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Now that we’re experiencing the dead of winter here in State College, many of us would very much like to just stop going to classes, lay in bed, and sleep by the warm glow of our radiators. Seriously though, some animals enter this exact cycle when winter begins, and for those who have forgotten their elementary biology, it’s a process called hibernation.
When food becomes scarce for certain mammals in winter, they essentially have two choices: migrate to warmer climates (and spend much energy), or stop needing as much energy at all.
However, this sleep can be interrupted: many animals still need to excrete waste during the long winter, or eat some food stored in their burrows. So when the time for hibernation is over, when food is more plentiful, how do animals know to wake up?
DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen.
The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive.
The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder. The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub).
For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim. The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder. At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P.
The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver. 1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed.
The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China. The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful. Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder. Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian. Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan]. Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers. A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels.
The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507. According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°. Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°. Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer.
Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment. Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype.
But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V. Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages.
Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared. In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers. Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author. Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade. Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world.
But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom. Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250. The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait. The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany. Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further. The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead. On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non. Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north. Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red.
Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery.
Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish. Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339). Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs. The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo. Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe.
In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written. There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones. Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey. The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas.
Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it.
The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii. Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia. The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia. On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba). On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv.
Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him.
In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors. Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester. The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian. All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them. Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others.
Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones. Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity.
But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame.
Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay . Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim. No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement. Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America. Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America. An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife).
This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along.
Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship. Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean. The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible. That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S. Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination.
Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch.
Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp. Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St. The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography. In a suprise announcement recently, Nintendo announced the theme for the next Splatfest, being held next Saturday on April 23. Rhythm and music games in the past have mostly fallen into a handful of categories, think Guitar Hero, Dance Dance Revolution, or Rhythm Heaven.
Known as 'Monster Hunter Cross' in Japan when it release last November, Monster Hunter Generations is now the official title for the western port.
Owners of Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate that have a save file of the game on their 3DS will unlock exclusive content in Monster Hunter Generations when it launches.
In Monster Hunter Generations, players take up the esteemed role of a hunter, seeking out and vanquishing a variety of colossal creatures throughout the world.
This latest installment marks the debut of new gameplay mechanics such as Styles and Hunter Arts which allow players to create the most custom, personalized playstyle of any Monster Hunter game yet. For the first time in the series, players will have the ability to now play as a Felyne themselves in the new Prowler Mode. As part of the Nintendo Direct today, it was also announced that Monster Hunter Generations will feature a unique armor set based on Marth from the tactical RPG series Fire Emblem. During the Nintendo Direct that aired earlier this afternoon, Nintendo rather oddly snuck in a seemingly big game announcement: Paper Mario Color Splash for Wii U. Paper Mario for Nintendo 64 and it's sequel, Paper Mario The Thousand Year Door on the Gamecube were praised for their unique humor and RPG goodness. It's too early to completely disregard Paper Mario Color Splash as a simple sequel to Sticker Star, but the footage we saw didn't leave us with much hope. Earlier today, Nintendo hosted their first (Second counting the Pokemon Direct last week) Nintendo Direct of 2016. Back in October of 2015, Nintendo first reavealed their new venture into the world of modern day gaming. On February 3, 2016, Nintendo gave more information before the beginning of Miitomo and Nintendo Account. Nintendo's first app made exclusively for smart devices, Miitomo, will launch in North America in March for both iOS and Android phones and tablets.
Launching alongside Miitomo in March, My Nintendo aims to become much more than a traditional rewards program. Including Miitomo, Nintendo plans to release approximately five smart device applications by the end of March 2017. French developer Seaven Studios announced that the rhythm-driven platformer Inside My Radio would be launching on the Wii U eShop in North America and Europe on February 25. This Splatfest will be taking place simultaneously around the world at the same time, unlike the previous events that have had different themes for each region. Last night, Nintendo revealed the release date of the final batch of Mii Fighter costumes, as well as the release date of the final DLC characters and stage for Super Smash Bros. Nintendo has confirmed that Ancho-V Games, the last in a series of free DLC maps released in Splatoon, is entering the rotation tonight at 6 P.M.
