.”[6] The OAU and the UN established a joint group of experts “to examine the modalities and elements for the preparation and implementation of a convention or treaty on the denuclearisation of Africa”,[7] which met for the first time in May 1991 in Addis Ababa.
The OAU was given a central role in the negotiations that followed, since the group of experts believed that the Charter of the OAU should be the basic reference instrument for a treaty. The African nuclear-weapon-free-zone treaty, commonly known as the Treaty of Pelindaba, was opened for signature on 11 April 1996 in Cairo, and entered into force on 15 July 2009, when Burundi became the 28th African state to deposit its instrument of ratification.
The African nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty seeks to ensure that nuclear weapons are not developed, produced, stockpiled, tested, acquired or stationed in Africa, including its islands states. The Treaty of Pelindaba includes two protocols for the five nuclear-weapon states (NWS) (China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States) to sign and ratify and thus respect the status of the zone and to provide negative security assurances. Protocol II invites the NWS to agree “not to test or assist or encourage the testing of any nuclear explosive device anywhere within the African nuclear-weapon-free zone”.[20] It has been signed by all the NWS and ratified by China, France, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom.
Protocol III invites France and Spain, “in respect of the territories for which it is de jure or de facto internationally responsible situated within the African nuclear-weapon-free zone”, to respect the provisions of the Treaty.[23] France has signed and ratified it. Since the Treaty of Pelindaba entered into force in July 2009, the AU has convened two meetings on the African nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty. From the time the African nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty was opened for signature in April 1996, it took more than 13 years before it entered into force in July 2009. As a step in strengthening the African nuclear-weapon-free zone, an initiative to improve nuclear safety and security in Africa, the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA), was launched in December 2009.
Although most African states have attended the five-yearly NPT Review Conferences (RevCons), their involvement in the debates as well as in pushing for new policies has so far been limited.[33] This may be explained by other priorities or lack of sufficient diplomatic resources. Egypt played a particularly important role during the RevCon since it is a leading country in the Arab League of States and chaired both NAM[39] and the New Agenda Coalition (NAC)[40] at the time.
The UN General Assembly First Committee on Disarmament and International Security is one of six main committees at the UN General Assembly, responsible for disarmament and related international security questions. At the First Committee’s thematic debates on nuclear weapons, African states have not been among the most active countries. The Conference on Disarmament (CD) is a multilateral negotiating forum for disarmament and arms control. The membership process of the CD is established in the forum’s Rules of Procedure and is disputed because it is the CD member states that decide on membership.
According to its Rules of Procedure,[55] the CD invites on an annual basis other UN member states that are not members of the CD to take part in its work as observers. In October 2011, Tanzania expressed dissatisfaction with the current obstacles to becoming a member of the CD at the UN First Committee.[58] ”Perhaps the tranquil spirit that my delegation brings to these forums could be a positive factor in the CD. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans the testing of any nuclear weapon device and seeks to ensure that testing of nuclear weapons is permanently prohibited. The UN Security Council (UNSC) adopted Resolution 1540 in 2004, obliging states to ”refrain from supporting by any means non-State actors from developing, acquiring, manufacturing, possessing, transporting, transferring or using nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their delivery systems”.[67] The Resolution’s adoption under Chapter VII of the UN Charter makes it legally binding for all UN member states. There has been deficient reporting by African states in accordance with the requirements in UNSCR 1540. It is noteworthy that most North African coastal countries have submitted reports: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco. In March 2012, 53 heads of state and government, as well as representatives of the UN, IAEA, European Union (EU) and INTERPOL attended the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul, South Korea. The main outcome of the 2012 Summit was the Seoul Communique[74], which builds on the objectives and measures set out in the 2010 Washington Communique to identify 11 areas of priority and importance in nuclear security and presents specific actions in each area. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit agreed on a work plan consisting of voluntary steps for the participating countries to ensure the safe “storage, use, transportation and disposal of nuclear materials and in preventing non-state actors from obtaining the information required to use such materials for malicious purposes”.[76] Progress on the 2010 Summit work plan and the status of individual country commitments to this work plan were key issues discussed at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. On the issues related to nuclear weapons, African states are represented through multiple groupings, including the African Union (AU), the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the New Agenda Coalition (NAC).
