What is the strength of the earth magnetic field in gauss,emergency kit earthquake japan 6.8,fr?quence national geographic wild hd nilesat,survival outdoor skills.com - For Begninners

Modern grain bins in southern Africa, which are very similar to the grain bins found in that continent's Iron Age.
The ritualistic practice of burning down huts and grain bins in South African agricultural communities might give scientists some clues as to the process that leads to the reversal of the planet's magnetic field. The particular location of the huts is important, because they sit in a region that has long been known to be a weak spot in the Earth’s magnetic field. The results suggest that underneath these huts, the Earth’s core might play an important role in the reversal of the planet’s magnetic poles. The last time the poles switched is thought to have been around 800,000 years ago, and some suggest that this process, which can take 15,000 years to complete, has started again. The study, published in Nature Communications, found that between 1225 and 1550 CE, there was a sharp 30% drop in magnetic intensity in the region. To be completely accurate, the bar magnet does not run exactly along the Earth's rotational axis. It turns out that because the Earth's magnetic field is so weak, a compass is nothing but a detector for very slight magnetic fields created by anything.
Deep within the Earth, a fierce molten core is generating a magnetic field capable of defending our planet against devastating solar winds. The protective field extends thousands of miles into space and its magnetism affects everything from global communication to animal migration and weather patterns.
But this magnetic field, so important to life on Earth, has weakened by 15 per cent over the last 200 years. If a switch happens, we would be exposed to solar winds capable of punching holes into the ozone layer.
The impact could be devastating for mankind, knocking out power grids, radically changing Earth’s climate and driving up rates of cancer.
The study claimed that the planet is experiencing a natural period of low cloud cover due to fewer cosmic rays entering the atmosphere. Radiation at ground level would also increase, with some estimates suggesting overall exposure to cosmic radiation would double causing more deaths from cancer. Researchers predict that in the event of a flip, every year a hundred thousand people would die from the increased levels of space radiation. The magnetosphere is a large area around the Earth produced by the planet’s magnetic field.
The magnetosphere is a large area around the Earth produced by the planet’s magnetic field.
The mission plans to provide better maps of our planet’s magnetic field and help scientists understand the impact of space weather on satellite communication and GPS. During a reversal, scientists expect to see more complicated field pattern at the Earth’s surface, with perhaps more than one North and South Pole at any given time. By examining pottery from prehistory to modern times, scientists have discovered just how dramatically the field has changed in the last few centuries. If the magnetic field continues to decline, over billions of years, Earth could end up like Mars – a once oceanic world that has become a dry, barren planet incapable of supporting life. Life has existed on the Earth for billions of years, during which there have been many reversals.
It appears that some animals, such as whales and some birds use Earth’s magnetic field for migration and direction finding. Since geomagnetic reversal takes a number of thousands of years, they could well adapt to the changing magnetic environment or develop different methods of navigation.
Radiation at ground level would increase, however, with some estimates suggesting that overall exposure to cosmic radiation would double causing more deaths from cancer. They claimed that fluctuations in the number of cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere directly alter the amount of cloud covering the planet.
Henrik Svensmark, a weather scientist at the Danish National Space Centre who led the team behind the research, believes that the planet is experiencing a natural period of low cloud cover due to fewer cosmic rays entering the atmosphere. But scientists claim the rate of decline is too fast for the Earth’s core to simply burn out.
According to the British Geological Survey, the Earth’s magnetic field has on average four or five reversals in polarity every million years and we’re now overdue a similar event. If a flip occurs, it would cause the Earth’s magnetic shield to be weakened for thousands of years, opening up our defences and causing cosmic radiation to get through.

