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The American and French political wars of the late 18th century, while on the surface appearing to be very similar, were, in fact, quite opposite in their foundations, processes used to achieve freedoms, and in their ultimate consequences. The French saw the Americans as being willing to put the dreams of the philosophes into practice and gave them hope to do the same in France. The French Revolution (1789-1815) looked to the secular theories of the Enlightenment for its guidance and legitimacy.
France suffered through a century of turmoil, revolutions, and political upheaval, in contrast to the stable government and society that was established in the United States.
The absolutism of the kings Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, the central figures of the French monarchy leading up to the French Revolution, led to the events that precipitated the Revolution that began in 1789. The numerous and extensive wars conducted under Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1715) in the previous century had weakened the economy of the nation.
In similar fashion, Louis XV took the throne when he was five years old (ruled 1714-1774), succeeding in 1715 his great-grandfather, Louis XIV. Increasingly the nationa€™s economy was built upon borrowed money obtained from loans granted by private financiers. From the reign of Louis XIII and his primary counselor, Cardinal Richelieu, continuing through the reign of Louis XIV and his finance minister, Colbert, a severe absolutism controlled the nation. In addition, the growing merchant and middle classes resented being excluded from participation in government, and during the reign of Louis XVI (picture right) there was no apparent change in sight.
Increasingly the monarchy lost its charm, sense of loyalty, and honor among the French people.
As an indication of how little Louis XVI understood his nation and how unaware he was of the dynamics sweeping France, in 1788, when members of Parliament complained of his dictatorial ways, he issued the Lamoignon Edict, abolishing the power of parliament. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the i??French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV. Essays and books by Descartes, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire and others were more widely read in France than in any other place in Europe (see Unit 20). The philosophesa€™ general disdain for the Roman Catholic Church resulted in a widespread suspicion of the clergy.
This led to a requirement that all Catholic clergy sign an oath of loyalty to France (Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790) or be expelled from the country.
The peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society. The third estate was comprised of the middle class (Bourgeoisie): merchants, lawyers, physicians, government workers, and everyone else in society, including the peasants. The social and economic gap between the peasants the land owning nobility, including the monarchy, grew greater.
In lean years 90% of the peasants lived below subsistence levels and were hardly able to survive.
10,000 female market workers (a€?the Paris fish market womena€?) marched the thirty-five miles from Paris to Versailles in 1788 to protest the high cost of bread.
Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the north of Paris. Eventually Louis XIV built a huge palace at Versailles and transferred the seat of government from Paris to Versailles. The French nobility resided in and around Versailles in order to be found daily in the French court. Riots had broken out in Paris over economic failures, the escalating price of bread, and the fear and frustration resulting from the two-year famine in many areas of France. The Bastille, an ancient prison now turned into a military armory, in 1789 was stormed by Parisians seeking guns and ammunition for their protests. To appease the growing unrest and to convince them, however, that new and higher taxes were necessary to address the nationa€™s problems, Louis XVI, called into session the Assembly of the Notables.This was a weak ruse by the king to gain their support for higher taxes. The weak king, counseled by strong-willed Maria who held to a strict absolutism for the monarchy, refused to share government with the nobles. The Assembly then demanded that Louis call into Session the Paris Parlement, which had not met since 1614!
In desperation, Louis then called into session the Estates General, composed of representatives from each of the Three Estates. In frustration and anger, the Third Estate walked out of the meetings and refused to reassemble with the other two estates. When the third estates walked out, the king arranged to have the meeting place conveniently shut down a€?for repairs.a€? The third estate then took over the kinga€™s indoor tennis courts and held their own assembly, which became known as the Tennis Court Assembly.
The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch. Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings.
It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. Thomas Paine, author of the pro-independence piece, Common Sense, during the American War for Independence, had left America for France. The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people. The king and queen were brought to Paris and placed under palace arrest so that the French people could a€?keep their eye on them.a€? In 1791 Marie had attempted a secret flight from the country with her husband and children through a secret plan arranged with her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austrian.
By Spring 1792 three things were evident: (1) attempts to fashion a constitutional monarchy under Louis had failed, (2) civil unrest was everywhere in France, and (3) the Revolution was going badly. Counter-revolutionaries in France in Austria were at work to restore an absolute monarchy under Louis and had the financial and military support of Leopold II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna.
Furthermore, there was wide-spread speculation that the king, himself, was on the side of the Austrian and Prussian armies that were driving from the north towards Paris. The National Convention, now controlled by the more radical members, viewed King Louis XVI as an enemy of the state, who would be, if he continued to live, even abroad, as a catalyst for enemies of the revolution. On January 20, 1793 the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was i??executed the next day. His wife, Marie Antoinette, during a purge of other suspicioned enemies of the revolution, was executed in October 1793, nine months after the execution of her husband. Marie Antoinette gave birth to four children.A daughter died in infancy, a son died at age seven of tuberculosis, a daughter survived and was sent to Austria in a prisoner exchange, and the heir to the throne, Louis-Charles, suffered a horrible death.
After his fathera€™s execution, Louis-Charles, born in 1785, stayed with his mother in prison. By June 1793 the crowds in the street, impatient with what they perceived to be the slow progress of the National Convention in pushing forward a radical reform, rioted.
In September 1773 the street crowds again rioted and demanded that even terror be used to bring about the social, political, and economic revolution that the street crowds envisioned.
Maximillien Robespierre had long argued for the abolishment of the monarchy, promoted the ideas of an assembly directly accountable to the people, promoted the end to the death penalty, and opposed war with Austria. Although initially an idealist committed to the rights of man as elaborated in the writings of the philosophes in the Enlightenment, Robespierre resorted to terror to maintain the course and direction of the revolution.
In May 1794 Robespierre supported a decree that established a new national religion in France, the Cult of the Supreme Being. The French calendar was changed to include a new ten-day week in order to abolish from the minds of the nation a€?Sundaya€? or the Christian a€?first day of the weeka€? in order to eliminate all references to Christ and the Resurrection. The French also devised a new clock which measured not a 24-hour day but a 10-hour day, each hour divided into 100 minutes and each minute containing 100 seconds, with exactly 100,000 seconds per day. By 1794 most French churches were closed, 30,000 priests were either deported, killed, or shipped as prisoners to French Guiana, and no priests remained to conduct the sacraments. Finally, the treachery and evident emotional and mental imbalance of Robespierre was so apparent and the Reign of Terror so horrendous, that Robespierre himself was condemned to death. With the death of Robespierre, the nation was governed by a new team of leaders, The Directory. Napoleon ordered his cannons to fire into the protesters and quickly brought order to the streets of Paris. Considered to be one of the great generals and military strategists in history, Napoleon Napoleon defeated the army of Austria and proceeded to conquer Italy. Napoleon secretly had the desire to become the next Alexander the Great and saw Egypt as the first step towards establishing a new empire. Within a few short years the goal for a free France ruled by a representative government would again slip into absolutism. A French hegemony existed in Europe almost to the very eve of 1789.A  A hegemony is the strong influence of a people, culture, or nation over others. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
TheA  peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society.
Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the northA  of Paris. 1.The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch. 1.Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings. 1.It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. 1.The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people.
On January 20, 1793A  the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was executed the next day. Increasingly he became more radical, sought to eliminate all opposition to his leadership and ideas. DESCRIPTION: This 'atlas' was the work of a family of Catalonian Jews who worked in Majorca at the end of the 14th century and was commissioned by Charles V of France at a time when the reputation of the Catalan chart makers was at its peak. The title of the Atlas shows clearly the spirit in which it was executed and its content: Mappamundi, that is to say, image of the world and of the regions which are on the earth and of the various kinds of peoples which inhabit it. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.a€?The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth. The Catalan Atlas is actually a world map built up around a portolan chart, thus combining aspects of the nautical chart by employing loxodromes and coastal detail with the medieval mappaemundi exemplified by its legends and illustrations. We know in unusual detail the circumstances in which the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (the date of the calendar which accompanies it) was produced and the career of the cartographer who compiled it. The patrons of Cresques, King Peter III of Aragon and his son, in addition to their scientific interests, were keenly interested in reports of Eastern lands, in relation to their forward economic policy, and were at special pains to secure manuscript copies of Marco Polo's Description of the World, the travels of Odoric of Pordenone Description of Eastern Regions and, what may surprise the modern reader, the Voiage of Sir John Mandeville.
