Ear infection sounds distorted,is ringing in ears normal during pregnancy,sinus infection and treatment - How to DIY

Sound is actually a vibrating wave of pressure that travels through the air (or through liquids or solids for that matter).
There are three main parts to the ears: the outer ear (purple in the figure below), the middle ear (green), and the inner ear (blue). The Eustachian tube (at the bottom of the picture) is the connection from the middle ear space to the back of your nose.  Whenever you are on an airplane or otherwise experience changes in air pressure, you can clear pressure out of your ears by yawning which opens the Eustachian tube. Sensorineural hearing loss: caused by problems with the inner ear, cochlear nerve, or brain. We’ll talk more about common diseases and problems that cause hearing loss in a future post. I'm an ear, nose, and throat doctor serving the South Austin metro area including Kyle, San Marcos, Buda, and Lockhart. Animation - how glue ear develops The middle ear The middle ear is the space behind your eardrum.
The outer ear collects sound waves, which move through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane, commonly called the eardrum. The inner ear also contains three semi-circular canals that function as the body's gyroscope, regulating balance. The Eustachian tube, an important structure in the ear, runs from the middle ear to the passages behind the nose and the upper part of the throat. In children, ear infections often recur, particularly if they first develop in early infancy. Children who are susceptible to OME can have frequent episodes for more than half of their first 3 years of life. Most episodes will resolve within 3 months, but 30 - 40% of children may have recurrent episodes. Haemophilus influenzae, the next most common culprit, is responsible for 20 - 30% of acute infections. However, other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, a virus responsible for childhood respiratory infections) and influenza (flu), can be the actual causes of some ear infections. Otitis media with effusion (OME) may occur spontaneously following an episode of acute otitis media. As children grow, however, the structures in their ears enlarge and their immune systems become stronger. If the ear infection is severe, the tympanic membrane may rupture, causing the parent to notice pus draining from the ear. Fevers and colds often make children irritable and fussy, so it is difficult to determine if acute otitis media is present as well. While severe cases of recurrent acute otitis media or persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) are associated with impaired hearing for a period of time, the long-term consequences resulting from this hearing loss may not be significant in most children. Hearing loss in children may temporarily slow down language development and reading skills. Before the introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, mastoiditis (an infection in the bones located in the skull), was a serious, albeit rare, complication of otitis media. If pain and fever persist in spite of antibiotic treatment of otitis media, the doctor should check for mastoiditis.
If an infection of the mastoid air cells cannot be controlled with antibiotics, surgery may be needed.
The doctor first removes any ear wax (called cerumen) in order to get a clear view of the middle ear.
The doctor uses a small flashlight-like instrument called an otoscope to view the ear directly. An otoscope is a tool that shines a beam of light to help visualize and examine the condition of the ear canal and eardrum. Neither tympanometry nor reflectometry are substitutes for the pneumatic otoscope, which allows a direct view of the middle ear. AOM (fluid and infection) is often difficult to differentiate from OME (fluid without infection). Parents can also use a sonar-like device, such as the EarCheck Monitor, to determine if there is fluid in their child's middle ear. On rare occasions the doctor may need to draw fluid from the ear using a needle for identifying specific bacteria, a procedure called tympanocentesis. Hearing tests performed by an audiologist are usually recommended for children with persistent otitis media with effusion. By around 5 months, infants should be laughing out loud and making one-syllable sounds with both a vowel and consonant. Between 6 - 8 months, babies should be able to make word-like sounds with more than one syllable.
Usually starting around 7 months, and by 10 months, babies babble (making many word-like noises).
Around 10 months, babies can identify and use some term for a parent, such as dada, baba, or mama. If a child's progress is significantly delayed beyond these times, a parent should suspect possible hearing problems. Until recently, nearly every American child with an ear infection who visited a doctor received antibiotics. If there is no improvement or symptoms worsen, parents can schedule an appointment with the child's doctor to determine if antibiotics are needed. While children with non-severe AOM who are given antibiotics may recover slightly more quickly, they often have a high number of side effects and antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Children 6 months or older should be treated for pain within the first 24 hours with either acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
An initial observation period of 48 - 72 hours is recommended for select children to determine if the infection will resolve on its own without antibiotic treatment.