Scientists however, are quick to point out that while a magnetic flip could cause problems for mankind, the event won’t be a catastrophic.
There remains, however, much work yet to be done in understanding the properties of the deep Earth. The Earth’s core is a hostile world where the crushing forces and temperatures, similar to that of the surface of the sun, take our scientific understanding and abilities to the limit.
The mission consists of three identical satellites which will precisely measure the strength and direction of Earth’s magnetic field. The lower two satellites will allow very fine measurements of the magnetic field generated by the rocks in the Earth’s crust, which are difficult to detect otherwise. The solar minimum occurs approximately every 11 years when fewer sunspots like these appear. Observations have shown, however, that magnetic effects on Earth due to the sun, effects that cause the aurora to appear, did not go down in synch with the cycle of low magnetism on the sun. Small magnetometers like these measure magnetic strength on Earth and in the atmosphere to determine how much of the sun's magnetic energy has been transferred to Earth's magnetosphere. Geomagnetic effects basically amount to any magnetic changes on Earth due to the sun, and they're measured by magnetometer readings on the surface of the Earth.
Three things help determine how much energy from the sun is transferred to Earth's magnetosphere from the solar wind: the speed of the solar wind, the strength of the magnetic field outside Earth's bounds (known as the interplanetary magnetic field) and which direction it is pointing, since a large southward component is necessary to connect successfully to Earth's magnetosphere and transfer energy.
First, the researchers noted that in 2008 and 2009, the interplanetary magnetic field was the lowest it had been in the history of the space age. To examine the speed of the solar wind, they turned to NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), which is in interplanetary space outside the Eartha€™s magnetosphere, approximately 1 million miles toward the sun. Coronal holes seem to be responsible for minimizing the southward direction of the interplanetary magnetic field as well. Working together, these three factors -- low interplanetary magnetic field strength combined with slower solar wind speed and smaller magnetic fluctuations due to coronal hole placement -- create the perfect environment for a geomagnetic minimum. Knowing what situations cause and suppress intense geomagnetic activity on Earth is a step toward better predicting when such events might happen. By analyzing a particular mineral formed by the burning of the huts, the researchers were able to track how the magnetic field in this area has changed over time. Equally, the magnetic field of the planet is known to vary so we could simply be seeing natural fluctuations. With the Earth’s magnetic field strength having dropped by 16% since 1840, some people think that it could indicate the beginning of another cycle in which the planet’s poles change, though the researchers of this study think it could simply be a feature of a larger cycle of magnetic shifts. It turns out that you can think of the Earth as having a gigantic bar magnet buried inside. After all, the planet Earth is almost 8,000 miles in diameter, so the magnetic field has to travel a long way to affect your compass.
That is why we can use a compass to detect the small magnetic field produced by a wire carrying a current (see How Electromagnets Work). In fact, a recent Danish study believes global warming is directly related to the magnetic field rather than CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the ozone holes would be larger and longer-lived,’ said Dr Colin Forsyth from the Mullard Space Science Laboratory at UCL.
It presence means that charged particles of the solar wind are unable to cross the magnetic field lines and are deflected around the Earth. In November, three spacecraft were launched as part of the SWARM mission to uncover how the Earth’s magnetic field is changing.
But historic evidence of its decline has already been found in a surprising source – ancient pottery. Magnetic north drifts around and every few hundred thousand years the polarity flips so a compass would point south instead of north.
The overall strength of the field, anywhere on the Earth, may be no more than a tenth of its strength now. Magnetic north drifts and every few hundred thousand years the polarity flips so a compass would point south instead of north.

Likewise, reversal patterns do not have any correlation with human development and evolution.
As the magnetic field continues to weaken, scientists are highlighting the importance off-the grid energy systems using renewable energy sources to protect the Earth against a black out. Instead, the story told by ancient pottery suggests the Earth’s poles could be about to undergo another flip. The much sought-after spectacle of an aurora would be visible every night all over the Earth as solar winds hit the atmosphere. The new data will be processed by British Geological Survey to produce an accurate map of this field.
Two satellites will fly side-by-side at height of 450 km, while the third satellite will fly at an altitude of 530 km. The number of these sunspots wax and wane over approximately an 11-year cycle -- more sunspots generally mean more activity and eruptions on the sun and vice versa.
Now, a paper in Annales Geophysicae that appeared on May 16, 2011 reports that these effects on Earth did in fact reach a minimum -- indeed they attained their lowest levels of the century -- but some eight months later. Such effects are usually harmless, the only obvious sign of their presence being the appearance of auroras near the poles. Consequently, the center of the holes stayed firmly pointed towards wind at Earth begin to slow down.
To do so well, Tsurutani points out, requires focusing on the tight connection between such effects and the complex physics of the sun.
In order for the north end of the compass to point toward the North Pole, you have to assume that the buried bar magnet has its south end at the North Pole, as shown in the diagram at the right. This skew is called the declination, and most good maps indicate what the declination is in different areas (since it changes a little depending on where you are on the planet). But at the very core, the pressure is so great that this superhot iron crystallizes into a solid. When pots form, the magnetite minerals align with the Earth’s magnetic field, just like compass needles. The strength of the magnetic field also constantly changes and currently it is showing signs of significant weakening.
Magnetic reversal or flip is the process by which the North Pole is transformed into the South and vice versa, typically following a considerable reduction in the strength of the magnetic field.
More like HAARP instigating, disrupting and destroying whatever’s left of our magnetosphere to make it happen. The number of sunspots can change from cycle to cycle and 2008 saw the longest and weakest solar minimum since scientists have been monitoring the sun with space-based instruments.
The scientists believe that factors in the speed of the solar wind, and the strength and direction of the magnetic fields embedded within it, helped produce this anomalous low.
However, in extreme cases, they can cause power grid failures on Earth or induce dangerous currents in long pipelines, so it is valuable to know how the geomagnetic effects vary with the sun. Otherwise, there just isn't enough strength in the Earth's magnetic field to turn the needle. Convection caused by heat radiating from the core, along with the rotation of the Earth, causes the liquid iron to move in a rotational pattern.
Fast solar wind shoots out the center of coronal holes at speeds up to 500 miles per second, but wind flowing out of the sides slows down as it expands into space.
The wind coming out of the centers of the coronal holes have large fluctuations, meaning that the southward magnetic component a€“ like that in all the directions -- is fairly large.
It is believed that these rotational forces in the liquid iron layer lead to weak magnetic forces around the axis of spin.

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