In the interior the position, extent, chief divisions, towns and rivers of China and the Mongol Empire are approximately represented.
On the southern portion of the Cathay coast, the general uniformity of the coast is broken by three bays, and it is significant that these are associated with three great ports, Zayton [near Changchow], Cansay [Hangchow, better known in medieval records as Quinsay ] and Cincolam [Canton]. Quite a number of harbors are indicated on the eastern coast of India, a few of them still identifiable, while a sailing junk testifies to trading activity, especially with the island of Iana (?), which is here associated with the legendary isle of the Amazons (regio femarum [sic]) and symbolized by its queen. In mainland India, King Stephen has been represented: the text beside him indicates that this Christian ruler is a€?looking towards the town of Butifilis,a€? Marco Polo's kingdom of Mutifilis. The people of Gog and Magog following their monarch, bearing banners with the emblem of the devil, detail of the map of Asia.
Sources other than those embodied in Polo have also been used for the portion of the Indian Ocean included in the map.
If the map is stripped of its legends and drawings of the older tradition, it is apparent that the main interest of the compiler is concentrated in a central strip across Asia. In the west is the Organci [Oxus] river shown, as on most contemporary maps, flowing into the Caspian, and alongside it the early stages of the traditionally used overland route, from Urganj [the medieval Khiva] through Bokhara and Samarcand to the sources of the river in the mountains of Amol, on the eastern limits of Persia.
This description, with several omissions, was in outline the route followed by Maffeo and Nicolo Polo (Marco Polo's father and uncle) on their journey to the Great Khan's court. Scarcely less valuable, and certainly of special interest for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth. Hardly any place on the west coast of Africa is identified only one name, perhaps a mythical spot, is found south of Cape Bojador in the former Spanish Sahara, but we are told that Africa, land of ivory, starts at this point and that by traveling due south one reaches Ethiopia.
East of the Sultan of Mali appears the King of Organa, in turban and blue dress, holding an oriental sword and a shield. In northeast Africa, a knowledge of the Nile valley as far south as Dongala, where there was a Catholic mission early in the 14th century, is apparent.
On one matter, however, the mapmaker Cresques could hardly refrain from speculating, for the following reason: land exploration had, for a long time now, outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe area in the same latitudes.
In Asia the Red Sea stands out, being shown as red, a characteristic that derives, we are told less from the color of the water than from that of the sea bed.
Moslem traders from cities along the Barbary Coast of North Africa began to cross the Sahara in the Middle Ages in an effort to bring back gold, rumored to be in great supply in the Sudan.
Within the means of cartographic representations on this Atlas there appears to be no specialities, those symbols and other graphics used by Cresques correspond to those commonly used in the Middle Ages. The compiler of the prototype used by Cresques for the Catalan Atlas had recourse to different, sometimes even contradictory sources.
In summary, the merit of the Catalan Atlas lay in the skill with which Cresques employed the best available contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, never proceeding further than the evidence warranted. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth.
As a response to this interest, Cresques extended his chart to include all that was then known of Asia, notably from Marco Polo's narrative. This town [Beijing] has an extent of 24 miles, is surrounded by a very thick outer wall and has a square ground plan. The description emphasizes the richness and urbanity of the Chinese capital at the edge of the civilized world. To the north is Catayo, the Great Khan and his capital of Chanbaleth; to the south Manji, with its great cities of Zayton and Cansay. There was once a little Kid whose growing horns made him think he was a grown-up Billy Goat and able to take care of himself. The Wolf liked the idea of a little music before eating, so he struck up a merry tune and the Kid leaped and frisked gaily. But as he opened his mouth to say these foolish words he lost his hold on the stick, and down he fell to the ground, where he was dashed to pieces on a rock.
A Dog and a Cock, who were the best of friends, wished very much to see something of the world. At nightfall the Cock, looking for a place to roost, as was his custom, spied nearby a hollow tree that he thought would do very nicely for a night's lodging.
The hungry but unsuspecting Fox, went around the tree as he was told, and in a twinkling the Dog had seized him.
The Mice once called a meeting to decide on a plan to free themselves of their enemy, the Cat.
An Eagle, swooping down on powerful wings, seized a lamb in her talons and made off with it to her nest. The farmer climbed down from his seat and stood beside the wagon looking at it but without making the least effort to get it out of the rut. And when the farmer put his shoulder to the wheel and urged on the horses, the wagon moved very readily, and soon the Farmer was riding along in great content and with a good lesson learned. A frisky young Kid had been left by the herdsman on the thatched roof of a sheep shelter to keep him out of harm's way. After the meal the friends had a long talk, or rather the Town Mouse talked about her life in the city while the Country Mouse listened.
When they reached the mansion in which the Town Mouse lived, they found on the table in the dining room the leavings of a very fine banquet. The Country Mouse stopped in the Town Mouse's den only long enough to pick up her carpet bag and umbrella. A Fox one day spied a beautiful bunch of ripe grapes hanging from a vine trained along the branches of a tree. One day when the quarreling had been much more violent than usual and each of the Sons was moping in a surly manner, he asked one of them to bring him a bundle of sticks.
A scorpion rode on the back of a monkey crossing a river and half way across the scorpion stung him. And I think the key to understanding this is to understand that from their point of view, this is not seen as evil, ita€™s not seen as bad.
The Muslim Brotherhood (MB) was founded by Hassan al-Banna in 1928 in opposition to Ataturka€™s abolition of the Ottoman Empire (Caliphate) in 1924 with secular Turkey in the aftermath of World War I. The Jahili system can be seen in this video of Egyptian President Nassera€™s speech in the 50a€™s when he was cheered for mocking the hijab and Salafists.
That system also existed in the new secular Turkey, where Islam was more suppressed than in Egypt. In 1999 the World Health Org reported that 97% of Egyptian women had Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
The Muslim Brotherhood and Salafis were on record supporting Islamic practices like killing apostates, amputating thieves, and FGM. But since that 2010 PEW poll in Egypt was published months before the Arab Springa„?, why were most Expertsa„? predicting a pluralistic government that respects universal human rights would be elected, and where were those votes supposed to come from? Why is it that only the so called Islamophobesa„? warned at the start of the uprising in January 2011 that the Brotherhood was best positioned to takeover Egypt through elections, and if they did, predicted what it would look like? Many Expertsa„? have been claiming for years that the new Brotherhood has Renounceda„? violence, respects Human Rightsa„?, is largely secular with no overriding agenda, and therefore must have the opposite goals and methods than the 3 key ideologues.
Raymond Ibrahim names the most notable 2012 Fatwas in Egypt, which got bolder under the Brotherhood. He twice turned down offers to be the Brotherhood Supreme Guide or General Leader (GL) - 1976 and 2004. He drew the largest crowd of the 2011 Arab Springa„? to Cairoa€™s Tahrir Sq., around 2 million after being banned from the country for decades. You have seen the 3 Key Ideologues whose influences are a€?impossible to exaggeratea€? according to Professor John Esposito.
5th GL: Mustafa Mashhur (1996-2002) He said the MB differed from al Qaeda only in its tactics, not in its goals. 6th GL: Ma'mun al-Hudaybi (2002-2004) - As GL, he was one of the first to welcome and justify the assassination of Egyptian secularist Faraj Fawda after a group at al-Azhar accused him of blasphemy. In fact, a document called The Project was seized in the raid of a luxurious villa in Campione, Switzerland in November 2001.
