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In traditional rainforest practice, other medicinal or visionary plants are often added to the brew for various purposes, from purely positive healing (blancura) and divination to malevolent black magic (brujeria, magia negra or rojo). The oldest know object related to the use of ayahuasca is a ceremonial cup, hewn out of stone, with engraved ornamentation, which was found in the Pastaza culture of the Ecuadorean Amazon from 500 B.C. The beta-carbolines (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine) are obtained from the ayahuasca vine (Banisteriopsis caapi).
The ratio of the harmala alkaloids in ayahuasca appears to vary greatly from one geographical area to another in the Amazon basin. Harmala alkaloids are short term monoamine oxidase inhibitorswhich render tryptamines orally active by temporarily reducing levels of monoamine oxidase in the body which otherwise rapidly destroys them.
The principal ayahuasca compounds have a common indole structure which, through several mechanisms, influences certain functions of the central nervous system (CNS). It is incorrect, however, to characterize the Ayahuasca experience as merely an oral DMT experience activated by a beta carboline MAO inhibitor.
Tryptamines (specifically N,N-dimethyltryptamine = DMT) are derived most commonly from the leaves of chacruna (Psychotria viridis and P. Research is needed to better understand the biochemical, psychotropic, and medicinal properties of various species of Psychotria. In some geographic areas and shamanic lineages, oco yagé (Diplopterys cabrerana = Banisteriopsis rusbyana), also known as chaliponga, chagraponga, and huambisa, is used in addition to or instead of chacruna. Both N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine are present in the leaves of Diplopterys. Diplopterysleaves are 5-10 times more alkaloid-rich than an equivalent amount of Psychotria so fewer leaves are used.
Chacruna and oco yagé are similar in their contribution to the Ayahuasca brew, but there are differences in their experiential and spiritual qualities. The relatively low concentration of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in oco yagé contributes a strong effect.
In northeastern Brazil, a sacramental drink called Jurema is prepared from the root bark of Mimosa hostilis, a common flowering leguminous tree.
One of these plants is always the giant woody liana vine called ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis caapi or other species). It has probably been used in the western Amazon for millennia and is rapidly expanding in South America and elsewhere through the growth of organized syncretic religious movements such as Santo Daime, União do Vegetal (UDV), and Barquinia, among others. Harmine and harmaline are visionary at near toxic levels, but at modest dosage typically produce mainly tranquility and purgation.
It may be responsible for some of its more profound effects compared to analogue plants such as Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). The combination of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, such as Prozac), and most other antidepressants, with Ayahuasca or other MAO inhibitors can cause life support emergencies or death. The relevant factor is the biochemical similarity of these compounds to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). It also facilitates accumulation of biogenic amines, such as 5-HT, which are normally metabolized by monoamine oxidase enzymes. The holistic processes at work are far more complex and it is unquestionably the ayahuasca vine which fuels the transformative power and profound teaching of the Ayahuasca experience. The leaves of neither plant are psychoactive if eaten or smoked due to the relatively low alkaloid content and rapid breakdown of alkaloids by monoamine oxidase, a natural human enzyme.
These differences are evident only to those who know the scope of effects of which each plant is capable. Though it does not particularly enrich the visionary experience per se, it is a powerful propellant for shamanic soul flight.


In his blog, “Prescription-Only Violence”, Feb 18, 2013, David Healy identifies the three mechanisms through which these drugs can cause a person to do violent things:“The antidepressants now come with black box warnings of suicide and in some jurisdictions such as Canada they come with warnings of violence also. The other plant or plants combined with ayahuasca generally contain tryptamine alkaloids, most often dimethyltryptamine (DMT). It is deposited in the collection of the Ethnological Museum of the Central University (Quito, Ecuador). Yahua and others, prepare a ceremonial drink from the ayahuasca vine alone.The effects differ in visionary qualities from the more typical composite preparation but with the same profound cleansing and spiritual effects.
The harmala alkaloids in ayahuasca, primarily harmine and tetrahydroharmine, reversibly inhibit the neuronal enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). DMT is a naturally-occurring biochemical substance secreted by the human body in the pineal gland.
This probably accounts for the longer-lasting effect of Ayahuasca containing oco yagé. So, I, a humble spiritual chela wish to share my quest, my journey, my passion for truth and thirst for knowledge with you.
Chacruna harmonizes with the power of ayahuasca while oco yagé adds power with light (the 5-meo-dmt effect). It can produce very powerful visionary effects when smoked in its pure form or taken orally in Ayahuasca. These mechanisms are akathisia, emotional blunting and psychosis.”It is important to recognize that there is overlap and interaction among these mechanisms in most people. It is very possible for a person to be affected by one or two or all three of these effects.MECHANISM #1 – AKATHISIA“The mechanisms that lead a drug to cause suicide are the same that produce violence.
Namaste ("the spirit in me respects and honors the spirit in you") I celebrate many beautiful images in my blog, I do not claim ownership unless clearly stated. If I misstep and reblog an image that belongs to you, and, you wish it removed, please contact me, I will do so immediately. Akathisia is a state of increased tenseness, irritability, restlessness, insomnia and a feeling of being intensely uncomfortable.”This accurate description does not fully capture how terrible the experience of akathisia can be.
I wanted to die, every fiber of my being wanted to be dead.”“It was like a wave of sheer terror and panic. I would have done anything to make it stop.”“has anybody experienced a sense of doom from their akathisia? The person in whom its invisible agony reaches a certain unendurable level will kill herself the same way a trapped person will eventually jump from the window of a burning high-rise.
The variable here is the other terror, the fire’s flames: when the flames get close enough, falling to death becomes the slightly less terrible of two terrors. And yet nobody down on the sidewalk, looking up and yelling ‘Don’t!’ and ‘Hang on!’, can understand the jump.
Peter Breggin discusses akathisia under the title “A Painful Dance of Death.” He describes akathisia as “a drug-induced neurological disorder that is known to drive people to suicide and violence, and to madness”. Patients often say they would rather die than live with akathisia… these individuals seen to be describing physical phenomena, as if they are being tortured from the inside out.”Akathisia is a fairly common side effect of SSRI (and other) medications. In extreme cases it can cause such mental and physical agony that people are driven to do things they would not normally do.MECHANISM #2 – EMOTIONAL BLUNTING“The next mechanism is emotional disinhibition, or blunting. This has been recognized by takers for a long time.”Patients’ perception that taking SSRIs reduces their emotional engagement is supported by research. As early as 1990, a study at Johns Hopkins showed that taking SSRI antidepressants was associated with apathy and indifference. Very common descriptions of this phenomenon included feelings of emotions being ‘dulled’, ‘numbed’, ‘flattened’ or completely ‘blocked’, as well as descriptions of feeling ‘blank’ and ‘flat’.


