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28.09.2014 admin
The combination of tape and flash will yield much better performance and substantially lower cost than spinning disk.
For decades we’ve heard that the amount of capacity under a disk actuator will increasingly be problematic for application performance. Head technology investments, the lynchpin of disk technology for years, are in a long, slow, managed decline cycle. The lack of investments in spinning disk tech, the fact that spin speeds have hit their physical limits and the reality that track capacities aren’t increasing that fast, combine to give you slow as molasses disk bandwidth. These future flape architectures are delivering new business value for customers because they’re able to monetize complex and previously unattainable (in a decent amount of time) seek requests for information.
David Floyer explains all the gory details and technology assumptions in this Research Note. The implication is that the time it takes to scan a 5TB tape cartridge today will be the same as it takes to scan a 50+TB cartridge in 2023.
The fact is disk is slower than tape when large files are involved because the internal bandwidth of disk devices are limited, especially as capacity grows.
We believe a new architecture called “Flape” will emerge, combining flash storage and tape.
Our view is that in order to scale, flape needs leadership that can set standards, point the way for customers to develop metadata taxonomies, provide middleware technology to exploit flape and finally entice ISVs to recognize flape as a viable platform. Like the famous boxer who once lost his luster, tape is re-inventing itself and can become a prominent mainstream player again. This entry was posted on June 24, 2014, 7:53 am and is filed under Compliance, Data Protection, Storage, Wikibon. Sure, tape might be re-inventing itself, but it still hasn’t worked out the access mechanism required for data written several generations ago. If I have an LTO5 tape drive I cant read my old LTO1 or LTO2 tapes due to the limitations of the drive technology.
It seems that erasure coding methods employed by many storage vendors (and part of Swift) make tape obsolete. It sounds like absurd misinformation – such as people claiming in 1972 that for fast memories, hand threaded magnetic cores costing $1 per byte, would always be needed. This forecast came from Kobad Bhavnagri, the head of Bloomberg New Energy Finance in Australia, while outlining the reasons for the groups bullish forecasts, which predict 33GWh of battery storage and 37GW of solar PV in Australia by 2040. Retail prices will continue to grow, but even if they remain flat, rooftop solar PV can already provide power to consumers in homes at well below the price of electricity. Adding one kilowatt-hour of battery storage raises that cost slightly, but is still well below the cost of the grid-sourced power. But it will put huge pressure on networks to adapt their business models, and the way they operate the grid, and will almost inevitably result in a write-down of the grid’s value, which has been inflated by over-investment in recent years. If the grid were to offer a 1 for 1 tariff (power exchange) there would be no need for private battery storage and a need to stay connected to the grid. The only reason we have a grid is because that was (by far) the most economical way to do it for years. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Truly a unique piece, this fully upholstered queen bed will have you sleeping in grand contemporary fashion.
YOUNGSTOWN — David Graf came back before the board of trustees Thursday to present his plan for the former cold storage facility.As the Gazette previously reported, Graf is looking to buy the facility and turn it into a performing arts academy with storage and studio space.
Aid and emergency supplies are headed to Ecuador thanks to the students and staff at Albany's Delaware Community School. FOX NEWS – A father in India reportedly took justice into his own hands after a teenager allegedly raped his baby daughter. At least a dozen residents were left homeless by a large fire that tore through a Medford condo complex. On Earth Day 2016, officials from the City of Buffalo delivered statistics showing an increase in recycling by residents. All of KJ turned out for this pre-Passover ritual, where grains called “Chametz” are forbidden and cast into flames. Apple is now making iCloud more affordable given that the cloud storage will now be more heavily relied upon with the new Photos app for iOS and soon for the Mac. Apple has not yet announced tier pricing beyond 200 GB, but the added storage should be welcomed for those who use iCloud Drive and for photographers to back up and synchronize their photos.
For comparison, Apple competitor rival Google is also offering cloud storage through Google Drive.


