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This article describes inspection methods and clues to detect roof venting deficiencies, insulation defects, and attic condensation problems in buildings.
At INSULATION LOCATION & QUANTITY for ATTICS we discuss the relative benefit of adding insulation to a cathedral ceiling versus building walls in the same area.
Some buildings, by their shape or design, simply don't make it easy to install continuous intake venting at the eaves or lower roof edge, or continuous outlet venting along a ridge. For example, a house which has no roof overhang at all makes intake venting at the eaves difficult. Sketch (above left) is courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates shows the two basic strategies for insulating cathedral ceilings and flat roofs. We call this a "hot roof" design because failing to vent the roof from below not only misses a chance to avoid ice dam leaks and condensation damage in cold climates.
Watch out: Be sure to inspect the roof surface from outside for leaks and damage every year and to fix any damage quickly. The sketch above is provided ourtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates and shows the two basic strategies for ventilating cathedral ceilings or cathedral roofs. Less insulation: Reduce under-roof insulation level to 3 A?a€? fiberglass (R-11) under the cathedral ceiling (not good energy savings) - not recommended but functional, just poor insulation value.
Solid Foam: Install solid foam spray-in insulation under the roof a€“ a a€?hot roofa€? design. When re-roofing from the building exterior: if the roof decking and possibly roof framing have been extensively damaged by leaks it is usually necessary to repair the roof from outside the building.
The insulation used in those applications is tapered to provide positive roof drainage to roof drain points as well as to improve the building insulation system and cut energy costs. Tips for insulating a cathedral ceiling, take care to seal ceiling penetrations such as around light fixtures or ceiling-mounted hard-wired smoke detector.
While fiberglass insulation is an excellent and effective product for insulating most building cavities, in areas where there is extra risk of trapping moisture (and thus rot or mold infections) such as crawl spaces and cathedral ceilings where roof venting may be absent or minimal, we prefer to use closed-cell foam insulation products or spray-in icynene foam insulation: these products can seal the cavity against drafts and they do not as readily pick up moisture nor do they readily form hidden mold reservoirs. In cases where there is no under-roof venting system (no soffit intake vents, no ridge vents), a "hot roof" design is followed: the roof cavity between rafters can be filled with insulation, followed by installation of a perfect vapor barrier, followed by finish surface of drywall or whatever else.
While we prefer to avoid ice dam leaks by good building design and good under-roof ventilation, where conditions require stopping ice dam leaks on an existing structure, proper installation of heating cables may be the fastest and cheapest solution. Continue reading at HOT ROOF DESIGNS: UN-VENTED ROOF SOLUTIONS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Or see INSULATION LOCATION & QUANTITY for ATTICS to discuss the relative benefit of adding insulation to a cathedral ceiling versus building walls in the same area. Question: What is causing drip marks from leaks out of cathedral ceiling in a Northern California House? I'm not sure if I have answers to my specific issue solutions, so I'd like to give you some background and ask your opinion. A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that would permit a more accurate, complete, and authoritative answer than we can give by email alone. I agree that it makes no sense to replace the roof covering before we have a clear diagnosis of the cause of leakage; Worse you could be wasting a lot of money re-roofing only to discover that "leaks" continue because the cause was improper venting, soaked insulation, air leaks, or that there is moldy drywall and wet insulation that need replacement in the ceiling. Guess: the home has either one or more leaks into the roof cavity (cathedral ceiling) or condensation accumulating in that cavity. If heat is left on the water source could be an exterior leak, ice dam leaks, or interior air leaks carrying moisture into the roof cavity. If the water source in the roof cavity is from air and moisture leaks from the interior, the passage points into the roof are most often at penetrations such as around light fixtures.
Then I would go to the two most-suspect areas in the roof cavity and make a test cut sufficient to inspect the insulation for signs of wetting and mold, the cavity side fo the drywall for water and mold, and the roof sheathing for water, mold, and to confirm the air space. When we've done enough inspecting that we are confident of the cause of the drips you describe, only then does it make sense to start "repairing".
I'm updating insulation on my cathedral ceiling on a 1966 bungalow which currently has no vapour barrier. You could add a layer of high-r foam insulation IF you are building a hot-roof unvented design.
If interior space permits I'd consider adding solid foam on the interior ceiling and new drywall over it to increase the total R.
I pose that the total project cost to R&R intact roof sheathing for this project is higher than insulating from the interior.
I'm unable to tackle this from the inside do to decorative wood paneling in the cathedral part of the roof that I don't want to disturb.
Rigid board between rafters -which I've done -is a lot of cutting and fitting and sealing, and costly compared with spray-foaming the whole cavity.
While we prefer the vapour barrier on the ceiling warm side, it's less critical than sealing around any ceiling penetrations on the inside (lights for example).