The African Union (AU) was established in 2002 and succeeded the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).


Despite the AU’s work with the Treaty of Pelindaba, the AU has not marked itself internationally as a significant actor in the work to eliminate nuclear weapons. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major bloc. The New Agenda Coalition (NAC) is composed of seven middle powers from across the globe, seeking to create a nuclear-weapons-free world, including Egypt and South Africa.[84] Middle powers are sometimes described as the ”do-gooders” in international politics, often acting as mediators in disputes between states and strongly encouraging cooperative behaviour. NAC was established in 1998 as a consequence of the lack of progress on nuclear disarmament efforts following the NPT’s indefinite extension and of the implications of India and Pakistan’s nuclear tests, and sought to bring new thinking and a new momentum into the debate on these issues.
According to the IAEA, Algeria, Egypt, Ghana, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria and South Africa currently have operational nuclear research reactors. Many African countries have uranium ore deposits, which is a key ingredient in the production of most nuclear weapons.[92] In 2011, Niger was the fourth-highest producer of mined uranium, and Namibia was the fifth-largest producer. Some African states have been engaged with developing nuclear weapons and some have been involved in the work for a world free of nuclear weapons. South Africa has a unique position: It is the only known country in the world to have developed nuclear weapons and then later voluntarily dismantled them and ended its nuclear weapons programme. South Africa has claimed that their nuclear weapons programme had a purely deterrent value. According to the IAEA, South Africa currently has nuclear research reactors and two nuclear power reactors, both intended for civil nuclear energy purposes. South Africa became a member of the CD in 1996 together with 22 other states, after years of negotiations and lobbying in which South Africa played a key role.[101] South Africa is also a member of both NAM and NAC. The first French nuclear weapons tests, both atmospheric and underground, were conducted in Algeria between 1960 and 1966. There are currently two operational nuclear research reactors in Algeria, both intended for civilian nuclear energy purposes. According to the IAEA, Egypt is currently one of seven African countries that possess nuclear research reactors. Egypt chaired both NAM and NAC during the 2010 NPT Review Conference and played a significant role in the deliberations as chair of NAM.
Since 1974, Egypt has taken the initiative to propose a Middle East nuclear-weapons-free zone.
Libya ratified the NPT in 1975 and five years later it reached an agreement with the IAEA on international inspections of its nuclear installations. Following the 2011 Libyan revolution leading to the fall of Qadhafi’s regime in September, it has been claimed that radioactive material was discovered at a military site. According to the IAEA, Nigeria has operational nuclear research reactors, but it has not initiated a nuclear weapons programme.
In addition to being part of the African group in fora such as the UN First Committee and the CD, Nigeria is a member of NAM and the De-alerting group. Despite the support many African states have shown to eliminate nuclear weapons, for instance by signing and ratifying the African nuclear-weapon-free zone Treaty, weapons of mass destruction-related issues remain a low priority in Africa. Some African states, notably South Africa and Egypt, are, however, involved in the work to eliminate nuclear weapons, both individually in international disarmament bodies and as members of NAM and NAC.
The prospect of a Middle East WMD-free zone will most likely be an important issue in the NPT Preparatory Committees (PrepComs) leading up to the next NPT Review Conference in 2015. NAM is the largest grouping of states outside of the UN, which makes it a significant actor in international affairs and important to African states. Only six of the participating countries at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul were African. African states have shown through the process of negotiating the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions that they may play a significant role in international negotiations, especially when several states are acting together, in concert. Currently, Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey are hosting weapons actually belonging to the United States. If the paint on the canvas contains one of several artificial isotopes created only by nuclear explosions, it cannot be a pre-1945 work. When examining the area following one of the detonations, a pig, designated #311, was found swimming in the water. Neither weapon detonated, and the landings were soft enough that no nuclear material was released into the environment. The main goal was to find out more information about the moons geology and the effects of nuclear devices in a near vacuum environment. Sightings indicated that the craft crashed on the coast of Greenland and the US government reported that the craft and its weapons had been secured, and the bombs subsequently destroyed. The yield of one of the several nuclear weapons deployed on a typical American stealth bomber is seventy times more powerful than the device that destroyed that city.
