Worksheet for national geographic human footprint,american movie korean war quotes,best national geographic on netflix - For Begninners

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A birth defect is a problem, which happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. In the second part of this article, Jacob Dawson reveals to readers the reasons why resting or sleeping on their left side can help improve circulation to their baby. Reach out to the author: contact and available social following information is listed in the top-right of all news releases. Introduce the video by telling students that, in it, Enric Sala and his team of scientists survey and document Flint Island's coral reefs, diving up to 50 times a day to get a complete picture of this marine ecosystem. Explain to students that they will simulate the Belt Transect (BLT) method in the classroom. Wrap up by discussing the similarities and differences between the classroom BLT method and a real BLT survey completed by marine scientists. Assess student comprehension by the accuracy of their estimates and calculations and by their conclusions based on their calculations. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Some media assets (videos, photos, audio recordings and PDFs) can be downloaded and used outside the National Geographic website according to the Terms of Service. Find information about our ocean education program, and other educator resources on the ocean and related topics.
Explain how European colonialism divided up Africa and the role the Berlin Conference played in the colonization process in Africa.
Outline how countries have transitioned from colonies to independent nations, including the many issues involved in this transition.
There is considerable variation with respect to how the regions of Subsaharan Africa are delineated or identified on maps. Globalization has entered into the dynamics connecting these once-remote regions with the rest of the world.
Most of the population lives an agrarian lifestyle, but there are people who are developing the skills necessary to adapt to the rapid globalization wave that is importing new technology and new ideas to the continent.
To help identify places discussed in this book, Africa has been divided into regions along traditional boundaries. These core urban areas are often magnets for people from large families in rural peripheral areas seeking employment. Broad patterns and dynamics of people and places are replicated throughout the Subsaharan realm.
The African Transition Zone divides North Africa from the rest of Africa because of climatic and cultural dynamics. For a continent as large as Africa, Subsaharan Africa does not have extended mountain ranges comparable to the ranges in North or South America, Europe, Asia, or Antarctica.
Africa has many scenic areas and many national parks set aside as game preserves, which have become major tourist attractions for world travelers. The equator runs through the center of Subsaharan Africa, providing tropical type A climates. Subsaharan Africa does not have long mountain chains such as those found in the other continents.
West Africa was home to a number of large empires that shaped the culture and people of present-day Africa.
After the Ghana Empire came the Mali Empire (1230–1600 CE), which was known for its wealth and size.
One of the indigenous states that evolved out of the Mali Empire was that of the Songhai people, who were located to the east of the main Mali Empire.
South of the empires of the Niger River were coastal kingdoms, including the Ashanti and the Dahomey, which flourished during the colonial era. The Ashanti Empire was located along the Atlantic coast in an inland region of what is now Ghana and Ivory Coast; this area served as a trading corridor where goods from the northern regions crossed to make their way to the coastal trading towns.
This region of West Africa bordering the Atlantic was called the Slave Coast because of the high number of local people from this area who were sold into the European slave trade and shipped to the Americas.
European colonialism remained strong in Africa until the end of World War II, which left many European countries economically exhausted.
During the era of independence after World War II, the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union enticed many of the African countries to support one or the other of the superpowers.
The transition from European colony to independent state has not necessarily been a civil transition for African countries; likewise, independent African countries have struggled to create stable governments or peaceful conditions—though stable governments and peaceful conditions have been established in some cases.
Though each country has taken a slightly different path, most former colonies have endured civil unrest, conflict, or warfare in their push for stable governments. The realm has had difficulty developing and maintaining effective political systems with democratic leadership.
