Wilderness survival techniques pdf notes,national geographic genome vs 23andme,diploma electronics engineering books - Step 2

This course is a basic level course geared towards those who work in the exploration industry, on projects located in rugged terrain.  Course material includes information on hazard identification, elimination and accident prevention. Training places emphasis on leadership skills and responsibilities for the project supervisor and coordinators. This course is designed for safety professionals and managers whose job is to stay current with the latest mountain rescue and evacuation techniques.
These adventure trips in Alaska cover the techniques necessary to remain comfortable in the wilderness with, at best, a minimum of equipment.
Group activities include shelter building, some of which may be slept in by participants, and plant usage. One of your first concerns when you find yourself in a survival situation is to communicate with your friends or allies. If in a noncombat situation, you need to find the largest available clear and flat area on the highest possible terrain. Whatever signaling technique or device you plan to use, know how to use it and be ready to put it into operation on short notice. A radio is probably the surest and quickest way to let others know where you are and to let you receive their messages. You will find descriptions of other signaling techniques, devices, and articles you can use.
In a desert environment, smoke hangs close to the ground, but a pilot can spot it in open desert terrain. To have the pen flare ready for immediate use, take it out of its wrapper, attach the flare, leave the gun uncocked, and wear it on a cord or chain around your neck.
Red is the international distress color; therefore, use a red star cluster whenever possible. These flares reach a height of 200 to 215 meters and descend at a rate of 2.1 meters per second. Wear the signal mirror on a cord or chain around your neck so that it is ready for immediate use.
Do not flash a signal mirror rapidly because a pilot may mistake the flashes for enemy fire.
Haze, ground fog, and mirages may make it hard for a pilot to spot signals from a flashing object.
Note: Pilots have reported seeing mirror flashes up to 160 kilometers away under ideal conditions.
If you lack other means, you can use natural materials to form a symbol or message that can be seen from the air. In snow-covered areas, tramp the snow to form letters or symbols and fill the depression with contrasting material (twigs or branches). In any terrain, use contrasting materials that will make the symbols visible to the aircrews. All Army aircraft involved in operations near or over water will normally carry a water survival kit that contains sea dye markers.
Radios, whistles, and gunshots are some of the methods you can use to signal your presence to rescuers.
If the radio has tone capability, place it upright on a flat, elevated surface so that you can perform other survival tasks. Now that you know how to let people know where you are, you need to know how to give them more information.
When an aircraft is close enough for the pilot to see you clearly, use body movements or positions (Figure 19-7) to convey a message. If you have a life raft cover or sail, or a suitable substitute, use the symbols shown in Figure 19-8 to convey a message. Once the pilot of a fixed-wing aircraft has sighted you, he will normally indicate he has seen you by flying low, moving the plane, and flashing lights as shown in Figure 19-9. This 15 inch survival knife with drop point blade features a thick quality stainless steel blade with serrated top edge. One of the cornerstones of survivalist, and one of my personal favorite subjects, is bushcrafting. Every year, thousands of people get lost in the wilderness, from national parks to private property. The first step in honing your bushcrafting skills is to first familiarize yourself with the area.
Use all of your senses-breathe in the smell of the forest, feel the texture of the soil, listen to creak and groan of the trees. Look at the plants are your feet, the tree you’re leaning against, the moss growing on it-everything.
In addition, keep in mind you’re taking these observations with the possibility of foraging for food one day. If you’re ever in a pinch and uncertain of a plant’s toxicity, there are a couple of ways you can determine how safe it may be to ingest. As you begin to identity the plants, begin researching them for any useful properties that might not be visible to the naked eye. Begin keeping a catalogue to organize the information you gather, separating plants based on their uses: medicinal, food, and textile (these will be plants that are particularly well suited for building, clothing, or tool making materials). Stand a good distance back from an area, and rather than analyzing individual features of the landscape, allow your eyes to glaze over and take in the setting as a whole. It would take a book to go over the wilderness survival skills you’d really need to make it a week on your own.
Not only are these invaluable skills to have, but they’re incredibly fun to learn and teach.
If you’re in a flatter area, or one with rolling hills, again, look for ditches and drainage. The complexities of traditional bow-making are a little too in depth for this article, but there are many other ways you can catch wild game without the use of modern tools. One of the most basic animal traps is the snare, which is essentially just a slipknot, placed in an inconspicuous location, designed to snag a passing animal around the leg or hock.