Based on this formula, it would only take .7 grams of matter to produce a yield equal to the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Louise Reiss revealed that the teeth and bones of babies were becoming contaminated by radioactive materials introduced into the environment by nuclear testing.
As with most explosive devices, the initial destructive force is caused by the rapid release of heat.
Others were killed or injured by the collapse of buildings caused by the resulting shock waves. Some people who could have survived the attack died because most of the medical facilities and supplies were destroyed. The bombs used in the attack on Japan were known for creating a condition known as radioactive fallout. Early symptoms of exposure can mimic the flu and may continue to go under the radar until a blood count is done. If you want a solid argument against the production of these kinds of weapons and want to wipe them out completely, here are the most informed arguments that you can use to win any fight during your in-law’s tooth-and-nail dispute. Every nuclear weapons state has made explicit promises to negotiate towards nuclear disarmament. If nations fail to eliminate their nuclear weapon arsenals, then it is likely to result in proliferation of nuclear weapons to dangerous countries. Miscommunication, miscalculation, misfiring, or malfunctioning can occur, considering the thousands upon thousands of nuclear weapons that are already deployed or are on high alert status. Do you start sweating when you are in a room and your friends bring up that topic that you especially dread? This fear could have even been exaggerated so that the every day person would be hyper aware of their safety.
It is not uncommon for them to have bomb shelters built into their basement, internet searches dedicated to increased safety features, and may even become agoraphobic (afraid of going outside) in fear of falling prey to a nuclear attack. This includes, but is not limited to: heart palpitations, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath, tremors, fear of going outside, and even panic attacks. This is perfect because they spend the most time with you during the day, and can help when you are feeling overwhelmed with your anxiety. We watched missiles installed in Cuba, test ban treaties made and broken, and the creation of enough nuclear weapons to annihilate the world many times over.
In addition to loss of life, both animal and vegetation, from the fires and explosions resulting from a nuclear attack, a large scale nuclear conflict could precipitate a condition known as Nuclear Winter, where particulates are spewed into the air that will diminish the Sun’s warming effect, essentially triggering an ice age. They also have created plans and contingencies to be used should a terrorist group successfully launch a nuclear attack on a target.
This act, while not a total solution, would greatly reduce the chance of nuclear weapons being used by countries engaged in conflict, and would severely limit the availability of nuclear weapons and material to terrorist groups. While its ultimate goal is global disarmament, it works with existing treaties, legislation and accords to limit proliferation and to reduce current stockpiles.
However, through a lot of diplomacy and the realization that no attack could negate a devastating retaliation, we survived. And while they may not have the means to launch and target these devices, a working nuclear device could be assembled at or near a target without the need for missiles or planes.
And while the US remains the only country in the world to use strategic nuclear bombs in a combat situation, the stockpiles of these weapons of mass destruction are a major concern to governments and private groups around the globe. Many countries listed as having nuclear capabilities lack the missiles or aircraft to make them a true long range threat. Both the US and Russia have over 7,000 warheads, while the rest of the nuclear countries have 300 or less. Especially when the players have a long history of aggression, like Pakistan and India, North Korea and China, and of course Russia and the US.
Bombs can be deployed over land and still be an effective weapon against a neighboring country.
Each generation since has had to deal with the potential dangers of large scale nuclear conflict. With emerging missile technology, nearly every other continent would have been in range of attacks from Antarctic based weapons. Studies had already shown that residual nuclear material from testing was making its way into the air, food and water supplies around the world, causing potential harm to men, women and children.
The first treaty was forged when the USSR was still a world power, while the second was established after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
It allows nations to prosecute anyone planning, threatening, or attempting any act of terrorism using a nuclear device or radioactive materials, or involving acts of sabotage on any nuclear power plant or other nuclear facility. We are asking everyone to be thoughtful about the steps that they take, so that we have the time and space to get to a comprehensive agreement,” Sherman said.
Sherman said she imagines it will be a topic of debate when AIPAC holds its policy meeting at the start of March in Washington. The Treaty was the result of a protracted process dating back to the early 1960s when a nuclear-weapon-free zone was proposed as a response to French nuclear tests in the Sahara.