The vacuum left by retreating colonial powers at times has been filled by authoritarian dictators or by leaders who assumed control of the government and then proceeded to pillage and plunder the state for personal gain or for the enrichment of their clan or political cronies. A few countries are still struggling to bring about some type of order and unity, and in spite of all the negative issues, there have been democratic and relatively stable progressive governments in Africa that have emerged from the transition in recent years, which is a hopeful trend for the long term. It is important to note that the objective of colonialism was to connect a colony with the mother country, not to connect African countries to each other. The current wave of globalization based on corporate colonialism continues to encourage the same pattern of discouraging interaction between counties and instead encouraging trade with more economically powerful non-African countries. Subsaharan Africa includes the African Transition Zone and the regions south of the Sahara. What are some of the general environmental issues that can be found throughout the realm of Subsaharan Africa? Name the African kingdoms that were involved in the supply of humans for the European slave trade. How did imperial powers in Africa cultivate their colonies’ dependence on the mother countries? How are the Subsaharan African countries continually isolated from their neighbors in the global economy? Determine which of the countries in Subsaharan Africa are now experiencing civil war or national unrest over political leadership. These oranges will travel a total of about 23 million miles to reach your fruit bowl or glass of OJ. CLICK TO DOWNLOAD MATERIAL ‘Submitted by: Jeryl Hollingsworth Lesson: What is in Your Head?
Fran skinn och ben till hjarna och allt dar emellan blir vi guidade genom vardagens hur och varfor av varldsledande idrottare, rockstjarnor, doktorer och forskare. Starting with the science of conception, this special takes you from one couple's journey through in-vitro fertilization to the removal of a man's brain tumor (while he is awake!) to the amazing memory of London cab drivers. Pregnant women also should not use illegal drugs after giving birth for the reason that drugs will taint breast milk.
The writer also points out that swimming, walking, and using a stationary bike are easy and safe exercises for expectant mothers.
In this website, Jacob Dawson provides people with a collection of articles on tips to prevent the risk of birth defects. Introduce and explain different types of fish surveying methods, focusing on the Belt Transect (BLT) method.
Conduct classroom fish sampling.Designate a 10' x 10', or 100 square foot area, of the classroom.
For example, students should understand that a real fish survey is more challenging, as both divers and fish are continually moving and fish are able to hide from them. Exploration, inquiry and study are required to better understand ocean systems and processes. Sampling a reef gives scientists a way to estimate species richness, or the number of species in a given area. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the lower right hand corner () of the media viewer. Identify the African Transition Zone, including the transitions that are occurring in the zone. Identify how selective groups in these kingdoms participated in the supply operations for the slave trade. The debate is not about what regions are in Subsaharan Africa but rather about which countries are to be included within each region.


Advancements in communication and transportation technology have created networks connecting Africa with global markets. The urban core areas of the continent are the main focus of the global trends in technology and communication.
Millions of people in Africa who seek employment are willing to migrate to the cities or even other countries to find work.
The regions share common demographic trends of large family sizes, agrarian lifestyles, and low income levels. There are, however, on the Ethiopian Highlands the Ethiopian Plateau that reach as high as 15,000 feet in elevation.
The Nile River competes with the Amazon for the status as the longest river in the world; the White Nile branch begins in Lake Victoria in East Africa, and the Blue Nile branch starts in Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The largest is Lake Victoria, which borders several East African countries and is considered to be the second-largest lake in the world in surface area.
These regions usually have more rainfall, resulting in lighter, leached-out soils that may not be as productive as regions with richer volcanic soils, such as those found in the rift valleys. Where the carrying capacity has been exceeded, the natural capital is being depleted at an unsustainable rate. The shaded region indicates the furthest expanse of the Songhai Empire at its peak in the sixteenth century. The Songhai had been based around the city of Gao for centuries, and in fifteenth century, they established the Songhai Empire, one of the largest empires in African history. The local African groups had to contend with the colonial European traders and invaders, which had superior weapons and different technology.