We have a drop down ceiling in our office about 1200 sq feet with only one wll return for the ac. You need an onsite inspection by a competent HVAC or other building professional to first understand how your system is designed.
Separately, if you are seeing sagging and moisture or condensation problems that is a potentially serious issue risking mold contamination and even ceiling collapse - conditions that need to be inspected as part of answering your question. I have a Big Beam house with all rooms, except bathrooms, with exposed ceilings of 2 x 6 Douglass Fir. Certainly I would not do anything about your ceilings nor add insulation before doing some investigating.
I'd go to the most-suspect point where leaks occurred and make a small opening, say 2x4" to look at the cavity side of the drywall, the wood framing, the existing insulation. Questions & answers or comments about how to add or retrofit insulation to cathedral ceilings in older homes. ASHRAE resource on dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries.


Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
America's Favorite Homes, mail-order catalogues as a guide to popular early 20th-century houses, Robert Schweitzer, Michael W.R. Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V. Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls. Nogging: See this photo of exposed bricks on a building exterior on a building exterior in Canada. Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building. The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. When you put batteries in a flash light or torch you invariably put them in with the positive end touching the negative end. It's also worth noting that because the current in the first 12 volt solar kit is higher, it's important to pay attention to the size of the wires. With many years of industry experience, ASAP’s garage door installers have successfully established a long list of happy customers and build a strong reputation for our technical expertise and quality workmanship.
We pride in offering a wide range services to meet the most stringent of requirements with great ease. Getting a new, trendy garage door installed is one of the best ways to give your home a whole new look and raise its future value as well. Having a professional garage door installation technician come by and do the needful is the easy way out but you too should know some basics. Practically, however, the assembly and installation isn’t that tough and learning how to perform the job can be easier than you would initially suppose.
To begin with, you need a power screwdriver, hammer, screws, nails and brackets regardless of the type of garage door it is and since you’ll need something to place the horizontal track on, make sure use a strong ladder. Gather all garage door parts and pieces provided by the manufacturer together and have all tools ready. Please note that some commercial and residential garage door installations can only be taken up by professional technicians due to the complexities involved and therefore, it is advisable to just dial (732) 322-8877 and let experts handle the job.
Normally, the removal process involves unlatching of the door from the pulley, taking the door panels apart and taking off the tracks after unscrewing them. If you are not sure of what you’re doing, contact a professional garage door installation service provider. You can provisionally fasten stops on both opening sides when accurate measurements are available. Place the first panel in the doorway after you have attached the weather stripping supplied by the manufacturer. Partially drive nails into the jambs in order to momentarily hold the panel in the right place.
Slot in the bottom piece carefully into the frame of the door and set the piece using a level. Drive nails into all jambs once you think the piece is properly in place, and slightly slant the nails so that they remain well in place. Take the second panel and install it on top of the first panel, driving nails into each side jamb so that the panel holds its place.
The next step is to install the hinges and you’ll have to keep repeating the same process for all panels.
Now, place all rollers well in the assembled track and don’t forget to secure the brackets while going along.
Install all horizontal and curved pieces when the vertical tracks are properly secured against the jambs. The Hardy Diesel ultimate fuel filter kits are by far the best choice available when it comes to critical performance. The most important thing to consider is there should be no direct line of sight in or out of the building. This allows water, limbs, snow, and ice to slide off the roof easily - preventing roof damage. A house with a pyramid roof shape or complex roof shapes makes outlet venting at a ridge difficult. In hot climates the roof temperature will be much higher on an un-vented roof, resulting in shorter shingle life. In buildings where there is no roof venting anyway, and where ventilation is difficult or impossible to achieve, an un-vented, well insulated "hot roof" can provide a high-R-value ceiling and may be the second-best alternative to preventing ice dam related leaks in cold climates. With 2x6 rafters this will give about an R-19 roof, higher if you use thicker solid foam insulation. Before replacing roof decking, consider re- decking the roof with insulated structural panels that include eaves to ridge ventilation in their design.
Adding ventilation under a solid-foam insulated pitched roof in order to dry and cool the building interior would, in turn, lose the benefit of the roof top insulation. More moisture enters building cavities through these cuts in the ceiling (or wall) drywall than permeates through the drywall itself. In a cold climate and depending on the level of roof insulation, water entering the roof can freeze, accumulate as ice, and thus return to the interior as leaks and drips that continue for quite a while in thawing conditions.
If heat is off and the house interior is at freezing temperature (not my first choice for building preservation), the water source in the ceiling is more likely to be an exterior leak.