Ring has launched a Mac app, which lets you keep an eye on your home using the company's video doorbell and other products. This statement will prove true for long-term data retention use cases storing large data objects. Specifically, as disk capacities increase at the rate prescribed by Moore’s Law, placing more data under a mechanical arm will serve to relentlessly decelerate performance and eventually the spinning rust business will hit a wall. An example might be give me all the Lady Gaga video clips where she performed live; with Crayon Pop opening for her…between 2011 and 2012.
As implied in the points above, the time it takes (for example) to rebuild a disk drive on a failure is escalating with every new generation of capacity increase. The data below show an economic model developed by Wikibon around flape as compared with alternative spinning disk architectures. Flape may still be the way to go in such use cases because archiving software is often able to group smaller files into larger objects. HP could also be a player, but Oracle in particular, with its StorageTek heritage, could emerge as an early innovator. Tape longevity is better (much) than disk so the migration costs will be lower for tape over a 10-year period. I believe the bit error rate (BER) of tape is 10 to the minus 17 whereas disk is 10 to the minus 15.
A different  version of this graph, showing the costs in payback terms, is included in this story on how battery storage prices are already falling in Australia). Missing element however is that energy prices would need to be reflective of wholesale, i.e. The frame is crafted from solid Asian hardwood, which is covered by a smooth, dark grey fabric. The 17-year-old was accused of molesting the seven-month-old baby in 2014 after the child’s mother allegedly caught the teen in the act.
While time-to-first-byte is faster than tape, because disk is a random access device…once you find the data, if it’s a large object like a video file or archived email blob, it takes a long time to get data off the disk.
If you take all the metadata that’s locked on tapes and surface that onto a flash layer as a front-end to tape – Wikibon calls this flape – you’ll get way lower costs and much better performance than with a spinning disk system…even a disk system with flash. Think about applying this to facial recognition applications or email archive blobs or any large object data set. To rebuild a 21TB disk could take more than a month—which by the way is why no one should use RAID 5 anymore because during a rebuild you’re exposed for far too long, risking a second drive failure and data loss. Today that is done on disk-based systems but there’s no reason it couldn’t be done on flash with some backend integration to tape.
Wikibon spoke with several IT practitioners who have developed early instantiations of flape using a high spin speed disk metadata layer. Two orders of magnitude (I would think) translates into a significantly longer useful life…which dramatically lowers migration costs for an archive.
I for one would happily forfeit any excess power donated to the grid on a month by month bases for such an arrangement. New technology has changed the way we live in so many ways, and this is just another example.
This, he said, would allow for more flexibility and a wider draw for those who may want to use the facility.With a handful of meetings on the horizon and a few under his belt, Graf said folks are showing interest in his idea and are coming forward to get involved. Flash is cheaper and now more economical than the segment formerly known as high-performance disk drives. Another reason tape can be faster is file systems like Linear Tape File System (LTFS) and SAM-QFS.
With flape, data and metadata would be written to the flash layer and the data moved asynchronously to tape.
Tape’s superior economics relative to disk and its better performance for large files (when combined with flash) make it attractive for retention and big data repository apps.
Otherwise the network ends up buying power from rooftop PV net exporters at 5-10 x wholesale.
Furthermore, this bed features two underbed drawers to stow away any personal items and save precious floor space. He said he wouldn't move forward without the community's support and interest. Citing a similar project in Cleveland, Graf said the project could take about $7 million. Wikibon practitioners (several in media and entertainment) are writing metadata taxonomies and surfacing metadata to a high-speed layer. Well this turns out not to always be true – especially where bandwidth is the primary measure of performance – as it is for large objects (e.g.


Tape file systems allow separation of metadata in a self-describing tape format providing direct access to file content and metadata, independent of any external database or storage system. Both IBM and Oracle sell flash storage products, IBM with the TMS acquisition and Oracle with the ZFS line of flash-first arrays. This is a function of the increased capacity per actuator problem described in the article…and the inability of the disk industry to increase performance at a rate proportional to capacity increases.
Finally, the exposed wood feet in a nutmeg finish add a subtle touch of detail, making this a bed to cherish for many years to come. For a long time the storage industry somewhat masked disk performance problems by spinning the platters faster, increasing track capacities, using larger caches, writing better algorithms, creating massive backend disk farms, wide striping data and doing unnatural acts like short-stroking devices. This capability presents tape in a standard file system view of the data stored making accessing files stored on the tape, logically similar to accessing files stored on disk.
From a cost perspective, HDDs have been unable to keep pace with the areal density curve of tape. In addition, several Oracle customers we spoke with are focusing the ZFS appliance on backup applications as an alternative to NetApp targets.
The bit error rates for tape are two orders of magnitude better than spinning disk – meaning tape is a much more suitable platform for long-term storage. The cold storage facility's outside structure is "still good," he said, but the beams would need quite a bit of work and the roof has caved in. In order to begin any work or to receive any grants for the project, Graf will need working capital. More recently the industry began to jam flash into legacy storage arrays, which breathed new life into disk performance. Tape heads are fixed…a stationary component that can more easily be replicated and staggered. This infrastructure is connected to an application server, which writes both metadata and data directly to the high-speed layer. The slide below shows a comparison of disk versus tape bandwidth– specifically the internal bandwidth of the device (normalized by capacity). Second, can the application that may need to leverage the data that resides on tape, easily access the data that lives on the tape? In order for flape to be adopted widely however, the vendor community must step up to the plate. Meanwhile, IBM with its Tivoli line of management software has a background in this market. If the industry steps up and buyers keep an open mind, flape is a winner that will cut costs for the “bit bucket,” improve archiving performance for large object workloads and deliver substantial incremental business value.
The data is then grouped into objects that are categorized based on the taxonomy and trickled asynchronously to the backend tape for cold storage. Tape of course is starting at a much lower cost per bit than disk and is likely to remain an order of magnitude cheaper.
This is why a middleware layer is needed to be able to find the data in an “appropriate” amount of time. Ironically, the very flash technology that has extended the runway of legacy SAN is the reason why tape, for certain applications, could grow again.
These customers are also writing algorithms that fetch data intelligently based on the data request. We believe these types of innovations, combined with flash will breath new life into tape and solve a nagging user problem – how to contain data growth, cost effectively. Flash meanwhile is on the steepest price decline curve of the three storage technologies and is expected to continue to close the gap on disk. Clearly the market will be much better off with two suppliers and ironically, we feel IBM and STK will further collaborate on tape standards to accelerate market adoption. We would expect LTO6 to be relevant in 4-6 years, meaning your (then) 10+ year old LTo4 media is still readable. For example, if the fifth request for a piece of data in a chain can be serviced more quickly than the first, they’ll complete the fifth request while in parallel servicing the first and then re-order the chain at the backend. This metadata informs the system as to where the data lives and can retrieve it in the most efficient timeframe.
It would be in their mutual interests to do so as market leader EMC is vocal in its marketing about the death of tape. As long as an application can work in this fashion, a flape architecture can help any organization achieve the right balance between performance and cost which in turn helps to drive business value.



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