The once powerful Kingdom of Dahomey, east of the Ashanti Empire, was heavily involved in the slave trade. The demand for slaves pushed many of the African kingdoms to expand their slave-trading activities, capturing more individuals whom they could sell to European slave traders. This was the last doorway that slaves from Elmina, Ghana, saw on their way from the dungeon to the slave ship. Subsaharan Africa was broadly affected by colonial activities, the legacy of which can be recognized to this day. Only the Kingdom of Ethiopia and the area of Liberia, which was established as a home for freed slaves, remained independent.
The political pressure that divided African countries during the Cold War has persisted and is the basis of some of the current political problems. In nearly all cases, removing the colonial powers from Africa was only half the battle toward independence.
Coups, fraudulent elections, military regimes, and corruption have plagued the leadership in a number of African countries.
Political leaders have come and gone, many have been replaced before their terms were over, and a few have stayed long after their terms ended.
After the colonial era, it was not uncommon for new leaders to be connected to the old colonial power and to adopt the language and business arrangements of the European colonizer. Most of the interaction between countries is a result of crisis or warfare, in which case large numbers of refugees cross the border into neighboring countries for personal survival or security. The African Transition Zone is a transitional zone between type A and type B climates and between the religions of Islam and Christianity. Mountain ranges, volcanic peaks, and large lakes are found in or along the rift valleys of eastern Africa. European powers made agreements during the 1884 Berlin Conference to divide the realm and create boundary lines between their African colonies. Port cities, transportation systems, and other infrastructure were implemented to benefit the imperial power without regard for development of the colony.
The transition from colonies to independent countries has been plagued by civil war, political chaos, or economic devastation.
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Our body consists of 206 bones, 650 muscles, and a heart that will beat three billion times in our lifetime.
In the final part of this report, people will discover how tobacco intake can increase the risk of a low birth weight, premature birth, and death.
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Subsaharan Africa has a young population that is on the move, seeking to gain from any opportunities or advantages it can find. These urban core areas exhibit the typical dynamics of the core-periphery spatial relationship. The rural immigrants are often not of the same ethnic group as those in power, which sets up the basis for discriminatory policies that disadvantage the many minority groups that are not affiliated with the government. The patterns of an economy based on agricultural production and mineral extractive activities as well as disruptive changes in political leadership are common throughout the continent. Deforestation is occurring in areas where firewood is in high demand, and trees are cut down faster than they can grow back. Expanding along the Niger River and to the Atlantic coast, the Mali Empire extended over an area the size of Western Europe. The city of Timbuktu became prominent during this period as an urban center, and its educational institutions became well known. Besides the mining resources of gold copper, salt, and ivory, the slave trade was a driving force that attracted trade ships from various European countries. By the time the Europeans arrived, Ashanti trade relationships were well established and capable of supplying the colonial ships with slaves, ivory, and gold.
Slave trading with Europeans brought them rifles and other firearms that were useful in conflicts with their regional adversaries. Millions of Africans were captured by other Africans only to be sold into slavery, placed on ships, and sent to slave owners in the Americas. East Africa’s Axum Empire was an example of the powers of the early African savanna kingdoms located in the east. In 1884, Otto von Bismarck of Germany hosted the Berlin ConferenceMeeting called in 1884 by Otto Von Bismarck of Germany with the purpose of dividing and organizing African colonies by European colonial powers. The European countries extracted raw materials and minerals from their African colonies, as well as slave labor. Civil unrest usually precedes a change in leadership: political power regularly changes hands by a military coup or an overthrow of the current leader. When a leader is elected democratically, it is common to have widespread accusations of corruption, voter fraud, or ballot box scandals.
This gave them an advantage over their competitors and provided a means of income gained by the support of their former European colonial business partners, which often wanted to keep ties with their colonies to continue to exploit their resources for economic profits.
Each individual country interacts more with its European colonial counterpart with regard to trade, economics, and cultural dynamics. To begin to work together and promote trade, common transportation, security, and industry, fifteen West African states came together in 1975 to create the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)Agreements in 1975 between fifteen West African states to begin to work together and promote trade, common transportation, security, and industry.. His works enjoy a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture.