Included in the Swiss seizure was The Project - a 14-page plan written in Arabic, dated 1982, which outlines a strategy to a€?establish an Islamic government on eartha€?. Ita€™s a flexible, multi-phased, long-term approach to the a€?cultural invasiona€? of the West using various tactics, ranging from immigration, deception, political legitimacy, and terrorism.
Developing a comprehensive 100-year plan (already 30 years old) to advance Islamist ideology worldwide.
Avoiding open alliances with known terrorist organizations and individuals to maintain the appearance of a€?moderationa€?. Establishing financial networks to fund the work of conversion of the West, with full-time administrators and workers. Involving ideologically committed Muslims in institutions on all levels in the West, including government, NGOs, private organizations. Infiltrating and taking over existing Muslim organizations to realign them towards the MBa€™s collective goals.
Cultivating an Islamist intellectual community, including the establishment of think-tanks and advocacy groups, and publishing a€?academica€? studies to legitimize Islamist positions. Instrumentally using existing Western institutions until they can be put into service of Islam.
Instituting alliances with Western a€?progressivea€? organizations that share similar goals. Supporting jihad movements across the Muslim world through preaching, propaganda, personnel, funding, and technical and operational support. Adopting the total liberation of Palestine from Israel and the creation of an Islamic state as a keystone in the plan for global Islamic domination. Instigating a constant campaign to incite hatred by Muslims against Jews and rejecting any discussions of conciliation or coexistence with them.
What Tamimi describes is that The Project would militarize the Palestinian MB by reviving the terrorist a€?secret apparatusa€?, which eventually resulted in HAMAS December 1987. During a traffic stop of Ismail Elbarasse, police discovered he was a Hamas operative wanted on a Material Witness warrant in a Hamas case out of Chicago. Many of these documents were entered into evidence at the largest successfully prosecuted terrorism financing and Hamas trial in U.S. Holy Land Foundation (HLF) was the largest Islamic non-profit in the United States and was a Hamas entity. There is a significant Muslim Brotherhood Movement in the United States which began in the 1950a€™s. The first national Islamic organization, the Muslim Students Association, was created by the Muslim Brotherhood.
The most prominent Islamic organizations in North America are controlled by the Brotherhooda€™s Movement to include, but not limited to:A  Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), North American Islamic Trust (NAIT), Muslim Students Association (MSA), International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA), Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA), and the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) which was demonstrated to be a Hamas entity in US. ICNA is partnered with the Muslim American Society (MAS), and their training program to Muslims across North America includes the call to a€?wage wara€? against all systems of government not under Islamic rule, and calls Muslims to a€?hate and despisea€? all un-Islamic governments. That was the same Brotherhood advising the US government, which is why Western leaders agree the Islamic State has nothing to do with Islam, despite a mountain of evidence that all the Islamic State is doing - beheadings, crucifixions, massacres, sexual enslavements, and the subjugation of religious minorities - is rooted in Islamic theology, and so called denunciation by stealth jihad groups in the US on theological grounds are bogus. The process of settlement is a a€?Civilization-Jihadist Processa€? with all the word means.
In other words this strategy has already been operative in America for at least 27 years as of 2014!
Political, military, law enforcement, media, and religious leaders are being duped across America by the Brotherhood leadership.A  The approach tactics differ depending on the targeted organization a€“ ie for media the approach may be a a€?civil rightsa€? basis, while for Christian leaders it will be based on the Muslimsa€™ claiming they are a€?also followers of Jesusa€?A without the explanation that to the Muslims, Jesus was a Muslim prophet.
Here is an example of that: In a 2011 LA Times op-ed, MPAC president Salam al-Marayati threatened the FBI with a total cut-off of cooperation between American Muslims and law enforcement if the agency failed to revise its law enforcement training materials by eliminating all references to Islam that CAIR and other MB front groups claimed were offensive. Our entire national security apparatus is focused on the threat of the violent Jihadis around the world. Qutb and al-Banna would be amazed if they knew the Brotherhood would take over Egypt with the help of the U.S. Yet, American political leaders from both parties continue to disparage this request in personal terms, giving clear indication they are completely ignorant of the facts in this matter. The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) is the largest Muslim Brotherhood (MB) organization in North America, created to be the a€?nucleusa€? for the Islamic Movement, according to MB documents seized by the FBI in Annandale, Virginia in 2004. Because of the evidence ISNA is a Brotherhood front, as well as the numerous financial documents detailing money going directly from ISNA and their banks to Hamas entities overseas, ISNA is an unindicted co-conspiratorA in the largest Hamas trial ever successfully prosecuted in U.S. When ISNA filed a motion with the federal court to have their name removed from the unindicted co-conspirator list, the government stated that ISNA exists to be a financial support entity for Hamas. ISNAa€™s two key directors and its President, Mohamed Magid, all work with Secretary Clinton and her office. Are Senator McCain and Speaker Boehner aware that ISNA President Mohamed Magid spoke at a Counter-Terrorism training program at CIA Headquarters at Langley last week? 3) Eboo Patel - member of President Obama's Advisory Council on Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships. 6) Imam Mohamed Magid - see above, advisor to Department of Homeland Security and Secretary of State, president of ISNA. With all that influence ita€™s not surprising Obama handed the 2011 Arab Spring in Egypt to the Brotherhood, and in 2013 will not say a word to support the people demonstrating against the Brotherhood beginning to institutionalize universal human rights abuses.


John Brennan, CIA director nominee, is uniquely unqualified to be the CIA director as evidenced by him being the architect of the outreach program to the Muslim Brotherhood in the United States as well as in the Middle East.
In 2014 the United Arab Emirates insists CAIR is a terrorist organization after the State Department asks why. A month later Obama revealed he just met with Muslim leaders (again) tied to Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood. Ita€™s a myth that Islamic Extremistsa„? tend to come from less education, more poverty or local grievances. As I read essays about the Brotherhood that named people, orgs, companies, etc, I found many foreign names that started to sound the same.
Here are some of the sharia authorities employed by important Western financial institutions, including 5 from the US MB at a Glance Chart. Edina Lekovic is the Communications Director of MPAC held an Interfaith Dialogea„? with Jamal Badawi, an associate of Qaradawi, at UCF where someone was ejected for asking a question about Reliance of the Traveller.
Moderatea„? Jimmy Carter,A MPAC's Lekovic & Director Tarin Dr. Here is a list of stories showing the Egyptian Brotherhood has not moderated since the Arab Springa„?. Yet despite the Brotherhooda€™s stated intentions and reaching many of their goals with White House support, in 2013 three times Pulitzer Prize winning Middle East Experta„? Thomas Friedman blamed global warming for the outcome of the Arab Springa„?. The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point, the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. The persecution of French Protestants forced most of their capable leaders to flee France, to the benefit of Holland, England, and the United States where they found new homes. French nobles had revolted against the Bourbon royal family and the early childhood of Louis was spent with his mother in hiding. And the French military effort under Louis XVI to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France.
Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies ini?? Europe in order to stamp out dissent. He dealt with dissenters harshly by means of lettres de caches (indefinite imprisonment without benefit of official charges, trial, or jury -- or the total absence of the English habeas corpus). She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette married Louis at age 15 and by the age of 20 was queen of France. Their works championed social justice and participatory government and their ideas stirred up the middle and merchant classes to an intoxicating quest for some form of democracy. The big question asked whether the Roman clergy was loyal to France and the French Church or were they loyal to the pope in Rome? 50% of the clergy refused to sign the oath of loyalty, including the majority of the local, village priests.
They owned 20% of the land, were 2-3% of the population, had access to the kinga€™s court, participated in government, and paid no taxes. They made up 96-97% or the population, but owned only 40% of the land, AND PAID ALL OF THE TAXES! But a severe drought in the spring of 1788 and a devastating hail storm in July ruined the wheat harvest. The march turned into an ugly protest and the women armed with knives, shovels, and rakes, stormed Versailles seeking the hated queen. It was soon discovered, however, that his trips to Versailles were not for the purpose primarily of hunting but for secret rendezvous with his mistress.