Still, Africa could potentially play an important role in this debate, due to its demographic weight of 1 billion people and its voting block of 54 states in international bodies.[1] Hence, if African states engage on an issue, they may play a significant role, as has been demonstrated through the processes of negotiating the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Then the role of African states in international disarmament bodies will be discussed, including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the United Nations (UN) General Assembly First Committee, the Conference on Disarmament (CD), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the UN Security Council Resolution 1540, and the Nuclear Security Summit.
There is no explicit prohibition on the use of nuclear weapons in the Treaty, but it prohibits research on nuclear weapons, dumping of radioactive waste, and armed attacks on nuclear installations in the African zone by Treaty parties. Negative security assurances are guarantees by the NWS not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against states that have formally renounced them. Spain, which is a non-nuclear-weapon state, has neither signed nor ratified Protocol III of the Treaty. The First Conference of States took place in Cairo in November 2010 and the first ordinary session of the African Commission on Nuclear Energy (AFCONE), the Treaty’s implementing body, was arranged in Addis Ababa in May 2011. It came as a response to the increasing use of radioactive material in peaceful nuclear applications such as health, agriculture and energy.
It is noteworthy, however, that African states played a more active role in the 2010 NPT RevCon compared to previous RevCons, both individually and as members of groupings such as the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM),[34] the Africa Group and the Arab group. In addition, the Resolution required all states in the region to work for a Middle East zone free of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.
A number of non-nuclear-weapon states (NNWS), including many African states, expressed support for a civil society proposal for a Nuclear Weapons Convention[41] that would declare the possession, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons illegal.
The First Committee meets for a 4-5 weeks’ session in October every year after the General Assembly General Debate, and all UN member states may attend the sessions. The CD arose out of the UN General Assembly’s Special Session on Disarmament in 1978 and succeeded the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD, 1969-78). As of 2011, African observer states to the CD have included Ghana, Libya, Mauritius, Mozambique and Sudan. In this regard, it is very appropriate that we also consider the expansion of the machinery to give it a better multilateral appearance”.[59] This statement suggests that Tanzania is interested in CD membership, and this interest seems to be shared among more African states. The Treaty was negotiated at the CD in Geneva and was opened for signature in 1996, but has not yet entered into force. In 2001, Egypt’s Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs Mahmoud Mubarak stated before the Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force Of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty that ”(…) the question of the ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) cannot neglect the regional considerations associated with the Middle East.
The Resolution imposes binding obligations on all states to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation by non-state actors of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, including establishing appropriate controls over related materials. Of the remaining states that have not submitted reports to the 1540 Committee, nearly all are developing countries and the majority of these are African countries. The Summit was a follow-up to the 2010 Washington Nuclear Security Summit where 47 world leaders, invited by President Barack Obama, met to discuss concrete measures to prevent nuclear terrorism and secure vulnerable nuclear materials. There have been a number of analyses discussing the progress on the 2010 Summit work plan with few, if any, references to Africa. The AU consists of 54 African states, Morocco being the only African state that is not a member of the union.[80] The OAU and later the AU has played a significant role in the process of negotiating and ratifying the Treaty of Pelindaba. It played a key role in the 2000 NPT Review Conference in outlining 13 steps to help the world eliminate nuclear weapons. A selection of these states’ experiences and positions with regards to nuclear weapons will be explored. The question of why South Africa chose to destroy its nuclear weapons and end its nuclear weapons programme has been much discussed. As a leading African state in various international fora, a member of a nuclear-weapon-free zone, combined with the exceptional position of having developed nuclear weapons and then later voluntarily dismantled them and ended its nuclear weapons programme, South Africa has a rather unique position. After independence, Algeria launched its nuclear programme in the early 1980s and established the Commissariat for New Energy to develop nuclear energy. Instead of developing nuclear weapons, Egypt has focused on increasing conventional forces, and it has neither ratified the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) nor the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). In addition to being a leading country in the Arab League of States, Egypt can also act as a bridge between the Arab region and Africa.
In 1990, Egypt expanded this initiative to endorse not only nuclear weapons, but all weapons of mass destruction, thus including biological and chemical weapons.[109] Egypt is central in the on-going process of possibly creating a weapons of mass destruction free zone in the Middle East and a conference is scheduled for 2012 in Finland, in which Egypt is expected to play a leading role. Despite this, President Muammar Qadhafi repeatedly proclaimed in the mid- and late 1970s that Libya was determined to acquire nuclear weapons.