The author also recommends that women who smoke while pregnant will increase the risk of having a miscarriage. Split students into ten small groups and ask each group to designate one student as their data recorder. The cultural geography varies widely from country to country and from one ethnic group to another, but at the same time, there are shared cultural patterns across all Subsaharan African regions. The political arena is dynamic: changes in political leadership through coups or military takeovers are common, as is authoritarian rule.
The Congo River crosses the equator with a large tropical drainage basin that creates a flow of water second only to the Amazon in volume.
The savanna regions of the east and south have seasonal rains that affect the growing season.
Expanding human populations are also encroaching on the natural biodiversity for which the African continent is renowned.
Slavery became a component in the warfare between groups, as the winner usually took the captives to serve as servants or slaves.
Originally a federation of local groups, the empire incorporated many smaller provinces or kingdoms and had a major influence on the region’s laws and cultural heritage.
In the end, the Songhai Empire was defeated by Moroccan Berber forces that splintered the empire into many smaller kingdoms and ethnic clans.
A major slave state along the Slave Coast, the kingdom attracted the spite of its neighbors as a pariah state for selling its war captives into transatlantic slavery rather than killing them, as was the custom in warfare. The total number sold into the Atlantic slave trade will never be known, but estimates range somewhere between ten and twelve million.


The struggles between Islam and Christianity divided the region and gave way to the African Transition Zone, which serves as the dividing line between the two religions. In the discussion on Brazil in Chapter 6 "South America", Chapter 6, Section 3 "Brazil", there is segment on slavery and the Trade Triangle of the North Atlantic. Varying degrees of attention were given to education, medical care, or infrastructure development. Many of these leaders stayed in power because of military backing or authoritarian rule funded by the profits from selling minerals or resources to their former colonial masters.
European colonialism has isolated African countries from their neighboring countries and does not contribute to unity within or among African regions. Since then, additional political and economic agreements have been signed by various African countries. Glue!) Materials: - White Drawing Paper - Tracing Paper - Pencils - Erasers - Extra Fine Point Sharpie - Skinny Markers (optional) - Ink for Thumbprints 1. The divers swim in the same direction and make observations about the fish they see in their lane. For example, colonialism has been a major historical factor in the shaping of the countries.
The core urban centers have political power thanks to the social elites who have connections to the global economy and often dominate political activities.
South of the African Transition Zone, the most prevalent belief systems are Christian based and animist, while north of the zone, Islam is widespread. The Zambezi River in the south is famous for the extensive Victoria Falls on the Zambia and Zimbabwe border. Three of the largest lakes along the western rift are Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Albert. Soils in savanna areas are usually not as productive and cannot be depended on to fulfill the agricultural needs of growing populations. Large game animals such as rhinoceroses, elephants, and lions have been hunted or poached with devastating consequences. The Ghana Empire (790–1076 CE) was responsible for one of the early consolidations of power in West Africa. Similarly, the country of Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) got its name from its participation in the elephant ivory trade. Ethiopia has retained its Christian heritage, while to the north and east Islam has prevailed. This conference included fourteen colonial European countries and the United States, and its purpose was to divide Africa and agree on colonial boundary lines. The Europeans, seeking profits from cheap labor and resources, did not consider the local people or culture and often employed brutal measures to subdue the local people. The dependency that a colony had had on a European country for economic income in some cases continued long after independence and may still continue today. Colonial powers often built new port cities to extract goods and resources from their colonies and transportation systems from the new ports to the interior to collect the resources and bring them to the port. In 2001, the more expansive African UnionAgreements in 2001 between African states to form a united body to focus on issues within the African continent. Craig Venter says, "It's just like solving a jigsaw puzzle, only the jigsaw puzzle in our case has 27 million pieces [and] it came in a very big box and there was no picture on the cover." The Incredible Human Body explores how the brain and body interact to not only function, but adapt and learn.