It was considered an architectural masterpiece and during the period of the French hegemony was copied in many European capitols. One of the great honors of a nobleman during the reign of Louis XIV was to assist him to dress and to empty his chamber pot (the kinga€™s a€?toileta€?). The French lost their reverence for the monarchy, gained new understandings of the worth and the basic rights of the individual in a more just society. Hearing of the success of the Parisians in this takeover, the peasants revolted against the land owning nobility, destroyed fences, records of land ownership, seized manors, and killed many of the nobility. It did not work, however, because his new proposal included the taxation of the nobility, something from which they had traditionally been exempted! Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the Paris Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. The Estates General was in actuality the Parlement which had not been assembled since 1614. Their appeal for a€?one person one votea€? was rejected by the first and second estates because the representatives of the third estate represented 94% of the people, and the first and second estates were not about to give up their traditional power. The Communes invited representatives from the First and Second Estates to join them and to boycott the Estates General. They were captured at the border by French soldiers and taken back to Paris as virtual prisoners.
The National Assembly abolished the monarchy, the French Republic was proclaimed, Increased in-fighting, civil war, regional disputes, and the eventual lack of an emerging strong leadership, opened the door for a small group of representatives, the Committee of Public Safety, to take control of the Assembly.
In response, Revolutionary leaders on the other side declared war in April 1792 against the Holy Roman Empire with the hope that war against Austria and the Empire would unite France in a new national spirit. In August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. He was tried for crimes against the people and the National Convention declared France a Republic.
The Committee of Public Safety passed the Law of Suspects, giving it broad freedom to seize and arrest anyone suspected to be an anti-revolutionary. In the 1793-1796 civil war in western France between conservatives opposed to the excesses of the revolution and revolutionaries, it is estimated that up to 450,000 combatants from both sides died. He lead one of two major political factions in the National Assembly, the Mountain (so-called because they sat to the rear of the Assembly in rows higher up from the floor level), which was the more radical of the two. He purged the Committee of all opposition and conducted the execution of hundreds of remaining noble families. The house arrest of the king was the final sign on the wall of their own future if they stayed in France. In fact, each of the new months did not contain actual a€?weeksa€? but three decades of ten days each.The names of the months were also changed. A grateful Directory rewarded Napoleon and approved his plan to build a stong military with the goal of invading Italy and Austria, Francea€™s two hated enemies--Austria because of its constant threats of invasion and Italy because of the Popea€™s constant attempts to interfere in Francea€™s politics.
Instead, he convinced the Directory to allow him to invade Egypt as a first step to conquering India, as an attempt to break the financial and political empire of England which occupied both India and Egypt in its vast British Empire. The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point,A  the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. Styles of dress, architecture, literature, music, theater, vocabulary, technology are all avenues through which a hegemony develops. And the French military effort under Louis XVIA  to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France. Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies in Europe in order to stamp out dissent. Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the ParisA  Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. InA  August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. The event itself was turned into a major display and triumph for the Revolution.A  1,200 armed horsemen accompanied him from the prison to the place of execution, two hours away, with crowds lining the route. King Charles requested this map from Peter of Aragon, patron of the best Majorcan mapmaker of the time: Abraham Cresques.
Originally the Catalan Atlas consisted of six large wooden panels that were covered with parchment on one side. To the right, from top to bottom, is a diagram of the tides; another lists the movable feasts, and a third drawing represents a blood-letting figure.
The result is that the Atlas represents a transitionary step towards the world maps developed later during the Renaissance, especially by its extensive application of contemporary geographical knowledge and ambitious scope. Although the sailors were used to plainer charts whose importance lay principally in their utility and accuracy, even ordinary marine charts begin to follow the Catalan tradition with regards to their use of standardized color patterns. When in 1381 the envoy of the French king asked King Peter of Aragon for a copy of the latest world map (proof in itself that the reputation of the Catalan school had been widely recognized) he was given this example, which has been preserved in Paris ever since. For the first time in medieval cartography this continent assumed a recognizable form, with one or two notable exceptions. From west to east, the main divisions of the Mongol territory include the Empire of Sarra [the Kipchak Khanate], the Empire of Medeia [the Chagtai Khanate of the middle], and the suzerain empire of the Great Khan, Catayo [China]. Each side has a length of six miles, the wall is 20 paces high and lo paces thick, has 12 gateways and a large tower, in which hangs a great bell, which rings at the hour of first sleep or earlier. The vertical waterway is the Grand Canal built by Kublai from Manji to Cambulac; below are the 7548 islands, rich in all manner of spicery, placed by Marco in the Sea of Chin. Of these, Canton is not mentioned by Marco Polo; it was, however, much frequented by Arab navigators and traders, upon whose reports the compiler was probably drawing. Yule points out that Kao-li was the name given for Korea, and he therefore considers that the island Cresques depicts here represents confused notions about both the Korean peninsula and Japan; otherwise there is no obvious graphic reference or hint of Zipangu [Japan]. The first is difficult to explain; to make up for it the cartographer has inserted a great island of Jana [Java], which however was probably intended for Sumatra. The notion that there were Christian rulers east of the Islamic world stems largely from the legend of Prester John; also important, however, were the real Christian minorities in India and the fact that the tomb of Saint Thomas was thought to be in Mailapore, a suburb of Madras, the Mirapore of the map. And it sometimes happens though rarely, that the widow of the dead man throws herself into the flames,a€? a practice that recalls widow-burning (sutti) of India. There we are told that Satan came to his aid and helped him to imprison the Tartars Gog and Magog.
The Persian Gulf, extending almost due west, has an outline similar to that on the Dulcert map, but is otherwise superior to any earlier map. Herein lies a succession of physical features: mountains, rivers, lakes and towns with corrupt but recognizable forms of their medieval names as given in the narratives of the great travelers of the 13th century.
It is also possible to discern traces of their second journey, accompanied by Marco, in which they employed the 'south road' of the silk route, and, except for a detour through Ormis at the bottom of the Persian Gulf, ran from Trebizond through Eri [Herat], Badakshan, and along the southern edge of the Tarim basin from Khotan to the city of Lop. Unlike many classical and fellow medieval scholars, the draftsman of Majorca showed praiseworthy restraint in this respect. For here, as is often the case in other maps of the period, the cartographer compensated for the dearth of known geographical points by including historical facts.
The delineation of the Nile river system is vitiated, however, by the conception that it flowed from a great lake in the Guinea region, Lacus Nili. As previously mentioned, the early draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. It is cut in two by a land passage, a conventional allusion to Moses' miraculous crossing (Exodus, 14:2122). Between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea appears the King of Tauris [Tabriz] and north of him Jani-Beg, ruler of the kingdom of the Golden Horde, who died in 1357. Stories reached 14th century Europe of the splendor of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali and lord of Guinea, one of the reputed richest of the 'Negro Kingdoms' of the Sudan, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324. However, there are great differences to be observed between what is labeled by some the a€?portolano sectiona€? (sheets 3 and 4, Europe and North Africa) and the rest of the map sheets. The legendary Insula de Brazil, for example, which is found on various medieval maps of the North Atlantic and later gave its name to Brazil, is shown here twice, once west of Ireland and a second time farther south.
Elsewhere, however, the weight of received opinion is still felt, as, for example, in the various islands with fabulous names; they cannot represent the Madeiran group, as these islands were discovered only in 1418-1419. In the same spirit he removed from the map many of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa blank rather than fill it with the anthropagi and other monsters which adorn the bulk of medieval maps.
This contrasts strongly with the people of the islands farther east who are described as savages living naked, eating raw fish, and drinking sea water.