Totem Topple is a vertical tower defense game centered around building a totem poll and protecting it from an endless stream of evil and rotating enemies. During the last Nintendo Direct Presentation, it was announced that Cloud would join the Smash 4 roster and that there would be one final dedicated video presentation for the game. For years, many have wanted Minecraft to arrive on Nintendo platforms, and today, that wish was granted.
Earlier tonight, Yacht Club Games, the creators of Shovel Knight, revealed upcoming plans of the new Shovel Knight amiibo. Splatoon is never lacking new content being added to the game, especially with the new gear, weapons, and stages being added.
This past Thursday, November 12, Nintendo hosted their first Nintendo Direct in a few months, as well as the first Nintendo Direct since the passing of company president Satoru Iwata.
Much to the surprise of viewers and fans, Nintendo announced at the end of yesterday's Nintendo Direct that Cloud from Final Fantasy VII is coming to Smash 4. This past Tuesday, Nintendo announced via Twitter that the Nintendo Badge Arcade, previously released in Japan already, has been added to the 3DS eShop in the US and Europe. The next Nintendo Direct, Nintendo's direct-to-viewer news stream about upcoming games and products, will be broadcast on November 12 at 2 P.M. Nintendo just had their investors meeting, and while some good news was dropped on the progress of mobile development and the Nintendo NX, there was a distinct lack of mention of a certain piece of hardware that Nintendo has been hard at work on: their Quality of Life sensor. The Quality of Life sensor that Nintendo is working on is different than anything currently imbedded in your smartphone or smartwatch.
One of the key features of their sleep sensor is that you don’t have to interact with it in any way or wear it, which is what is required from a lot of current health devices. Does the silence mean that Nintendo has pushed their Quality of Life sensor aside for a stronger focus on video-games? I think the silence is specifically there to shift our focus away from the sensor and more towards their gaming consoles, which is what they desire to sell more of at the moment.
If you recall a while back, Nintendo was working on a Vitality Sensor that would work in conjunction with the Wii, and probably with Wii Fit.
Some of the neat technologies in the QoL sensor include a non-contact radio frequency sensor, which will probably be able to track everything about your sleep including your movements.
One of the patents regarding the sensor includes a projector to project messages onto your ceiling, again showcasing the fact that you do not need to interact with the device. Overall, while there is no news regarding the sensor, there is more than likely no need to panic. Nintendo has once again held their semi-annual Corporate Policy and Investor Briefing last night, and it did once again contain some new and interesting information. We've already seen Nintendo giving Splatoon many updates, whether it be adding new weapons, stages, or a bug patch or nerf patch.
Octodad: Dadliest Catch, an indie game that many have been waiting for to arrive on Nintendo platforms, now has a release date for Wii U.
Along with the multitude of new stages and weapons Nintendo has been releasing for Splatoon, there have also been a few updates to fix up bugs or glitches, weapon balance, etc.
Although you might not be able to tell from the name, Freedom Planet is as inspired by Sonic the Hedgehog as games get.
For starters, they don’t really add as much to any game as Nintendo might claim they do. The good news is, is that one amiibo can still work with every game that is compatible with it, as long as you buy those games. Recently, the preorders for wave 5 went up only about two weeks before release, and even then, some sellers, such as Amazon, didn’t open up for preorders, but opted to instead open up direct sales for the amiibo one at a time late in the day of the launch day Friday.
Early on in the life of amiibo, there would be people who would order hundreds of the same amiibo at a time for one purpose: to resell them at a higher price by controlling the amount that came into the hands of the normal people. Flash back to E3 2014; Nintendo was announcing these little figurines of their game characters. This past week, Nintendo of America revealed the release date of Animal Crossing: amiibo Festival, as well as some new information on some of the upcoming Animal Crossing amiibo, on Twitter. The trailer for FreakZone Games's "AVGN 2: ASSimilation" has gotten a new trailer to showcase some of the new things coming to the game including a new armor system, new bosses, and tons more. Since the rise in popularity of independent developers during the last generation, games similar in gameplay and style to Exorcism Extreme have been plentiful.
Earlier yesterday, Nintendo announced via Twitter that a new map, called Hammerhead Bridge, would be the next map added to Splatoon later that night.