Explain to students that knowing the number of fish that live in a small section of the reef can help scientists estimate the size of the fish population for the entire reef. The first time they swim, their lanes are four meters wide and they look for fish that are bigger than 20 centimeters.
One of the more prominent options is the implementation of a democratic government, where most of the people have a stake in electing those that hold positions of leadership and power.
Division and civil unrest can occur where the different religions meet and compete for political control. The creation of game preserves and national parks has stemmed this tide, but poaching remains a serious problem even in these protected areas. Though its power and wealth were vast, it was only the first of a number of empires to arise in the region.
The Ashanti were known for their involvement in the slave trade and today must live with that legacy. South of the equator, the ruins of Great Zimbabwe give testimony to the regional base of power that existed there in centuries past. Many African groups were instrumental in capturing and holding slaves to trade with the European merchants.
Germany had few claims in Africa; Bismarck was hoping to benefit by playing the other countries against each other.
Most of the current borders in Africa are a result of the Berlin Conference, and many of the geopolitical issues that confront Africa today can be traced back to this event specifically and to colonialism in general. On the other hand, major technology transfers from Europe to Africa infused greater efficiencies into Africa’s economic activities. However, the colonial powers did not build a network of transportation systems that connected the region as a whole. Narrated by actress Kate Burton, The Incredible Human Body is a fascinating lesson in mind-body interaction. The second time they swim, the lanes are two meters wide and they look for fish that are less than 20 centimeters.
Have students in each group count fish six inches to the left and right of their transect line.
Every region has large urban centers—often port cities that act as central core locations supported by a large peripheral rural hinterland. Desertification in the zone continues as natural conditions and human activity place pressure on the region through overgrazing and the lack of precipitation. Other significant rivers exist such as the Orange River, which makes up part of the border between South Africa and Namibia. Lake Chad is located in the African Transition Zone on the border between Chad, Mali, and Nigeria.
Cattle and livestock grazing are common in savannas, and migrations are frequent to follow seasonal grazing conditions. These groups still exist and have had to live with the fallout of their role in the supply side of the slave trade. Civil wars were fought over who would control the country after the Europeans were pushed out. The imperial nature of colonialism and the divisive Cold War did bring about, in an unfortunate manner, the benefits of structured governments and greater democratic processes for many of the local areas of the realm. Colonial powers were intent on continuing dependence on the mother country so their colonies could be controlled and dominated.
Species richness, or the number of species in a given area, is information that scientists use to figure out if a coral reef is healthy or not.
Violence and conflicts continue in some areas, while other areas exhibit political stability and thriving economies. The cultural mosaic of Subsaharan Africa is vast and complex, and this chapter will outline the basic trends and patterns with specific examples that will help place it all in perspective. These animals are being killed by humans for bush meat, and their habitats are being reduced by human activities.
On a large map of Africa, claims were argued over and boundary lines were drawn according to European agreements. The transition to full independence has exacted a heavy toll from African countries but has resulted in stronger political structures and greater democratic liberties in many cases. The divers also make sure they check in reef ledges and holes for any fish that may be hiding. The Kalahari and Namib Deserts are located in Southern Africa, mainly in the countries of Botswana and Namibia. However, Subsaharan Africa is not blessed with the large regions of rich alluvial soils found in the Northern Hemisphere. The variety of ethnic groups along with the multiplicity of languages and religious affiliations create strong centripetal and centrifugal forces that interact in a thriving sea of cultural diversity. The ever-growing agrarian population has always depended on the land for food and sustenance, but these conditions are not favorable for Africa’s future. After all groups have finished counting fish, have each group estimate the number of fish they think are in the 100 square foot area based on the number of fish they counted in their 1' x 10' section. The only continuous feature is the eastern rift valleysLarge fault zones in the eastern region of the African continent caused by shifting tectonic plates; long valleys surrounded by higher elevations or plateaus are created.



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