If you happen to have some rope on you, use around 5 feet of that, but if you don’t, search around for some “green”, or flexible, grasses or vines. Many people set up trap lines, in which they will have a trail of traps set up at strategic places, to have the most chances of getting an animal. Speaking of trapping, another excellent bushcraft survival skill involves an old Native American method of trapping small fish in running water. Using your wild bushcrafting skills to drum up a shelter isn’t terribly complicated, but it is time consuming. A roof can usually be woven together fairly simply, just be sure to use living, or green branches.
Insulate your dwelling with whatever you can find, just make sure it’s dry and passenger free (nothing like waking up to a bed full of fire ants).
Many of these skills come from the old timers who had no choice but to rough it, back in the days when if they wanted a house, they had to go swing an axe and build one. The truth is, there is no really great source of information on the Internet for these skills. Shelter becomes especially important in extreme environments, such as the harsh cold where shelter is needed to hold in warmth and block wind, or the harsh heat where it is needed to provide shade. Shelter is also important in the jungle, where you need to get dry and sleep off the ground where snakes and insects roam. Ingenuity is always the best skill when it comes to bushcrafting and shelter building, but there are several tried and true shelter techniques that work very well and are worth knowing.
You want your camp to be close to a water source, but if too close, you may be pestered by many insects. Some places are prone to flash flooding, especially mountainous regions, in which a virtual wall of water can drown a completely dry area in just minutes, with no prior warning.
Give yourself plenty of time to establish a good shelter for the night, at least a couple hours before nightfall.
Wind chill increases body heat loss significantly, so take this into account and be certain your shelter blocks the wind in cold environments.
There is a great, easy to remember method for checking the basics of a good shelter location called the "5 W's". Some trees provide a dense, low canopy of leaves and branches that can be sufficient enough for a good shelter in mild environments.
Sometimes caves will even have a fresh water source, especially when running deep into a hillside. When sheltering in a cave, it is useful to put the fire in the cave instead of near the entrance. Where there is heavy snow, there may be a large pocket of air under a big conifer tree near the trunk where the snowfall did not reach.
Check on the leeward side of evergreen trees as that side will be more protected from wind and less susceptible to snowfall.
If you can find a large drift or mound of snow, you can dig deep into it, a few feet below the surface, and create a type of snow cave which is great for insulation and protection from the wind. Sculpt the top of the cave in a parabola (curved) shape, this gives extra strength to prevent the snow from collapsing. It's best to dig with some type of implement, or at least a thick stick, but you may be able to dig with your hands as long as they are well covered by gloves.
If you have a proper implement and the snow is right, you can cut it into blocks and stack them, this is how igloos are made.
The ideal snow for making blocks will support a man's weight without making much impression, but be soft enough to penetrate with a probe. When stacking snow blocks center each one over the middle of the joint below, like laying bricks.
If you can get a small fire inside that is great, but too hot and it will melt the structure! Cut and pull up turf rectangles from the ground, 1-3 inches deep and 6-18 inches wide, and simply stack them to build walls. Build one wall taller than the opposite wall and the connecting wall(s) at an angle so a pitched roof can be attached, which will deflect rain. An A-frame shelter is usually built by laying one long wooden pole "backbone" on two support branches, with the other end resting on the ground. A similar shelter to the A-frame is one where you take one long wooden pole for the backbone, and put two-stick supports throughout the entire backbone.


If you have a large tarp, hide, or sheet, it can be placed over the structure instead of using branches and leaves for the sides, then the tarp can be pinned down to the ground with stakes or have heavy rocks or dirt placed on the excess to hold it in place. If you can stick the supports into the ground and bend them to the backbone, then tie them in place, you will create a parabola shape instead of a triangle, which will give more living space.
Instead of using makeshift support legs, you can rest the backbone in y-junctions on trees.
One version consists of an already made wall such as a rock face, and you simply lean long poles, branches and other materials against it at about a 45 degree angle to create a roof. The second version consists of the poles and branches being supported by other poles or trees, so the side is completely open instead of a wall being there. Just gather 5-10 wooden poles and tie them together at the top, then spread them out at the base. A great thing about a tipi is you can have a fire inside, as long as it is wide enough and there is a hole at the top for smoke to escape, then the hole can be covered, for example with a hide, when it rains. You will want to sleep on a raised platform, off of the ground where snakes and insects roam, and water collects. A raised platform bed can be made more comfortable by stacking soft material like plant matter on it, or even dirt. When making a roof or wall for many of these types of shelters, such as the A-frame or lean to, it will be especially effective and durable if you make a rigid panel frame instead of just stacking branches. Take four sticks about the same length, and tie them together at the ends to form a square, or rectangle. When applying roofing material such as leaves, put them on the lowest part first, then work your way upward stacking them on top of each other. Split large bamboo stalks in half lengthwise, then lay out a row of them, and another on top facing the opposite direction, covering the joints for an excellent rain proof roof. Be careful when harvesting bamboo, they often grow in tangled clumps, and are bent under pressure. In wilderness survival, you are usually either dealing with weather or preparing for weather. In a cold environment, construct something that will reflect the heat and infrared rays of a fire back toward you and your shelter.