In a rather surprising announcement, a Super Mario Maker Stage is coming to Super Smash Bros.
The next Splatfest for North America has officially been announced, and it pits science against art! As of September 4th owners of Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate across the globe will be able to download the monthly DLC pack for September. In a July interview with Eurogamer, Pikmin developer and legendary game designer Shigeru Miyamoto revealed that the next Pikmin game is well into development. Ever wonder what it would be like to merge the gameplay of Mega Man and Donkey Kong Country? Today, Nintendo has put out a release calendar for upcoming games and amiibo for the rest of 2015.
Two of the 3DS's best Indie offerings are coming to Wii U in a single HD collection later this year. The entry level system in the 3DS family of portable consoles, the 2DS, will be getting a price reduction in the U.S. It has been revealed that the hit Japanese 3DS title Yo-Kai Watch will be localized and launch in North America November 6. The fourth North American Splatfest has been revealed by Nintendo of America today via Twitter.
We are just about 3 weeks away from Super Mario Maker's release for Nintendo Wii U on September 11, 2015, and tons of amiibo costumes in the game are already being leaked. For those who don't know, when you tap an amiibo into Super Mario Maker, you can give Mario a costume of an amiibo, like Donkey Kong, Link, or Wii Fit Trainer.
Finally, another image has leaked, this time, via Twitter user MarioFan1, showing off a possible Tingle amiibo costume in Super Mario Maker. Nintendo has released the dates that some of their already announced amiibo will be hitting store shelves.
Mega Man Legacy Collection is an upcoming release that features the original six 8-bit Mega Man games as well as a variety of Mega Man content including high-resolution artwork, music and a new Challenge Mode. The trouble is, college standing aside, we would still require food, water, and means to expel our waste.
In the first case, the journey can be energy-consuming on its own, not to mention full of danger, especially for smaller mammals like mice and rabbits. Your words flow perfectly from one to the next, and you have a great sense of the layout of your post! As a huge fan of sleep and a huge not-fan of winter I have often wished I could just hibernate till spring break. While the idea of hibernation seems overwhelmingly appealing, especially for those of us who are sick and want to swear as loud as possible whenever the frigid winds hit our faces, I don’t see it as practical.
He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G. It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented. This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore. In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether. Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth. The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507.
The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries.
Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited.
Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China. We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map. The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized. Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him. He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers. Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions. One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design. This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay. He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world. Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese. Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior.


Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer. He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them.
Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St.
Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present. The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land.
The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart. Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible.
As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense.
It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread. Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil. Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim.
These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries.
Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country. The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland.
And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others. This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand. But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country.
It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii. This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings. Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John. Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards. The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo. Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493.
Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits. The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route. 12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country. The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent.
If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author. However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars.
Following the Transformers Splatfest, this will be the second 3rd party Splatfest, this time, for Spongebob.
As celebration, they released the sequel to their 2002 Game Boy Color cult classic, Shantae. Nintendo announced today that Miitomo, their first mobile application, will be launching this Thursday, March 31, alongside My Nintendo, the new rewards program as a replacement for Club Nintendo which closed down back in June 2015. Inside My Radio seeks to stray from the formulaic status quo of music games by emerging a a rhythm-driven platformer.
Following last year's release of Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate, Generations is the next main series adventure in Capcom's Monster Hunter franchise.
Coming in summer 2016, and initially released in Japan as Monster Hunter X, the western release of Monster Hunter Generations is the newest installment in the popular action RPG series, which has sold more than 36 million units worldwide. Players can earn Zenny and collect resources that can be used for crafting powerful weapons and armor which are styled after the monsters they have defeated. Players can choose from four distinct combat Styles, like Aerial which adds the ability to attack and mount monsters from mid-air. In this mode, there are even more adventures to be had in unique quests playing either as a Felyne alone or with up to three other companions in group quests. Fans can look forward to this and more collaborations with popular series for special themed gear for both hunters and their custom Felyne support partners known as Palicoes.
Although Sticker Star, the most recent Paper Mario entry for 3DS, might have been a solid entry in some other game series, it failed to satisfy the demands of Paper Mario fans.