A few participants described a more extreme phenomenon, in which they did not experience any emotions at all.” Some subjects attributed helpful aspects to this numbing, such as improved emotional control, reduced tendency to overreact and reduced anxiety and worry. Many recognized that blunting might be a good thing in the very short run, but undesirable over the long term. They considered it a reason to discontinue the medication, along with another side usual effect, loss of sexual response and interest.
Most participants reported feeling reduced sympathy and empathy, and described not caring about things that used to matter to them. A few saw this disengagement as positive, while others recognized that it would cause difficulties for their loved ones.The phenomenon of emotional blunting is described in detail in the excellent documentary series Who Cares in Sweden. Dee Mangin explains that SSRI antidepressants can be helpful because they can remove the distress associated with the normal human emotions of sadness, worry and grief.
You also reduce the capacity for feeling love, affection and caring.”In the same film, David Healy describes the phenomenon as “Care Less Syndrome” because when they take SSRIs, people care less about everything. He notes that this has enormous implications for relationships between spouses, parents and their children, friends, and society at large:“when these drugs came on the market, we only looked at their effect on rating scales including items like sleep and anxiety and things like that.
We didn’t look to issues like, do people lose their jobs because they aren’t as concerned about doing a good job as they had been before? Do they have car accidents because they don’t take the usual amount of care?…We know that people get “Care Less” on the drugs.
You have to think that a proportion of those people will do things that they wouldn’t have done if they hadn’t been on the drugs, and which they will regret deeply afterwards.Aside from the personal regret, there is a general issue for all of us: are contracts signed under the influence of these drugs valid contracts? Should the person who takes their own life while under the influence of a drug be regarded as having committed suicide, or not?
Can they form the intent to kill themselves that people form when we consider it to be a valid suicide?We do not have answers to these questions…”One feature of this impairment in the case of SSRIs is that it often interferes with the user’s ability to notice the negative effect that the medications are producing.SSRIs blunt emotions and the capacity for empathy, judgement and caring.
In a state when a person feels detached from their own feelings, the strong emotional barriers (fear, self-preservation, caring about others) that normally act as a huge deterrent to acting on suicidal and aggressive urges are not as strong. This blunting combined with akathisia and impulsivity, may be the main way that SSRI antidepressants increase the risk of suicide.
In its mildest form, others may just notice there is something odd or different about the person. In full-blown form, the person may be hallucinating and totally unaware of events and their surroundings. Almost all clinical trials of antidepressants have some patients who end up hallucinating, paranoid or deluded.The important distinction which Dr Healy makes between psychosis and delirium-psychosis would not mean anything to most people.
The average observer of a person in drug-induced delirium-psychosis would go only as far as assuming the person was “mentally ill”. The afflicted person might hold strange beliefs and experience hallucinations but they are otherwise calm, and on most topics they can be quite rational.
The only time such people are at risk of being violent are the very rare occasions when they are slipping into delusions or coming out of them.A person in the throes of delusional thinking, who may also be experiencing akathisia, reduced inhibitions and ability to care, and who may be paranoid and angry for no logical reason, is a danger to others. While it is true that some people may experience such a state without medication, in recent decades, the vast majority of such cases are drug-induced, mostly by psychoactive drugs (legal or illegal), alone or in combination. Stopping the drugs suddenly can cause serious problems and often withdrawal is overlooked as a potential trigger to violence and suicide.1 Apathy and Indifference in Patients on Fluvoxemine and Fluoxetine, Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol 10, No 5, Oct 1990, Rudolph Hoen-Saric, MD, J Lipsey. MD and Daniel McLeod, PhD2 Emotional side-effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: qualitative study, Price, Cole and Goodwin, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2009) 195, 211–217.



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