The percentage of moisture that moves directly through solid drywall into a building cavity has been shown to be quite small. In any event I would be cautious about leaving windows open in a home with heat off because of security risks, animal entry risks, blown snow and rain damage risks etc. The shingles need replacing so I will be tackling this from the outside by removing the roof sheathing. Otherwise the foam layer atop the rafters and under the roof sheathing will have its R-value wasted since ventilating air would be moving between the underside of the foam and the upper side of insulation between the rafters. Should I look at going with only 2" of spray foam to provide the vapour barrier, add batting and then the rigid board insulation to cover the joists before sheeting? If the office ceiling space above the drop ceiling is being used as a return air plenum you don't want to subvert the design by adding addtional vent openings. Finally: consider (but defer) using an insulated chimney from the ceiling up through the roof.


It would be a shame to simply blow insulation into a cavity only to find later that you have to remove the whole shebang to get rid of moldy drywall that nobody attended. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively.
Notice that the batteries are also connected in series and the second battery is the opposite way round to the first battery so it's easier to connect the cables.
This is exactly the same principal because the batteries or solar panels are connected in series to provide a higher voltage for the bulb or solar power system. We do not work with any sub-contractors and offer work guarantee on garage door installation services. Our team comprises of highly qualified and experienced technicians, who are well equipped with the required expertise as well as important garage door installation tools to efficiently complete each job. Some guidance and the right tools can make this otherwise overwhelming task a simple and quick DIY project for you! Detaching all panels is not recommended as they can come off at once and cause serious injuries. For the back room, on the other hand, you need the door height as well as over 18″ of extra space. There’d no doubt be some garage door installation cost but in the long term, you don’t want a brand new garage door to develop problems, do you?
If you want to attach weather stripping, use sawhorses to outline the bottom piece of the new garage door. Now, as per the standard instructions, assemble all curved, vertical and horizontal tracks. This allows you to comfortably carry on with installation while keeping the in correct position.
When placing rollers on the panel in order to install the vertical track, keep moving from one side to the other. Make sure garage door rollers don’t press too forcefully against the track, for excess of friction might damage the door. Lift the door up with help of the other person in order to ensure that the tracks are parallel and equal.
It is important not to restrict the flow so no part of either duct volume should be smaller than 1.5 times the air passage through the radiator.
This gives the best air path, eaves to ridge, but costs more for the labor to nail furring and cut insulation into pieces to fit between rafters.A  a€“ works well, costs more. Worse, once the insulation has become wet the cavity has lost insulation value so the problem is likely to be worse, especially if the source is condensation from inside. I do like eaving heat on to keep the home above freezing, say at 40 or 45F which can avoid building damage that comes from extreme temperature swings inside - conditions that are not anticipated by most modern construction; But as I suggest, let's wait on the cure until we understand the disease.
From your articles you still recommend a vented design to keep the roof cool in the summer and prevent premature wear on the shingles.
So, I have to use spray foam or rigid board(sealed around the edges) between the rafters vs the batting because of no vapour barrier correct? Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of America is a National Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in the United States.
Ensure that the tracks lie straight and point away from the door opening accurately at 90 degrees. You will find plenty of accurate pictures and information to help you make important decisions.
I may have to re-roof - Has modern technology suggested a new method to vent a Big Beam home? From talking to 4 insulation contractors, one main problem is the tight space, only 4 inches, between the slanted ceilings in the 2nd floor closets that flank our staircase and the roof sheathing.
71-78, Association for Preservation Technology International (APT), available online at JSTOR. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order.
Not only that but it can easily be painted on site to match what ever look would best fit the surrounding area if desired. I have ridge vent and last year added more sofit vents so that I have a 12 inch vent every third rafter. 3 of the 4 contractors really don't want to deal with my problem, said they would get back to me, and never did. A In 1993, the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the School of Architecture-Building Research Council.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home.
Nice thing about the kit is 55 gallon drums are readily available where bulk fuels and oil are sold. Will spraying the sides of the rafter and adding some rigid board insulation between the rafter and sheeting work?
Someone told us we needed to insulate the system and replace some of the tiles with plastic egg grates. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
Considering two options; (i) foaming all of the HVAC ducts , better sealing all of the can lights and vents, then putting 4 inches of additional fiberglass (blown in) or extending the vent chutes to the ridge - in each rafter and spraying foam to the underside of the deck-removing the R-48 from the ceiling rafters. His recommendation: blow in cellulose from the top down into this 4 inch wide space and then go into the closets and blow cellulose through the interior walls between each stud making a top and bottom hole. The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that would affect the quality of the nation's housing stock.How could homes be designed and built more efficiently? Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. I just looked up R values and 4 inches of cellulose is only about 10; probably not good enough to prevent all future ice dams.
I called a general contractor and he said that I don't want to give up that flow of cold air from sofit vents to ridge vents by filling that space with insulation.
Bottom line: if i go with this insulation contractor I will get some insulation but will eliminate the winter cold air ventilation that is also nice to have under the roof sheathing. He said that he found gaps around the chimney, around lights and around ceiling fans) Your comments are appreciated, thank you.



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