So one evening when the flock started home from the pasture and his mother called, the Kid paid no heed and kept right on nibbling the tender grass. When he saw how gaily the birds flew about and how the Hare and the Chipmunk and all the other animals ran nimbly by, always eager to see everything there was to be seen, the Tortoise felt very sad and discontented. He seized the stick firmly with his teeth, the two Ducks took hold of it one at each end, and away they sailed up toward the clouds.
But the little Frogs all declared that the monster was much, much bigger and the old Frog kept puffing herself out more and more until, all at once, she burst.
So they decided to leave the farmyard and to set out into the world along the road that led to the woods.
At least they wished to find some way of knowing when she was coming, so they might have time to run away. A Jackdaw saw the deed, and his silly head was filled with the idea that he was big and strong enough to do as the Eagle had done. The horses could hardly drag the load through the deep mud, and at last came to a standstill when one of the wheels sank to the hub in a rut. The Kid was browsing near the edge of the roof, when he spied a Wolf and began to jeer at him, making faces and abusing him to his heart's content. For lunch the Country Mouse served wheat stalks, roots, and acorns, with a dash of cold water for drink. They then went to bed in a cozy nest in the hedgerow and slept in quiet and comfort until morning. There were sweetmeats and jellies, pastries, delicious cheeses, indeed, the most tempting foods that a Mouse can imagine. The grapes seemed ready to burst with juice, and the Fox's mouth watered as he gazed longingly at them.
No words he could say did the least good, so he cast about in his mind for some very striking example that should make them see that discord would lead them to misfortune. He was sure that she, with her long neck and bill, would easily be able to reach the bone and pull it out. Even though the Brotherhood was outlawed for decades in Egypt they were tolerated to some extent which allowed them to change the society gradually. This practice is sanctioned by Reliance of the Traveller and other authoritative Islamic sources.
So ita€™s not surprising that a year after the 2011 Arab Springa„?, after the Brotherhood initially said they would not take a leadership role in the Egyptian opposition coalition, they and the Salafis won a combined 80% of Egypta€™s Parliamentary vote, then Brotherhood candidate Morsi was elected president, soon began controlling the press, forced out military chiefs, granted himself sweeping new powers, and drafted a new sharia constitution that passed in public referendum, all before the end of 2012.
There is so much known about the MB in their own words, the fact there is still any debate at all about what their goals and methods are shows how extraordinarily successful their deception has been. Wrote Jihad is the Way, cautions Muslims not to rush to Jihad until Jihad is prepared and timed fully for maximum benefit. The target was Youssef Nada, director of the Al-Taqwa Bank of Lugano, who had active association with the Muslim Brotherhood for more than 50 years and admitted to being one of the organizationa€™s international leaders.
US and Swiss investigators had been looking at Al-Taqwaa€™s role in money laundering and funding a wide range of Islamic terrorist groups, including Al-Qaeda and HAMAS.
According to testimony given to Swiss authorities by Nada, the unsigned document was prepared by a€?Islamic researchersa€? associated with the Muslim Brotherhood.
As can be seen in a number of examples throughout the West a€“ the plan outlined in The Project 30 years later in 2012, has been overwhelmingly successful.
The 1st Caliph Al Bakr al-Baghdadi has a PH.D in Islamic Studies and was a Muslim Brotherhood leader before he rampaged across Syria and Iraq to create the new Caliphate.
The Ikhwan [Brotherhood] must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand Jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and a€?sabotaginga€? its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and Goda€™s religion is made victorious over all other religions. In approximately 1993, the Brotherhood begins establishing between 80 and 120 new non-profit organizations annually. The latest blast came from leaders in the GOP, publicly defending a senior advisor and Deputy Chief of Staff to the U.S.
The federal judge agreed stating the government provided a€?ample evidencea€? and left ISNA on the list. McCain and Speaker Boehner aware that Secretary Clintona€™s official position on the so-called a€?Arab Springa€? was that it was a freedom movement led by students who organized on Twitter? Or that ISNA advised Senator Richard Durbina€™s Senate committee before his hearings in the summer of 2011?
Also a presenter at John Espositoa€™s Georgetown conference in 2008 Is There a Role for Shari'ah in Modern States? 5 of those leaders are covered in the Key Faces of US MB, and Tariq Ramadan has his own page. Videos have come to light in which he [President Morsi] lashed out against Jews with venomous hatred, referring to Qura€™anic curses of them as a€?apes and pigsa€? and declaring that there could be no negotiations with Israel.
In the course of the investigation conducted by the Investigative Project on Terrorism, we discovered that there were at least four hundred visits in the three years between 2009 and 2012 to the White House of radical Islamic groups, some of whom were unindicted co-conspirators in terrorism trials, but all of whom had been involved in establishing radical Islamic rhetoric, including support for Hamas, Hezbollah, denigrating the US, calling this a war against Islam by the United States. I couldna€™t tell if I came across someone already, and if I did who or what they were connected to.
In 2005 he already demonstrated his astounding ignorance of Islam and therefore the Middle East, when he nominated Grand Ayatollah Sistani for a Nobel Peace Prize, and even insisted he was serious.
And it produced a weakened Catholic Church which rapidly lost the allegiance of the masses to the spirit of humanism and secularism.
France was at war three of every five years during his reign and participated in four major European wars.
Defeat at the hands of Great Britain in the Seven Years War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Paris (1763) was blamed by the nation on Louis XV. The French hatred for the Austrians (resulting in wars under Louis XIV) and the British (Louis XV) drove France to the brink of national bankruptcy. The situation was so dire that lenders were no longer willing to loan the French monarchy money. But by the time of the reigns of Louis XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses.
Flour for bread, the sustenance of the French diet, became very scarce and drove the price of bread extremely high.
It began to dawn on the more educated of the third estate that they could agitate for greater access to the government and that perhaps they could, in an organized effort, bring reforms to France. The nobility refused to consider any new taxes unless the king gave them a major share of the government. He gave them the same sales pitch for higher taxes and got from them the same negative response. This was then reformed to become the National Constituent Assembly and existed from July 1789 to September 1791. A new government, the National Convention was declared in September which immediately declared that France was no longer a monarchy but a republic. Marie was tried by the Committee for Public Safety and accused of holding orgies at Versailles, sending funds secretly to her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austria, and even committing incest with her son, so intent was the Committee on establishing guilt worthy of execution. But after his mothera€™s execution, Louis-Charles was given to a shoemaker and his wife to oversee him in a small prison cell. This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria and Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. Armed militia from Paris spread out into the other provinces to root out whomever they determined to be an enemy of the revolution. The instrument of death was an invention created just for this period in the Revolution, the guillotine.
Earlier the Paris Cathedral had been stripped of all Christian symbols and in November 1793 a large statute of the Goddess of Reason was erected in the cathedral. It was not a popular move, however, because under the new calendar there were nine days of work separating each day of rest which occurred at the end of each decade, rather than after six days under the Christian calendar. The Rulera€™s Law of the Corsican general would merely replace the Rulera€™s Law of the Bourbon kings. It eventually reverted back to a dictatorship under Napoleon, not very different from the a€?rule from the top downa€? of the French monarchy against which they had revolted. But by the time of the reigns of LouisA  XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses. This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria andA  Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris.
This form later was transformed into a block-book, in which each sheet formed a double page, the parchment itself serving as a hinge between each of the two wooden panels. The latter is accompanied by a long text describing the world; it deals with its creation, the four elements of which it is composed, its shape, dimensions, and divisions.
Though the Catalan Atlas is the earliest complete example of its kind which has survived, it was undoubtedly preceded by other similar attempts at extending the range of the portolan chart. Thus, pilots knew at a glance, for instance, that any port lettered in red offered revictualing and a safe harbor; dots and crosses, on the other hand, indicated underwater hazards.