If you have a good sized tarp or sheet, and some cordage, you can easily rig any variation of roofs and walls by tying the tarp to various trees. If you are laying on the ground and on a slope, you can protect yourself from rainfall by digging a trench around your shelter on the higher side for runoff to enter and flow around you shelter.
Rudimentary animal tracking is covered to give students the skills to begin building their knowledge of animal movement. Build three fires in a triangle (the international distress signal) or in a straight line with about 25 meters between the fires.
If in a jungle, find a natural clearing or the edge of a stream where you can build fires that the jungle foliage will not hide. If you don't have a mirror, polish your canteen cup, your belt buckle, or a similar object that will reflect the sun's rays. However, be sure the glass side is against your body so that it will not flash; the enemy can see the flash.
Do not direct the beam in the aircraft's cockpit for more than a few seconds as it may blind the pilot. When using a strobe light, take care to prevent the pilot from mistaking it for incoming ground fire. Build mounds that cast shadows; you can use brush, foliage of any type, rocks, or snow blocks. If you are in a water survival situation, use sea dye markers during daylight to indicate your location. Since radios are line-of-sight communications devices, any terrain between the radio and the receiver will block the signal. Be ready to relay other messages to the pilot once he acknowledges that he received and understood your first message.
Follow instructions and continue to use sound survival and evasion techniques until you are actually rescued. This is a wilderness survival skill that involves using only what you find in nature, and whatever you may have on your or be able to carry, to survive in the wilderness. Though basic navigational skills would be incredibly helpful in these scenarios, if you can’t find your way out of the thicket, knowing how to make use of your surroundings can make all the difference in the world. Wherever you tend to roam, arm yourself with a library of local field guides and pamphlets. This process feels delightfully primal, and will really connect you with the space you’re in. Not knowing the difference between a deadly plant like water hemlock and a harmless flower like chamomile can be deadly.
If not, proceed to the next step and touch it to the inside of your lip, or the tip of your tongue. They were an incredibly resourceful people who made excellent use out of as much as they could, and found surprising uses for many common plants. The obvious way to spot wildlife is by looking for it directly, but much of what lives in the wilderness teems right under our noses, without ever showing its face.
If you’re finding a bunch of elk poop in a particular area, look at the plant life and geography of the area. Not only is this a personal safety concern, but predators have a tremendous influence over the movements of the other animals.
Make your family a part of the learning experience-teach your son how to set a snare, or your daughter how to trap fish. If you live in a mountainous area, there are likely to be tributaries and steams in the valleys between the mountains, known as coolies.
Knowing what plants are around you, and how to tell if they are safe to eat or not, is a crucial bushcraft survival skill. Trapping has been used for thousands of years, and has taken numerous forms as technology has, again, changed its face. There are many different ways to tie and set one, some of the more elaborate forms even involving hand-made, spring loaded spears (use caution with these).
The idea is you want the animal to get either its foot or neck caught in the trap, so you can come back to it later and humanely put it out, before making use of it for dinner.
This is absolutely a prudent idea in a survival scenario-just be sure not to forget where your traps are. If you’re close by a stream, you can select an area close to the bank, and build something of a diverter, using rocks, to redirect fish being pulled by the current into a shallow pool. When it comes to beginning this task, start early, and work hard so that you have a roof over your head by sundown. Find some good “tool rocks” for things like digging post holes, cutting branches, peeling bark, etc.
You can find some how to articles, some basic information like what I’ve just given you, but in the end, sit down with some of the original mountain men, and that’s where you’ll get the real stuff.
It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Sleep deprivation causes a loss of mental faculties and clarity, and leads to poor decision making, which is especially dangerous in the wild.
The last thing you want to happen is get caught out at night without a shelter, especially in the cold. Also, in cold places you do not want to sleep directly on the ground, or you will lose significant body heat through conduction, the ground will literally absorb your heat. Break, cut, or move the branches that are directly under the fallen tree and put them on the side, so there is a space for you to reside in. If the base of the fallen tree is still sitting on a stump, this provides a good space to camp under, so long as it doesn't fall off the stump or collapse!
You can stack on top a lot of conifer (evergreen) branches for a roof, and add on top of that a thin layer of snow for extra insulation.