Nintendo Selects are games that have sold really well and have a lowered price to get players to get them. During Nintendo's Financial Results Briefing on October 29, 2015, Nintendo officially revealed they would have a new account system, called "Nintendo Account".
Nintendo said that Nintendo Account registration and Miitomo preregistration will begin on February 17, 2016. Today, Nintendo outlined the steps that fans can take to be among the first to get in on the social fun.
17, people will be able to pre-register for Miitomo by signing up for the new Nintendo Account service using their existing email, social media accounts or current Nintendo Network IDs. It is a more comprehensive service that rewards users for interacting with Nintendo products and services in a variety of ways. The game was built from a demo created during the French Game Developers Competition Ludum Dare#23 and has since grown to full-fledged EDM adventure. Nintendo revealed on their Twitter yesterday that the next Splatfest will be about Pokemon!
You can start getting your gear ready and vote for which team you want to be on in Inkopolis Plaza, voting has already started! Both the 3DS and Wii U saw less games than expected with the delays of titles like StarFox Zero and the new Legend of Zelda for Wii U.
A variety of Mii Fighter costumes will also be released in the near future, including costumes for Geno, Knuckles, and Tails. Many people like myself have wanted Minecraft, and now it is officially headed to Wii U next week! The game, developed by Re-Logic has been confirmed today by 505 Games, the distributor of the game, on Twitter. FAST Racing Neo is Shin'en Multimedia's attempt at an F-Zero game, which has made many fans excited for this game. Image & Form's sequel to SteamWorld Dig, SteamWorld Heist has been announced to be releasing next Thursday, December 10. During the November 12 Nintendo Direct, Nintendo revealed two new stages being added to the game soon: Museum d' Alfonsino and Mahi Mahi Resort. As this was the first Nintendo Direct in quite a few months, many big announcements were predicted to occur, which they did. No details on the date or pricing of the DLC character were given, but a Smash-focused presentation, the last of its kind, will be streamed in December. The Badge Arcade is a free application which lets you earn badges that you can use and place on your Nintendo 3DS home screen icons to decorate it through a crane game. Not a single investor asked a question about it, and Nintendo did not reveal any new information on it, despite initial reports claiming a March 2016 release. In fact, when I first got my phone, I tried to use the health applications fairly actively, however, it soon became a hassle to log everything I was eating; there was a lack of convenience, which is a problem Nintendo is actively trying to solve.
While we can only speculate this, my personal stance on this is that they have not sacrificed anything in their company to work on this.
The two markets for games and health devices could not be more different, which could be why Nintendo is not trying to talk about it amongst video-games, but may talk about it on its own at a later point in time. This product never made it to the market, which has some people skeptical about the QoL sensor, however, last year Iwata said that the reason the Vitality Sensor never made it to the market was specifically because people had to interact with it in some way shape or form. Using a microphone it will track the noises that occur around you and possibly from you while you sleep. The device is also capable of detecting your emotions, and it even has one of those new-fangled alarm systems where when it’s time to wake you up, it actually wakes you up, unlike those times where your smartphone fails to do the job.
During this meeting, some data was given showing that their sales are improving, and that amiibo are making lots of profit for them, as well as hits like Splatoon and Super Mario Maker. The game, developed by Young Horses Inc, has been announced on Twitter to be releasing on this Thursday, October 29, for North America and Europe. Originally developed for PC as a SOnic fan game, Freedom Planet has since evolved into a full fledged adventure of it's own with unique characters, plot, and level design. In Super Smash Brothers for example, all they can do is function as superior computer players that you can customize. If you have 5 amiibo compatible games, this means you paid about $2.60 for the DLC per game. This was actually really convenient for those who had to work in the morning and may have missed the launch and the preorders. For those unfamiliar, a scalper is someone who will buy something of limited stock with the sole intent of reselling if for a higher price.
I have never scalped like that, but only in passing in stores after everyone else already had a chance to preorder or buy what they wanted if they desperately wanted it. Angry Video Game Nerd Adventures 2 was first revealed at SGC 2015 back in July of this year, as well as the fact that they would try and get the game on Nintendo platforms again.
A simple gameplay idea suited well for multiplayer settings and parties, accompanied by basic environments and pixel art is able to flourish in the indie environment.