Continental interiors are filled with detail, compass lines drawn, and decorative items are added to enhance the nearly up-to-date picture. Its capital at Cambalucr or Chanbaleth [Beijing], the city of the Great Khan which so intrigued the chroniclers of the 14th century, receives due prominence, with a long legend describing its magnitude and grandeurs.
When it has finished ringing, no one may pass through the town, and at each gate a thousand men are on guard, not out of fear but in honor of the sovereign.
The attempt at representing the configuration of the coast suggests at least that his informants were interested from a maritime point of view. Altogether, as mentioned above, we are told there are 7,548 islands in the Indian Ocean; they are rich in gold, silver, spices, and precious stones, so much so that a€?great ships of many different nationsa€? trade in their waters. Farther north is the realm of Kebek Khan, a historical figure who reigned from 1309 to 1326: a€?Here reigns King Chabeh, ruler of the Kingdom of the Middle Horde. Here the text contains information from Marco Polo's account of how in the province of Malabar the death of criminals, who are compelled to commit suicide, is celebrated by their relatives with his observation on the custom of widows immolating themselves on the pyres of their dead husbands, mentioned a few lines later. In the Gulf, the island of Ormis [Hormuz] is shown, opposite the former settlement of the same name on the mainland. These are jumbled together in a manner sometimes difficult to understand, but with the help of Marco Polo's narrative, it is possible to disentangle the itineraries which the map was evidently intended to set out. East of this lies the lake, Yssikol [Issik Kul], and Emalech the seat of the Khan, the Armalec of other travelers, in the Kuldja region. The compiler, however, perhaps because he confused this desert area with the Gobi, has transferred this stretch to the north of the Issik Kul.
In addition to Asia, the narratives of contemporary travelers were also extensively used by Cresques in Africa. We are told, for example, that merchants bound for Guinea pass the Atlas mountain range, shown here in its typical form of a bird's leg with three claws at its eastern end, at Val de Durcha.
This rare speculation on the part of Cresques contained at least some partial truth because the Lacus Nili, the Pactolus of Strabo, and the Palolus of later maps, which in the Catalan Atlas and subsequent works is located in the neighborhood of Timbuktu, may reasonably be identified with the flood region of the Niger.
By so doing, however, they found themselves reducing the vast extent of the Sahara almost to a vanishing point. The port of Quseir is clearly marked, and the accompanying text specifies that it is here that spices are taken on land and sent to Cairo and Alexandria. The importance of Baghdad as a center of the spice trade is emphasized; from there, precious wares from India are sent throughout the Syrian land and especially to Damascus. This African prince appears in the Catalan Atlas in a stately fashion with crown, orb, and scepter, with the inscription: The richest and noblest King in the world. In this section the coastlines are greatly differentiated and the abundance of names is in great contrast with the quantity of information, literally and graphically, supplied in sheets 5 and 6 (Asia).
Nor can they be the Azores, which are first mentioned in 1427, or the Cape Verde Islands discovered only in 1455-1456.
They are obviously to be identified with the Ichthyophagi, one of the fabulous races traditionally placed in Asia or in Africa.


They say that Jupiter punished him so, because he was such a lazy stay-at-home that he would not go to Jupiter's wedding, even when especially invited. He wanted to see the world too, and there he was with a house on his back and little short legs that could hardly drag him along.
The old Frog soon missed the little one and asked his brothers and sisters what had become of him.
The two comrades traveled along in the very best of spirits and without meeting any adventure to speak of.
He thought he was still in the farmyard where it had been his duty to arouse the household at daybreak.
Indeed, something had to be done, for they lived in such constant fear of her claws that they hardly dared stir from their dens by night or day.
So with much rustling of feathers and a fierce air, he came down swiftly on the back of a large Ram. There he stood, unwilling to give up a single filbert and yet unable to get them all out at once. The Town Mouse ate very sparingly, nibbling a little of this and a little of that, and by her manner making it very plain that she ate the simple food only to be polite. In her sleep the Country Mouse dreamed she was a Town Mouse with all the luxuries and delights of city life that her friend had described for her.
But just as the Country Mouse was about to nibble a dainty bit of pastry, she heard a Cat mew loudly and scratch at the door.
So he walked off a short distance and took a running leap at it, only to fall short once more.
See how much it changed under gradualism while Turkey did not during the same time by comparing these 2010 PEW poll results taken just before the Arab Springa„? 2011. More later on his ties to al Bannaa€™s grandson Said Ramadan, and Nadaa€™s Swiss Nazi banking connections going back to the 1950a€?s in the US MB History at a Glance Chart. Here is video of Islamic State stoning woman to death for adultery, which Islamic law permits because Mohammad did it.
Without this level of understanding, we are not up to this challenge and have not prepared ourselves for Jihad yet.
Today, there are over 2,000 Islamic non-profit [501(c)(3)] organizations in the United States.A Not all are controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood, but many are. Later in 2012 Obama picked Marayati, who defends Hamas and Hezbollah, to represent the US at a human rights conference. But again in a June 2012 post on Twitter, Billoo wrote as a a€?public service announcementa€™ that, a€?ita€™s never a good idea to speak to an FBI agent without an attorney. A three-judge appellate panel unanimously agreed and left ISNA on the unindicted co-conspirator list. She blocked Middle Eastern Christians' access to White House to discuss their fear of sharia coming to Syria like it did in Egypt. The OIC is in a full-scale campaign to intimidate Western governments into adopting Hate Speecha„? codes that will effectively quash criticism of Islam - including quoting what theologians and jihadists say. Those who are protesting against his regime, on the other hand, are in favor of genuine democratic rule, without Sharia restrictions on the freedom of speech and its denial of equality of rights to large segments of the popular. Sistani is also serious about his interpretation of Koran 9:28, posting for years on his website that all non-Muslims are as filthy as dogs, pigs, semen, poop, urine, and the sweat of animals that eat dogs, pigs, semen, poop, or urine. Over 30,000 priests and nuns were eventually either killed, exiled, or sent to prison in French Guiana. Those early experiences embittered him against the nobles and resulted in his building an absolute monarchy. She had a distain for French culture, refused to learn or use the French language, was highly materialistic, vain, and considered by the nobility to be a snob. Crowds in Paris stormed the prisons and executed 2,000 prisoners, including many priests, nuns, and nobility.
War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government in Paris. Even former close friends and colleagues of the Committeea€™s leader, Maximillien Robespierre, were executed by the guillotine.
When 32 of the Girondist leaders were imprisoned, supposedly due to fear that they would work to reinstate the monarchy, Robespierre became the undisputed leader and virtual dictator.
Louis requested and was accompanied by an English priest living in France, Henry Edgeworth, who Louis requested be with him prior to his death.
War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government inA  Paris.
This arrangement led to the folds of the precious sheets becoming worn through with use, so that these sheets were divided into 12 half-sheets, mounted on boards to fold like a screen. Then come geographical accounts of countries, continents, oceans, and tides, as well as astronomical and meteorological information.
Abraham Cresques, a Jew of Palma on the island of Majorca, for many years was 'master of mappaemundi and compasses', i.e. From the Mar del Sarra [Caspian Sea] in the west, with a fairly accurate outline in the style of the portolan charts, the Mongol domains stretch away eastwards to the coasts of Catayo [China]. Some of the islands off Quinsay may stand for the Chusan archipelago, and further to the south is the large island of Caynam, [Hainan]. The kingdoms of India as enumerated by Polo are absent from the map, and there are significant differences in the towns appearing in the two documents.
The reference is to the gate that Alexander is supposed to have built in the Caspian Mountains to exclude Gog and Magog, who are here equated with various Central Asian tribes.
The Southern Arabian coast has names differing from those given by Polo, and in one of them, Adramant, we may recognize the modern Hadhramaut.
The delineation is then confused by the repetition of the Badakshan uplands, the mountains of Baldassia, a mistake that probably arose from confusion over the river system of southern Asia.