If you can find one it is a good start to a winter shelter, with windbreaks on all sides and an insulated roof overhead. Any long narrow item may work for cutting the snow, something like a machete or saw is ideal. Make the blocks about 6 inches thick, this will provide good insulation yet allow some sun to penetrate and warm the shelter.
This way the structure starts to close in at the top without the trouble of having to angle the blocks inward for that classic smooth dome look.
A traditional Eskimo method is using a "kudlik", a small oil lamp consisting of animal fat in a dish with a wick, usually made of grass seed cotton or fabric.
Build the roof with wooden poles and cover it with leaves or sod, preferably in a shingled fashion. Then you simply add an assortment of tree branches and foliage to the sides by laying them on the backbone.
So instead of laying the backbone on one support, the supports are in several places from one end to the other. The ground is wet, and many insects, leeches, and snakes crawl upon it, especially at night. Staying wet continuously can cause skin ailments such as trench foot, plus it's uncomfortable.
There are a number of ways to build a raised platform, they generally consist of making four pegs in a rectangle, then securing wooden poles on the pegs and then laying a bunch of wooden poles across these supports.
It's also possible to build a raised platform by resting the supports in low junctions on trees, where available. This will create a shingle effect which will shed rain more effectively than just stacking them randomly. Not only can it serve for any part of your shelter, but it also contains clean drinking water in its hollow segments, can be used as boat pontoons with the air in its hollow segments, makes a great drinking straw and blow gun, flexible fishing pole, canteen, hammock, and more. Add two more support sticks a foot or two away from the first two, and continue this for several feet for a long wall. As a survivor, you must get your rescuer's attention first, and second, send a message your rescuer understands.
Keep in mind that signals to your friends may alert the enemy of your presence and location. You can get other types of trees to burn by placing dry wood in the lower branches and igniting it so that the flames flare up and ignite the foliage.


Try to create a color of smoke that contrasts with the background; dark smoke against a light background and vice versa.
When fired, the pen flare sounds like a pistol shot and fires the flare about 150 meters high. As with pen flares, be ready to take cover if the pilot mistakes your tracers for enemy fire. Star clusters reach a height of 200 to 215 meters, burn an average of 6 to 10 seconds, and descend at a rate of 14 meters per second.
If you can't determine the aircraft's location, flash your signal in the direction of the aircraft noise. This can involve anything from wild foraging for food, to trapping, building shelters, crafting clothing-whatever need that arises.
It may seem hokey and spiritual, but it’s about the best way to get a full picture of your environment. Make notes to look into things further when you get home, if your field guild proves to be a dead end, but definitely begin with the basics.
It may seem tedious and redundant, but it’s difficult to know how to use your surroundings if you don’t even know what they are.
While they may not always be as effective as their modern counterparts, many natural wild crafted remedies are brilliant and efficient in their simplicity.
For example, they learned that the white powder that coated the barks of the aspen trees was a good sunblock in a pinch. Begin to notice things like scratches in tree bark and large, overturned rocks-often the sign of a bear looking for food. Follow the trails, and try to determine their freshness by an leavings you find, like droppings or fur.
Knowing how to spot the signs of a large predator in the area, such as a mountain lion, can tell you prey animals like caribou, may be more way and on their guard in that area.
If you can master just one of two ways of doing each of these, you’ll be better prepared than most.
You’ll be building some incredible memories with your family, and passing down skills that have since skipped several generations. However, there are some basic steps you can use to begin to track down a source of clean drinking water. These drainage are often seasonal, so be prepared to come up empty depending on the time of year, but it’s an excellent place to start. Typically these indicators will be swampy, water-loving plants growing in clusters, like reed plants and cat tails.
Much of the success with wild foraging for food is simply knowing when not to tempt fate, and if you’re well informed and cautious, you shouldn’t have a problem with that. In today’s age of sights and compound bows, even a hunting for as seemingly primitive as archery has become largely dependent on technology and industry. However, some of the most basic traps, when put in the right spots, are still extremely effective. However, for the beginner, trying to catch something small and simply like a rabbit, a basic snare will do just fine. The force of the current will keep them from swimming back out, and you will have essentially created for yourself a live well. The most crucial element is to keep wind and moisture off of yourself, so make use of whatever natural windbreaks you can find.
There is no one hard or fast way to build a shelter, but it is advisable to make whatever structure you devise with 3 walls and a shed roof, so that water runs off one end, and not down the walls.