The map released last night at 7 PM PT (10 PM EST) and is the seventh map added since Splatoon's release in May, and the twelfth map overall. Tatsumi Kimishima, a new face to many, will be taking over Iwata's position at Nintendo as President.
This Splatfest will bring two very interesting subjects, and put them up against each other to see which side will be the winner this time. Nintendo has recently announced that a Mario Kart 8 Wii U Bundle will be available for the price of $299.99 that includes a 32gb Wii U, a digital copy of Mario Kart 8, and an eShop card to download both sets of Mario Kart 8 DLC. As always, these monthly doses of extra Monster Hunter are free of charge and add a variety of new content to the game. Miyamoto says that the team is always working on the next Pikmin game and that Pikmin 4 (title not final) is actually close to competition.
Some games shown off last night include Graphite Lab's Hive Jump, as well as Kerbal Space Program for the Wii U. The new gaming service allows gamers to easily find the games they want to watch, as well as the channels they want to watch, and the livestreams they want to watch. Some new information we got today includes official box arts for several games, release dates for amiibo, as well as some release dates on games such as Star Fox Zero. The new map, announced over Twitter and first shown in the Stay Fresh trailer, Flounder Heights, will become the eleventh map overall, and will be the sixth map added to Splatoon since its release. Yo-Kai Watch is an RPG that involves befriending the Yo-Kai of Japanese folklore, who are invisible and mischievous creatures, and using them in battle. The theme is what is very interesting, Transformers, with Team Autobots up against Team Decepticons. One of these leaks may even show off an unannounced amiibo we may be getting in the future. A user on Google+ by the name 'Tentai Hentaclez' has put up pictures of the amiibo costumes for Rosalina & Luma, Toon Link, Pac-Man, and Mega Man, which you can check out here. What makes this really interesting is that we have not seen a Tingle amiibo, so could this be an unannounced amiibo or is there an alternate way to unlock costumes? You can check out the official site for the game here, and you can preorder the game now before it's release on September 11.
This new wave of amiibo will be releasing September 11, 2015, which includes Zero Suit Samus, Olimar, Super Mario Bros. The collection is coming to the 3DS in early 2016 following the August 25th release of the Xbox One, Playstation 4, and PC digital versions. 9 launched as a kickstarter campaign last year promising a re-imagined spiritual successor to the popular Mega Man franchise. For us, the simplest solution (albeit strange) would be to get food and drinks delivered, and as for the waste…well, what’s a simple bedpan in the quest for total comfort? Tired, hungry, and ill-tempered, they will likely gorge themselves on the nearest food source available. It was really interesting reading about the actual chemical processes that have to occur while animals sleep for weeks at a time just to stay alive. From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland. Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim. Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.
The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492. Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere. The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands. All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries. No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe. To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage. The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus.
Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior.
A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe. The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°.
That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C. Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548). In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith. But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is. Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca. His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea. There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller. Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither. It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland.
We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444.
Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter.
It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island. Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish.
1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar. Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa. 8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols. The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others.
He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment.
It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more. It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts.
The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer.
It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals. As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer.
However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed! The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated. It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found.
The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer.
In addition to this, those who preregister for Miitomo before March 31 at 1AM PT (4AM EST) can earn My Nintendo Platinum Points to get rewards once My Nintendo launches alongside Miitomo. The game will boast the most customization options of any iteration to date as well as plenty of new weapons, items, and monsters. If you've never played a Monster Hunter game and even if you're not so sure Monster Hunter is for you, we'd definitely recommend picking up MH4U at this price. It is the most customizable Monster Hunter™ experience to date, and serves as a fitting tribute to the last decade of the series.
On their journey, players must defend each of the game’s four villages from the threat of major new menaces known collectively as the Fated Four. With the introduction of devastating new attack skills and power-ups known as Hunter Arts, the action looks more visually striking than ever before on Nintendo 3DS. With hundreds of quests in store for hunters and Felynes, there are tons of challenges to tackle in the solo adventure, and also multiplayer quests via local or online play, opening up the epic world of Monster Hunter to players of all levels.