What was found was said to be so-called yellowcake, which is processed uranium ore that may be used to produce enriched uranium for nuclear purposes.[112] This information is yet to be confirmed by the IAEA, but the National Transitional Council has announced that they are in close contact with the IAEA and have no interest in keeping the material. Egypt’s leading role in the work for a Middle East weapons of mass destruction (WMD) free zone is noteworthy.


The chairmanship of NAM rotates among member states every three years and changes at every summit of heads of states. Given that the Nuclear Security Summits aim at reaching substantive outcomes, the number of participating countries at the next Nuclear Security Summit in the Netherlands in 2014 will most likely remain more or less the same.[124] This implies that the number of participating African countries at the 2014 Summit will probably remain the same as at the 2012 Summit. Through the process of negotiating the Convention on Cluster Munitions, African states also demonstrated that they are willing to act on an issue that does not affect them directly, as landmines did, to prevent a weapon to cause future harm in African states.[125] If African states place the elimination of nuclear weapons on their agenda, especially if it is done through the AU or NAM, they could potentially play a significant role in the international discourse on this issue as well.
Africa covers about 20% of the Earth’s total land area, and with its approximately one billion inhabitants in 54 countries it accounts for about 15% of the world’s population.
But here’s the catch: the bombs cannot be detonated without a special authorized security code issued by the US Armed Forces. While the fact that the documents are forgeries has been established, the identity of the forger is still unknown. In recent years, the residual radiation has dropped to the point that the lake is now safe for residents to swim in. It was also hoped that the fact that the explosion and its effects could be seen from earth would have a positive effect on the cold war. The disturbing nature of these findings contributed to many of the test ban treaties which limited the number, nature and magnitude of nuclear tests. Conventional explosives, such as dynamite and TNT, create temperatures at detonation in the thousands of degrees range. This occurs when soil, ash and other debris is mixed with the radioactive elements from the bomb and thrown high into the atmosphere, where it can be carried great distances by the wind. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed by the US, Russia, Britain, France, and China, was extended in 1995, and 2000. The argument that powerful nations should protect themselves with powerful weapons will surely lead to less powerful nations will make that argument as well.
This risk is especially high considering the short amount of time allowed for making decisions about if there is a state of emergency occurring or not. Because of their power and overall destructive potential, nuclear weapons are especially wanted by terrorists (seriously though, if you have to keep going here is what you can say). Does your heart beat extremely fast when you are caught talking about nuclear weapons, their creation, their destruction, their history? Hiroshima caused a rush of horror stories around the world, which also put logs on a fire that was already burning bright.
If you are experiencing these symptoms and you think that they night be associated with your fear of nuclear weapons, then there is help to be found. This would include any array of therapeutic techniques and types of therapists that are free for you to choose from. They can aid in reminding you about the real statistics and risk of being under a nuclear attack that can return you back to reality faster than if you were simply dealing with it by yourself.
And then, the cold war froze solid, and the dangers of nuclear war seemed pushed to the back burner. Modern watchdog groups estimate that more than 10,000 nuclear bombs still exist today, many full functional and ready to be launched. And while we weathered those decades of fear and paranoia, the dangers presented from nuclear weapons are just as real now, though they may take a somewhat different form. But both countries still have the capacity for global thermonuclear war, something that many politicians and watchdog groups have not forgotten. Many consider the possibility of suitcase nuke, a bomb small enough to be carried to ground zero, as credible a threat as a mass attack from an existing super power. And with the kind of payload that even a small strategic nuclear device caries, accuracy in targeting is not the first concern. This treaty essentially demilitarized the entire continent, prohibiting any military exercises, troop emplacements, and the testing of or installation of weapons systems, both nuclear and conventional. Essentially, this treaty limited nuclear testing to underground sites, which reduced their impact on the environment.
So are relevant bodies and groupings with a bearing on disarmament policies that African states participate in. This discussion necessitates a closer examination of the relevant bodies and groupings African states participate in that have a bearing on disarmament policies: the African Union (AU), the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the New Agenda Coalition (NAC). The supportive role of the UN was considered crucial to ensure that the convention or treaty would be consistent with the purposes and principles of the UN.