We entered the era of convenience, and forgot what it meant to grind something out of the earth for ourselves. Samuel is excited to share his knowledge and the things he learns while travelling in British Columbia, Canada where he lives and around the world. You need an effective shelter that protects you from the elements and is comfortable enough to get some good sleep.
Ensure your camp site has no risk of flooding and is safe from widowmakers(big dead trees), falling rocks, and avalanches.
Ensure you lay on some type of insulation, like pine needles, foliage, fluffy bark, plant matter, unused clothes, etc. You will notice signs of recently broken rocks on the floor and sharp cracks in the ceiling in a dangerous cave, do not take shelter there. If you have a fire at the entrance of the cave, a lot of heat will be lost and smoke may blow in where you are breathing.
Check the roof regularly and remove excessive snowfall, otherwise the roof could collapse with heavy snow on it.
It is also possible to build a small sod structure in an igloo shape, not requiring any additional roofing material.
Then just cover the sides with branches and leaves, and you can make the structure stronger by weaving branches throughout the supports. You should first weave bendable branches throughout the stacked poles to create a framework to lay the debris on. A fire will effectively help you get dry, but in a jungle where it rains almost constantly, you will also want a rain proof shelter which will keep you dry.
This shingle technique is especially effective with large pieces like bamboo halves, palm leaves, and birch bark panels.
Even if it is a wall that is not part of your shelter at all, but is on the opposite side of the fire, it will provide much more heat this way, instead of that heat just getting lost to the open.
Before signaling, carefully weigh your rescue chances by friends against the danger of capture by the enemy. If in a snow-covered area, you may have to clear the ground of snow or make a platform on which to build the fire so that melting snow will not extinguish it.
Before the primary tree is consumed, cut and add more small green trees to the fire to produce more smoke. If you practically smother a large fire with green leaves, moss, or a little water, the fire will produce white smoke. Survival kit includes a hollow grip with a compass top to store items within the knife itself, as well as additional pouches on the sheath to hold the rest. If you can master these skills, not only is it incredibly fun, but it could one day save your life. Sit down to catch your breath on the trails, and take a moment to observe your surroundings. Many plants that are toxic in significant quantities can have a strong odor, which naturally deters wildlife from taking an interest in them.
If however, you have no reaction, and the plant has a tolerable taste, it is probably safe to eat.
This residue has a low SPF factor, only around 5-10, but is a great survival staple in a pinch. Often these trails follow contour lines, as animals will take the path of least resistance through an area just by instinct.
This process involves a great deal of patience and detective work, so be prepared to spend at least an afternoon for your search. Though these are still fine skills to hone, knowing how to hunt without the latest gear is an indispensable skill. With plenty of patience, and keen observation on animal movements, these can be effective tools for catching your prey. Select a spot where you’ve noticed signs of rabbit activity (again, observation is key), and find something sturdy nearby to tie your rope to, like a narrow tree.
Just bear in mind that these are typically done on a fairly small scale, and may trap only smaller fish. Often that means constructing your lean to against a rocky wall or a tree-whatever will keep you out of the weather.
Then dig yourself a hip hole (try lying on your side on the ground, you’ll figure it out), and hunker down for the night.
Get out there and make use of this information-get your hands dirty, and remind people what it is to know how to truly do something for themselves. In snow shelters the ventilation holes should be checked regularly to ensure they have not become clogged with snow.
When burning fire in a cave, heat it up slowly, quickly changing temperatures can cause the rock to crack and fall. Birch bark makes good panels when cut in large pieces, but taking excessive bark or ringing a tree can kill it, so avoid it if possible. In a jungle, there are usually plants with very large, broad leaves which make great roofing material, such as palm leaves, banana leaves, and elephant grass. Always select an isolated tree so that you do not start a forest fire and endanger yourself.
The ranges of the different radios vary depending on the altitude of the receiving aircraft, terrain, vegetation density, weather, battery strength, type of radio, and interference. But never ingest more than a few ounces of a plant that you’re unfamiliar with, and listen to signs from your body. Just rub some on your hands, and spread it across your shoulders and cheekbones for some UV protection.
Experiments have shown that when submerged in only mildly cold water for one hour, such as 60 degrees Fahrenheit, can be very dangerous. I always try to teach my kids that if we can walk out our front door of our home and still feel at home and can survive then we're ok. Try to have a hill or other object between the signal site and the enemy to mask your signal from the enemy.
If you feel the slightest bit feverish, or any intestinal upset, don’t eat any more of it, and all yourself to vomit if you need to. Look to where the largest animals in the area go to get their water by following game trails-the larger the animal, the more fresh water they need.
Sea dye markers are also very effective on snow-covered ground; use them to write distress code letters.
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