We were only shown a minute or two of footage, but it's pretty clear that the game is looking to fall closer in line with Paper Mario: Sticker Star than the beloved early iterations of the game. It lacked key components of previous Paper Mario games: unique characters, expirience points, and a partner system. Some of the games included in this Direct were updates on games like Star Fox Zero, Splatoon, and Super Mario Maker, as well as introductions of new games such as Paper Mario on the Wii U and a new entry to the Rhythm Heaven series. Nintendo Select games are sold for $19.99 instead of their normal retail price, which will get many more people to buy it.
Nintendo Account connects all of your gaming platforms (Wii U, 3DS, smartphone, PC, etc.) and have a new membership service as the replacement for Club Nintendo, called "My Nintendo".
One of those titles is Miitomo, a game in which your Mii asks you and your friends questions or, "friendly conversation starters" so you can interact more. Anyone who preregisters for Miitomo before launch will get a special bonus on My Nintendo in the future.
You can also check out the slides from the October 2015 Financial Briefing, or keep reading on for the full February 3 press release from Nintendo.
People who pre-register will be among the first to be notified about the availability of Miitomo when it launches in March.
Miitomo users with a Nintendo Account will be able to take advantage of My Nintendo to enhance their experience. The game sets you as a rad-looking green LED trapped inside boombox that blasts electro, club, and disco tunes.
This time, you will be able to choose which side you want to be on, based on Pokemon Red or Blue, whichever you prefer. However, with games like Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate, Splatoon, and Xenoblade Chronicles X along with countless excellent eShop titles this year, we've gotten more than enough to keep us busy. Since the initial build of the game, it has been polished and was recently released on Wii U. The two new fighters that will join Cloud in the future are Corrin from the upcoming Fire Emblem Fates and the titular character Bayonetta.
Keep reading for a full press release and a video of the entire presentation, it's worth a watch. It's likely that the last of the DLC content as well as any selected fighters from the ballot that ended in October will be revealed during this presentation. The popular building block game already on most platforms such as PS4, Xbox One, PC, smart phones, and many other consoles will now be on a Nintendo platform for the first time.
Using the amiibo, you can customize a Custom Knight, and even unlock Co-Op mode on the Wii U version. Shin'en Multimedia announced on Twitter that the game will be releasing next Thursday, December 10. Nintendo announced via Twitter yesterday that the second map, Mahi Mahi Resort would be added to the map rotation tonight at 6PM PT (9PM EST). A multitude of games were either revealed or had more information given, including The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess HD, a small glimpse at Zelda for Wii U, Star Fox Zero, Hyrule Warriors: Legends, and many other games too! He marks the fifth third-party character playable in Smash 4, along with Sonic, Mega Man, Pac-man, and Ryu. Badges you can earn include badges of inspired by the Zelda, Mario, and Animal Crossing series. It may even be able to track your heart rate without being in direct contact with you, which is pretty revolutionary.
In any case, we should hear some news regarding the device soon, and I can tell you it is going to be worth purchasing, as sleep is one of the single most important factors affecting your daily life. This Wednesday, Super Mario Maker will be getting a new update bringing not one, but five new things to the game. In addition to this, they also revealed in the tweet that the game will be on sale for 20% off until November 5. Although the concept of a high-speed 16-bit platformer might already be quite familiar, don't let that dissaude you. I have no issue with spending money on DLC, but the majority of it adds nothing to the gameplay. There are too many amiibo figures that I wanted that I never purchased or preordered in time, and now likely never will be able to purchase them. There is no way to control scalpers, and they will continue to charge sometimes obscene amounts for these little figures, that again, do not add much to the gameplay. What a cheesy name, but Nintendo made us want them, rather, need them by showing the intro to Super Smash Brothers Melee.
Extreme Exorcism jumps on this train with its fun and crazy bouts of gampelay; and it's not half bad.
The Super Mario Maker Stage that was revealed a while back as well as the Pirate's Ship stage from Brawl [Wii U], the Duck Hunt stage from Wii U [3DS], a variety of Mii costumes, as well as balance patches were included in the update.


The game, originally expected to be released on November 20, will now be expecting a Q1 2016. You can go check it out in Splatoon when it's part of the rotation, whether in Turf Wars or Ranked Battle. Kimishima will be Nintendo's first president since the death of Satoru Iwata back in July of this year.