In fact the section illustrated by #235B is thought to represent Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, with their Mongol envoys, crossing the Tien Shan mountains on their way through what is now China's Sinkiang Province, to Beijing (south is at the top).
Here the special feature of interest on the Catalan Atlas is the inscription and picture of the vessel recording the departure of the Catalan, Jacome Ferrer, on a voyage to the 'river of gold' southwest of the new Finisterre of Bojador in 1346.
More geographical information is given on the Maghreb, which, after all, is part of the Mediterranean. Thanks to their notorious capacity to travel long distances without water, they completely transformed African trade, opening sub-Saharan areas to Islam.
In Arabia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, is located the kingdom of Sheba; the queen, who came to visit King Solomon, is shown crowned and holding a golden disk as symbol of her wealth. Navigational information is also recorded: a€?From the mouth of the river of Baghdad, the Indian and Persian Oceans open out. The mountains in the European and African section are arranged in chains or chain-like symbols, in Asia they appear as regular humped garlands of rocks. The Catalan Atlas, in fact, marks the progress in the gradual discovery of the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa with an illustration of Jaime Ferrera€™s ship, which, we are told, set sail on lo August 1346 bound for the fabulous Rio de Oro [River of Gold] in Africa. In this spirit of critical realism, Cresques and his fellow Catalan cartographers of the 14th century, threw off the bonds of tradition and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance. The city stands near the apex of a triangle formed by two rivers and the ocean; each of the two rivers divides into three before reaching the sea, a representation embodying a somewhat confused notion of the inter-linked natural and artificial waterways of China.
They recognized the song the Wolf sings before a feast, and in a moment they were racing back to the pasture.
But when he tried to rise again he found that he could not get away, for his claws were tangled in the wool. So the next day when the Town Mouse asked the Country Mouse to go home with her to the city, she gladly said yes. In great fear the Mice scurried to a hiding place, where they lay quite still for a long time, hardly daring to breathe. The more time goes by, the easier it is to see, and as the MB imposes Islamic Human Rightsa„? in Egypt, with a new epidemic of rape, and calls by prominent clerics to destroy Egypt's Great Pyramids begin. The OIC seeks to re-establish the global Islamic State (Caliphate) and implement Islamic Law.
This individual's immediate family founded a Muslim Brotherhood front group which, at a minimum, raises questions about Abedina€™s position inside the government.
If Abedin is not aware ISNA is a Hamas support entity, she is incompetent at her job and should be relieved of her duties. Secretary of State refer to the Muslim Brotherhooda€™s revolution in the Middle East this way? Is the Secret Service aware that the leader of a Hamas support entity has been coming into the White House? A disease created by abuses of power and neglect of the peasants class was eating away at the inner core of the the nation. However, he was also a man of the arts and culture, and during his reign French culture blossomed and became a hegemony throughout Europe. Furthermore, to strengthen his position militarily he had aligned France with its hated neighbor, Austria, and lost the economic benefits of a valuable alliance with Frederick the Great of Prussia. She hosted lavish parties at the palace, promoted gambling, and filled her closets with expensive clothing. The first and second estates traditionally voted in tandem, and usually against the third estate. By 1794 The Committee went so far as to deprive those accused of being not supportive of the revolution from legal counsel and the requirement that witnesses be present to give testimony against them. While several factors led to the escalating price of bread, the government received the blame. Four half-sheets are occupied by cosmographical and navigational data, they describe the whole concept of the world, show astronomical and astrological representations, and provide information about the calendar, the sun, moon, planets, the signs of the zodiac and the tides.
The second sheet presents a spectacular diagram of a large astronomical and astrological wheel. This country makes a sweep from east to south with an approach to its actual form, and along it's coast appear several of the great medieval ports and trading centers frequented by Arab merchants.
There Cresques placed some of the fabulous and monstrous races legendary in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages: a€?On this island are people who are very different from the rest of mankind. Conspicuous on the map is the Christian Kingdom and city of Columbo, placed on the east coast.
And know that these people marry at the age of about twelve years and generally live to be 40 years old. The island of Scotra, an important stage on the trade route from Aden to India, is misplaced to the east, and appears to occupy the approximate position of the Kuria Muria Islands. The legend above them reads, in translation: This caravan left the Empire of Sarra to go to Catayo, across a Great Desert (Sarai, on the Edil [Volga], was the capital of the Kipchak Tartars, from which the Polos had set out about 1262. This refers to the northwest coast of Africa which extends beyond Cape Bojador to a point just north of the Rio d'Oro. Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the west African coast, south of Bojador. Here they fish for pearls, which are supplied to the town of Baghdad.a€? We learn that a€?before they dive to the bottom of the sea, pearl fishers recite magic spells with which they frighten away the fisha€? a piece of information that comes straight from Marco Polo, who mentions that the pearl fishers on the Malabar coast are protected by the magic and spells of the Brahmins. The heathens believe that Paradise is situated there, because the islands have such a temperate climate and such a great fertility of the soil. For this reason the heathens of India believe that their souls are transported to these islands after death, where they live for ever on the scent of these fruits. The Wolf's song ended suddenly, and as he ran, with the Dogs at his heels, he called himself a fool for turning piper to please a Kid, when he should have stuck to his butcher's trade.
When at last they ventured back to the feast, the door opened suddenly and in came the servants to clear the table, followed by the House Dog.
You think to yourself - are you telling me a billion people really are hell-bent on subjugating the world? Here is a video of a Jordanian pilot being burned to death, which Islamic law also permits. If we keep in mind that from the Brotherhood perspective, this is an Influence Operation, not a a€?terrorista€? operation, their operation here might beginA to make a little more sense. Or that Mohamed Magid has worked with the National Security Council and sits on the Department of Homeland Securitya€™s Advisory Committee? The only two mass popular uprisings in Muslim countries that he has not supported have one thing in common: both have been against pro-Sharia Islamic supremacist regimes. They are striving in the way of Allah, a Muslim mansa€™s burden to do their part to Liberatea„? the world from the Oppressiona„? of man made secular law.
Ita€™s useful at a glance, but if you are really skeptical there is so much info here that you could spend hours on it to see their country of origin, education and degrees held, professional history, leadership positions held in these orgs (ie, Founder, Director, President), criminal convictions if any, political connections, and timeline.
For this he was also called a€?the Sun Kinga€? because French language and culture dominated Europe.
I pardon the authors of my death, and pray God that the blood you are about to shed will never fall upon France.a€™ The executioners seized him, the knife struck him, his head fell at fifteen minutes after ten. Government buildings generally sought to copy the architecture of Versailles (pictured below). An even earlier chart (probably covering the whole 'world' originally), that by Angelino Dulcert, of Majorca, dated 1339, also has points of resemblance to the Catalan Atlas. There are several references to world maps executed by him, though this is the only one now known. There is a further allusion to Alexander having erected two trumpet-blowing figures in bronze; these, according to various medieval legends, resounded with the wind and frightened the Tartars until the instruments were blocked up by various nesting birds and animals.
For India and the ocean to the west, therefore, we may conclude that charts were used which differed in detail from Polo's account, though similar in general features.
Here unfortunately the map ends; unlike the Medici Atlas, or some others, it makes no attempt at a representation, conjecture or otherwise, of the southern portion of this continent. The text beside a Touareg riding on a camel and also a group of tents informs us that this land is inhabited by veiled people living in tents and riding camels.
Various trading stations are indicated on the shore of the Indian Ocean from Hormus, a€?where India begins,a€? to Quilon in Kerala. With meticulous care the islands in the region of the portolan chart section are displayed, they are painted in color, some of them like Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are shown in gold.
The Muslim Brotherhood, like the OIC and Al Qaeda, seeks to re-establish the global Islamic State (Caliphate) and implement Islamic Law. Since Abedina€™s parents co-founded the Institute for Muslim Minority Affairs with backing from the Muslim Brotherhooda€™s Muslim World League, questions about her loyalty and affiliations are not only proper; they are required as a matter of policy for such a position in our government.