However, the Treaty supports use of nuclear energy and nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. Additionally, a third protocol addresses states that are in control of territories within the African nuclear-weapon-free zone to apply the principles of the treaty to the territories under their control. Most states delayed the ratification for years, thus postponing the Treaty’s entry-into-force significantly. This Resolution has been a long-standing goal of South Africa and Egypt and other states in North Africa and beyond. The First Committee discussion pertains to disarmament-related matters and provides space for all states to discuss their positions and to work together to approach these issues.
The CD has remained deadlocked since the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996. In June 1996, 23 further states were admitted as members to the CD, following a long process over several years of negotiations and lobbying in which South Africa played a key role. Observer states may attend and speak at CD meetings as well as circulate papers and make contributions.[56] Still, over the years, the CD member states have faced a lot of criticism for their restrictive attitude towards membership expansion.
In Africa, three countries (Mauritius, Somalia and South Sudan) have not yet signed, while ratification is pending from 11 countries[61] (Angola, Chad, Comoros, Republic of Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, the Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe). The 1540 Committee was established to monitor and oversee the implementation of the resolution.
The African countries that have submitted reports have rarely provided sufficient details, with South Africa being a notable exception.[69] The low level of reporting may be attributed to a lack of bureaucratic and financial resources, and to “reporting fatigue”, rather than a lack of political will.
Six African countries participated in the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit: Algeria, Egypt, Gabon, Morocco, Nigeria and South Africa. As one analyst claims, this may signify ”either that very little is happening on the continent or, more likely, that African states are not seen as major threats to nuclear security”. South Africa acceeded to the NPT in 1991 and signed a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA the same year. Unfortunately, much information about South Africa’s nuclear weapons programme remains unaccessible as a result of official secrecy.[98] One reason for ending the programme may have been the extremely high economic costs of keeping the weapons in a time of economic difficulties during the last years of apartheid.
It was speculated that Algeria may have been developing a nuclear weapons programme in cooperation with China and Argentina in the 1980s and 1990s, which presumably was motivated by a desire to counter a perceived threat from Libya.
Egypt did initiate a nuclear programme in 1954 and acquired a nuclear research reactor from the Soviet Union in 1961. This desire was presumably motivated by Qadhafi’s conviction that Israel had aquired nuclear weapons.
The outcome of the conference on a possible WMD-free zone in the Middle East scheduled to take place in Finland in late 2012[118] will be of interest not only to Egypt, but to all African members of the League of Arab States due to their proximity and close relations to the Middle East region. The final PrepCom in 2014 will evaluate the action plan adopted at the 2010 NPT Review Conference.[121] NAM’s participation at the 2010 RevCon, with Egypt chairing, was significant for the final outcome.
According to Weapons of Mass Destruction Awareness, these are the real facts about nuclear weapons and their effects. Even countries that are not a part of the NPT have sworn to destroy their own nuclear weapons (India and Pakistan) if others like them agree to do so as well. This will cause the Non-Proliferation Treaty to hang in a delicate balance when all parties meet for the next NPT Review Conference. This threat is even greater when you consider Russia’s early warning system has been vulnerable since the Cold War, so their ability to sense a terror attack is weakened as well.
This can occur even if you are exposed to pictures of nuclear events or see a movie about nuclear weapons. You may also be able to take a medication to help manage your anxiety, like Ativan or Prozac.
Reaching out to family and friends is a great way to feel supported through your fear and dissuade yourself from being overtaken by it. Diplomacy lead to detente, and the tensions that characterized much of modern history seemed to relax.
They have a long history of hatred and distrust towards each other, and they are tied for 6th place among the nuclear nations with 120 weapons a piece.
It would be a mistake, she said, for the US Congress to pass legislation for new sanctions at this time, even if the start date for those sanctions were after July 20. A selection of African states’ experiences and positions with regards to nuclear weapons are also explored. South Africa did have a nuclear weapons programme and developed nuclear weapons, but the programme was dismantled in the early 1990s. Following this, some African states’ experiences and positions on nuclear weapons will be explored, namely those of South Africa, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria. Even though the Treaty has entered into force, it is noteworthy that 20 ratifications are still missing among the total 54 signatory states. Following weeks of negotiations, the RevCon agreed to convene a Conference on a Middle East zone free of weapons of mass destruction in 2012[38], which is currently scheduled to take place in Finland later this year.