This will be the fifth Splatfest for the U.S, and will begin next Friday, September 18 at 9PM PT (September 19 at 12 midnight EST). This news likely comes in anticipation of Super Mario Maker getting a release later this week. This month's pack includes 12 new quests, 1 new weapon, 1 new armor set, 1 new Palico equipment set, 1 Bonus Palico, 1 guild card background, and 6 guild card titles. It's unclear whether Pikmin 4 would be coming to the Wii U or the mysterious NX platform; no further details have been revealed at this time. Gunman Clive HD Collection let's you live this reality by combining two great 3DS indies into one package on the Wii U. Both western side-scrollers, Gunman Clive and Gunman Clive 2, received praise when they came out on the 3DS starting January 2013.
Flounder Heights will be added to the map rotation tomorrow night, August 20th, at 7PM PT (10PM EST).
Following it's large success in Japan, the game has already received a sequel (with another coming) and a few spin-off games alongside merchandise and a television show. You can hopefully be able to choose which side you want to be on soon, in preparation for the Splatfest that will be starting on August 28 at 9PM PT (August 29 at 12 midnight EST) and will last 24 hours. Another user, this time, on Miiverse named Dalagonash, who is the community manager for Nintendo UK, has taken an in-game screenshot of what appears to be the amiibo costume for Silver Mario.
The image of Tingle was eventually found on Miiverse, verifying that this is real, but we still don't know if there will be an amiibo for him. Each team makes a dash for the Rainmaker, a powerful weapon that acts like an Inkzooka for it's wielder.
Although originally slated for April 2015, the game's release was pushed back to September 15, 2015. I found it interesting how animals will in fact wake up sleep deprived after hibernating, although most people would think they would wake with tons of energy because of what seems like an incredibly long nap. I had honestly never really thought about it but now I realize surviving while not eating or drinking for weeks probably is pretty complicated. Especially since my game of choice is ice hockey, I can’t afford to miss the entire winter, no matter how much I want to just be a bum all day.
Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles. It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days. The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000.
On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one. The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°. Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn.
Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g. An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°. Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492. It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112). These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable. Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara. It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480. Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125. In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India. Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate.
Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian. At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea.
Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia. Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported.
He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St.
It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live). On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America.
Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. Keep reading for the press release, and check out Miitomo here, and find out more about My Nintendo here.
The game will be exclusive to the 3DS and is planned for release sometime during the summer of 2016. A blend of brand new areas and monsters join returning fan-favorites which have been updated and adapted to the latest generation of gameplay. Nintendo will offer a special Miitomobonus to anyone who signs up for a Nintendo Account between Feb. After a succesful PS4 launch last month, Inside My Radio will be debuting on Wii U next week and will set you back $14.99. The newest stage features an office theme complete with desks and fans that allow players to manually raise platforms.
This year we gathered a panel of seven staff members that voted on their favorite games across seven categories. The amiibo has been revealed to be releasing in the US on January 8, 2016 for price of $12.99. 505 Games also confirmed that the Wii U version of the game is still on the way, hopefully to come some time soon.
There has not been a new F-Zero game since 2003's F-Zero: GP Legend, and Nintendo has not announced anything on a new F-Zero game in the future. You can pick download it now in the 3DS eShop, but be careful- you have a limited number of free attempts, but have to pay $1 to earn five additional plays. The last Nintendo Direct presentation was during E3 and before the passing of the company's former president, Satoru Iwata. It would be unlikely, and silly, for them to pull people from the QoL team and re-allocate them to the Pikmin 4 team.
This next Splatfest will be during Halloween weekend, so while you're not trick-or-treating, you can go play some Splatfest! The update will be releasing this Tuesday, October 20, so be sure to update if you want to continue playing online.
You wait in line, peering over the shoulders of the people in front of you to ensure the amiibo you are after are still on the table, and you didn’t waste your Friday morning.
In Xenoblade Chronicles 3D, you earn tokens each day that you connect your Shulk amiibo via NFC to the game, which can then be used to collect little in game goodies. Yes, people of the internet, I have scalped before, and I likely will again if the circumstances are right.