Perhaps the influence exerted by the leaders of the Muslim Brotherhooda€™s Hamas-supporting entity ISNA has something to do with it.
Are the American people aware that the very agencies legally charged to support and defend the Constitution and this nation are working with the leader of a known Hamas-supporting entity?
For the moment just glance at them to see how big and unified the spiderweb of relationships is.
However, she was the strength in the royal marriage and was a major source of energy and direction for Louis.
The Committee of Public Safety had hoped to use him as a pawn to trade to the Austrians in a prisoner exchange, as they had done earlier, with his older sister.
The other elements (fire, air, water) are incorporated into the next three concentric circles; then come the seven planets, the band of the zodiac, and the various stations and phases of the moon. In view of the possible identity of Dulcert, and the Ligurian origin of the Medici Atlas, we may conclude that this type of world map, though developed by Catalans, originated early in the 14th century in northern Italy, where the narrative of Marco Polo, which, as will be seen, supplied many of the details embodied in the map, would be most readily available.
After his death in 1387, his work was carried on by his son, Jafuda, who eventually instructed the Portuguese under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator.
This form of the name (it is rendered Coilum by Polo), and other details, suggest that the compiler drew upon the writings of Friar Jordanus, who was a missionary in this area, and whose Book of Marvels was completed and in circulation by 1340.
It is marked by a line of towns up the valley of the Edil from Agitarchan [Astrakhan] through Sarra [Sarai], Borgar, and thence eastward through Pascherit [probably representing the territory of the Bashkirs east of the middle Volga], and Sebur, or Sibir, a medieval settlement whose site is unknown, but thought to be on the upper Irtish.
The crowned black man holding a golden disk is identified as Musse Melly, a€?lord of the negroes of Guineaa€? - in fact, Mansa Musa, of fabulous wealth.
Speculation of this sort did at least have the merit of enabling the mapmaker to draw the Sahara with greater accuracy. All of the enemy doctrine can be found on the internet, in books, in speeches, in their training curricula, and coming out of their mouths on a daily basis.A When the MB says they have a€?renounced violencea€? they are a€“ hold onto your hats a€“ lying. But because it is the Muslim Brotherhood, which many American leaders have either coddled, worked with, or ignored, these five Members of Congress who are abiding by their oaths of office and asking for a legitimate investigation into this potentially damaging espionage issue, are being attacked by Senator McCain and Speaker Boehner. These proportions are of some significance, for they have undoubtedly restricted the cartographer in his portrayal of the extreme northern and southern regions.
The next six rings are devoted to the lunar calendar and to an account of the effect of the moon when it is found in the different signs of the zodiac. The Catalan Atlas says: The circumference of the earth is 180,000 stadia, that is to say 20,052 miles (this is the same calculation as Ptolemy's, yet it was given a full thirty years prior to the first known Latin translation of his Geographia, #119 ). But the day of the Jewish school of cartography at Majorca was already drawing to a close, owing to the wave of persecution which swept through the Aragon kingdom in the latter years of the century. Possibly additions were also made so that the map might serve as an illustration to his narrative. In this quarter, the information upon which the map is based was not drawn from Marco Polo. Also its treatment of the Atlantic islands: the Azores, Canary, and Madeira groups, is more complete than any representation of earlier times.
The gap in the snake-like Atlas Mountain chain of North Africa is meant to illustrate a pass that these Arab merchants commonly used (#235A). Myers says it is obvious all these leaders must be aware of the general methods and long term goals. All of the problems that developed within France over the previous 100 years became his when he took the throne. Higgins, editor, The French Revolution as Told by Contemporaries, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966, pp.
This was perhaps to some extent deliberate, for two years before the composition of this map, we hear of the Infant John (son of Peter of Aragon) demanding a map 'well executed and drawn with its East and West' and figuring 'all that could be shown of the West and of the Strait [of Gibraltar] leading to the West'. Three more rings show, respectively, the division of the circle into degrees, while the last gives an account of the Golden Number.
There are still other names which are not found in Jordanus either; but the commercial importance of Cambay (Canbetum, on the map) would account for the relatively detailed information about this region. To the south is a long east-west range, called the Mountains of Sebur, representing the northwestern face of the Tien Shan and Altai. His pilgrimage to Mecca, including a visit to Cairo, was famous for the enormous amount of gold he spent on that occasion. And it was seen as a good thing, just like a€?The White Mana€™s Burdena€? was articulated as - we need to bring civilization to the savages, for their own good. Here are 27 well educated US operatives named in a 2013 Egyptian newspaper investigative report. There are MB branches in around 70 countries, and these charts show just the tip of the U.S. The Infant, in other words, was interested, not in northern Europe and Asia or in southern Africa, but in the Orient and the Western Ocean.
They eat white men and strangers, if they can catch them.a€? The reference is to giants familiar from the medieval Alexander legend, specifically defined here as Anthropophagi. There is, surprisingly, no indication of the river Indus, a striking omission also from Polo's narrative.
In the late 13th and early 14th centuries there were Franciscan mission stations at these localities, and the details no doubt came originally from the friars. This is plausible enough, for he controlled a large part of Africa, from Gambia and Senegal to Gao on the Niger, and had access to some of its richest gold deposits. Whether ita€™s done through violence, force, colonialism, conquest or whatever, it is the same exact thing in Islam. The cartographer satisfied him by cutting out, as it were, an east-west rectangle from a circular world map which would cover the desired area. George Grosjean, in his commentary on the 1977 facsimile edition of the Atlas, stresses that the orientation of this map must be understood from its essential part. To these far distant waters are also relegated mermaids, some of them probably the traditional half-woman and half-fish, the others more siren-like half-birds. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.a€?The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. Reports of the fabulous wealth of this African ruler did much to encourage an interest in the exploration of Africa. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. The more I read the longer it got, and eventually I had to call it good enough to make an exclamation point! The map was constructed in the portolano style, a type of medieval navigation chart which was intended to lie on the chart-table of a ship and always was oriented to the necessities of navigation, thus there is no 'orientation of priority' of such maps.
The one illustrated has two fishtails, in accordance with one of the most common medieval conventions. Farther north appear the Three Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem and at the top (or bottom) of the map a caravan; all of the latter figures are drawn upside down, as the map was probably meant to be laid horizontally and viewed from both sides. The shape of the Catalan Atlas, therefore, must not be taken as evidence on questions such as the extent, form or knowledge of the African continent; nor does the change from a circular to a rectangular frame indicate specifically any change in ideas relating to the shape of the earth.
Since the Atlas was not intended as a portolano for daily use but instead was a luxury edition for a princely library, it is useless to ask for correct orientation of the map-sheets. Camels laden with goods are followed by their drivers; behind them various people, one of them asleep, are riding horses.
This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.a€?A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano.
Designed to assist mariners find their way at sea, it served a practical purpose akin to that of the future road map, but it answered this purpose by depicting not the route itself, but detailed coastlines and hazards to shipping.
Mariners previously had to rely on written itineraries which can be traced back to the peripli or coastal pilots of the classical world. Following the introduction of the mariner's compass in Europe towards the end of the 13th century, nautical or portolan charts were made as an extension of the peripli, constructed on a framework of radiating compass lines, with north at the top. Places were located and marked around the coasts, while places located further inland and usually the entire interior of the continents were left blank. The province and town of Lop mentioned by Marco Polo can be connected with the modern town of Ruoqiang (Charkhlik) south of Lop Nor. It should be emphasized that while the Atlas was drawn in the portolano style, it is not, strictly speaking, a portolan chart.
The typical nautical chart, which some scholars believe had its origin with the Catalan mapmakers, had hitherto been cartographically the very opposite of the medieval theocratic or ecclesiastical maps.
Portolan charts traditionally displayed only known, discovered coasts, precisely detailed harbors, river mouths, rocks, shallows, currents, etc.



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