However, while the First Committee offers many opportunities in principle, it often fails to make good use of its potential.
All CD decisions are made by consensus, and the difficulty of achieving consensus accounts for continued stalemate. Egypt stated that the only way to realize a Middle East free of nuclear weapons was to achieve “the universality of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, through the adherence to the NPT by the only country in our region that has not yet acceded to it”.[66] Thus implying that the focus should be on Israel joining the NPT before focusing on the implementation of the CTBT. Many African states lack the capacity to meet the demand for an increasing number of reports that need to be submitted to various UN bodies.
With the exception of Gabon, it was the same African countries that also participated at the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit.
NAM gives regular statements at the UN First Committee, and played a significant role at the 2010 NPT Review Conference, with Egypt chairing NAM.[82] NAM also has a working group on disarmament. IAEA inspectors began to visit South Africa’s nuclear facilities in 1991, and they soon suspected that there had been a nuclear weapons programme. Combined with the conviction that they would never be used, this may have motivated President de Klerk to end the programme. However, this reactor was small and not capable of producing a significant amount of weapons-grade material.
Over the following decades, Libya cooperated with various states in order to assemble the necessary technology and resources to acquire nuclear weapons. What role African states will play at the 2015 NPT Review Conference may depend on their influence in NAM and NAM’s engagement at the RevCon. The firestorm resulting from a nuclear blast can destroy an area many miles across, and the shock waves can cause death and destruction beyond the limits of the firestorm. Also, if you think about it a little more, and your audience needs more convincing, you can tell them that in a world where terrorists are hard to find, and nuclear weapons need a steady target; therefore, it will be near impossible to attack terrorists with nuclear weapons since they are hiding beneath the sand.
Having a supportive community is also something that a therapist might suggest as a tool during therapy. It would not take much to light up that part of the world, and 240 nuclear bombs can do a lot of damage in a very short time. The article ends with an outline of possible future prospects of African states’ engagement for a world free of nuclear weapons.
South Africa is a unique case, being the only known country in the world to have voluntarily ended its nuclear programme after developing nuclear weapons. Finally, some possible future prospects of African states’ engagement for a world free of nuclear weapons will be discussed.
The lack of ratification does not necessarily imply that there is a lack of political will to ratify the Treaty. Several African states made concluding remarks after the final document was adopted, including Egypt (on behalf of NAM), Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Sudan, South Africa and Tanzania.
With the exception of 1998 and 2009, the CD has not been able to reach consensus even on its programme of work. Given the size of NAM, it has the potential to play a significant role in international negotiations if the members act in concert. However, the IAEA kept its suspicions to itself because the IAEA charter prevents it from sharing confidential safeguards information with the public. Another reason may have been de Klerk’s fear of what the consequences would be if the African National Congress (ANC) took over power and inherited the nuclear weapons.[99] South Africa was under no obligation to reveal past nuclear weapons activities when acceding to the NPT, but it nonetheless declared that they had possessed nuclear weapons.
Egypt discarded its nuclear ambitions after the defeat to Israel in the Six-Day war in 1967 and signed the NPT the following year. As a result, the state may have had the theoretical capability to develop certain nuclear weapons. How Iran’s chairmanship will influence NAM is of high importance to African states in general, and it may influence how African states will contribute in the work for a world free of nuclear weapons.
Since their introduction to the general public, widespread fear of nuclear weapons is not uncommon. One of the greatest things that you can have to battle this fear is a safe place to go that surrounds you with people who understand and love you. Several other African states are believed to have launched nuclear weapons programmes, but these were presumably ended before any nuclear weapons were produced. Still, Egypt delayed ratifying the NPT until 1981, presumably because the government had evidence that Israel had initiated a nuclear weapons programme.[105] Egypt has not signed the CTBT, and Egypt’s signature is required for the treaty to enter into force.
British intelligence revealed in 2002 that Libya was involved in the Pakistani nuclear scientist A.Q.



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