They were supposed to be these great little things to show and display and use in conjunction with various games to enhance the gameplay. AVGN 2: ASSimilation will be releasing this winter, you can check out the trailer after the break. The Super Mario Maker stage features a different layout every time it's played and four different Omega forms. The hand that is featured in Super Mario Maker will make an appearance to create a new stage and fix any broken blocks while you're brawling. You can check out the full press release and some of the new things revealed after the break.
The HD Collection will features both games running at 1080p and 60 frames per second and will be prices at $3.99.
The 2DS is a unique portable system that does not fold at the middle and lacks the 3D feature. A brave team member must then charge into the enemy base with the Rainmaker to win a match. I can’t say I’m the biggest fan of bio-chemistry but the way to explained it and the diagrams made it easy enough that I could follow along. Humans are the dominate species for this exact reason: we can thrive in any condition (sort of), and continue to enhance our lifestyles to accomodate our lives. It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council]. The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design. Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy.
There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west.
It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla. But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256).
To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea. As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted. The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587.
Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan. His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr.
Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact. This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all. Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v.
We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327).
This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S. Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering.
It will be the first Splatfest that North American and European players can be matched together. Last year, marking their 25th year in games, it was ported to Playstation 4 and now this year to Wii U. The game comes from indie developer Seaven Studio and recently hit the Wii U eShop following it's release on PC, Xbox One, and Playstation 4. The total number of maps available in Splatoon is now 16 after the inclusion of Ancho-V Games. You can expect to see Tatsumi Kimishima, the current President of Nintendo, to make an appearance in this Nintendo Direct.
It will be beginning this Friday, October 30th at 9PM PT (Saturday, October 31st midnight EST). Sadly, amiibo are not fully controlled to avoid scalping to the high degree that they are being scalped. The stage will arrive to both versions of the game on September 30, it is currently unknown whether it will be released for free. You can check out some screenshots of what this Splatfest should look like after the break. Details for the modern edition of the 30th Anniversary Mario amiibo will be launched in the future. Although not confirmed by the developer Comcept themselves (likely to protect another ongoing Kickstarter they've started, Red Ash) Game Informer claims to have insider knowledge that the game won't release until next year. What happens next is a large feast, where the mammal builds up as much body fat as possible to supply necessary energy for the long haul. Also, I’m with Lasanthi, that picture of the chocolate chip cookie looks so enticing! It was written lightly enough that it wasn’t confusing, but analytically enough to be an intelligent read.
During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal. The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably.
The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given.
On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply. The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude. Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command. MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean.
Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310).
It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe.
Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688. In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia. He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe. Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v. The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there. This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief.
Miitomo is a social experience that uses Nintendo's Mii characters, which first debuted on the Wii console, to engage friends in a lighthearted and welcoming environment.
In Hyrule Warriors, the two different Link amiibos give you extra weapons that you didn’t really need to complete the game.
A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot. Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly. One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe. A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible.
The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book. Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem. His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer. As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest.
Users can spark fun conversations and learn more about each other by answering questions such as "What song has been stuck in your head lately?", "Do you believe in aliens?", or even "If you saw a nose hair sticking out of your friend's nose, what would you do?" Users can also easily take and share photos featuring their Mii with the Miifoto feature. Suddenly, it’s your turn, and you get to go to the table to snatch your precious collectible figure. Not only that, but the mammals can get water without drinking: many metabolic processes such as building up amino acid chains release water into the external system, keeping the mammals sufficiently hydrated. The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean. On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him.
We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559. The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon. It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt. Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367). Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative. He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed.
Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. While it’s mostly small traversal changes that have been made, these alone negate a lot of backtracking the original release suffered from.
Nintendo's new My Nintendo rewards program will launch alongside Miitomo in March, and will be able to connect with the app. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil. The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity. Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey. The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him. Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy. As for new players who’ve never played a prior title, this title has enough to offer to make it worth playing. What if there was a week when the weather was warmer than usual but was projected to dip again?
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher. It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge. Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them. This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia. Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape.
This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved. This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it. This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known. While I love that I can collect these little figures and display them, I hate everything else about them. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification. Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others.
Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century.
As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support. Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid. The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends.
Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.



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