For children aged 6 months - 2 years, criteria for recommending an observation period are an uncertain diagnosis of AOM and a determination that the AOM is not severe.
Preventive antibiotics (antibiotic prophylaxis) may be recommended for recurrent acute otitis media. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) released updated clinical practice guidelines for OME in 2004.
Tympanostomy (the insertion of tubes into the eardrum) is the first choice for surgical intervention. Seek immediate medical attention for high fever, severe pain, or other signs of complications.
Parents of infants should contact their doctor immediately if they have any fever, regardless other symptoms. Herbal remedies are not standardized or regulated, and their quality and safety are largely unknown. The parent should be sure to instruct the child not to blow too hard or the eardrum could be harmed. Either acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) is the pain-reliever of choice in children. Older children may be able to take prescription pain relievers that contain codeine if the pain is severe. Note: Aspirin and aspirin-containing products are not recommended for children or adolescents. Many non-prescription products are available that combine antihistamines, decongestants, and other ingredients, and some are advertised as cold remedies for children.
Swimming can pose specific risks for children with current ear infections or previous surgery. Children with ruptured acute otitis media (drainage from ear canal) should not go swimming until their infections are completely cured. Some doctors recommend that children with implanted ear tubes should use earplugs or cotton balls coated in petroleum jelly when swimming to prevent infection. Most children with uncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM) will recover fully without antibiotic therapy. A 10-day course of antibiotics is usually recommended for children younger than 6 years of age, and for those with severe AOM.
Antibiotic therapy for 5 - 7 days is recommended for children 6 years of age or older with mild-to-moderate symptoms. In some children whose treatment is successful, fluid will still remain in the middle ear for weeks or months, even after the infection has resolved. When suspecting complications, consult with an ear, nose, and throat specialist (otolaryngologist).
The following treatment guidelines provide general recommendations based on the severity of a child's AOM.
The most common side effects of nearly all antibiotics are gastrointestinal problems, including cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Tetracycline use during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood may lead to enamel defects and discolorations of permanent teeth. Allergic reactions can also occur with all antibiotics but are most common with medications derived from penicillin or sulfa.
A tympanostomy involves the insertion of tubes to allow fluid to drain from the middle ear. After myringotomy, the doctor inserts a tube to allow continuous drainage of the fluid from the middle ear. Generally, the tubes stay in the eardrum for at least several months before coming out on their own. Scarring can also occur, particularly in children who need more than one procedure, but it almost never affects hearing. Small keratin (skin cell) containing cysts called cholesteatomas develop around the tube site in about 1% of patients. About 20 - 50% of children may have OME relapse and need additional surgery that involves adenoidectomy and myringotomy. Myringotomy is used to drain the fluid and may be used (with or without ear tube insertion) in combination with adenoidectomy as a repeat surgical procedure if initial tympanostomy is not successful.
Adenoids are collections of spongy lymph tissue in the back of the throat, similar to the tonsils. Adenoidectomy plus myringotomy (removal of fluid) may be performed if an initial tympanostomy (tube insertion) procedure is unsuccessful in resolving OME. Laser-assisted myringotomy is a technique that is being investigated as an alternative to conventional tympanostomy and myringotomy. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. The ear contains three parts: outer, middle and inner and each part has important role in the process of hearing. The sound wave then travel towards the inner ear where other very important parts are located, the cochlea, Eustachian tube, and nerves.
Every single part of the ear is prone to infections, but the most serious one appears in the inner ear.
Take 2-3 fresh garlic cloves and boil them for 5 minutes, then crush them and add some salt. You can also cook two garlic cloves in mustard or sesame oil until it becomes brownish in order to obtain garlic oil. After removing the cotton ball, lay down on the painful ear so that the solution could come out from the ear.
Basil is another natural remedy, since it successfully prevents pain and reduces infections.
Bake an onion for half an hour, cut it in two equal halves and put one of the half in a thick cotton cloth.
Another way to use onions for this cause is to chop the onion and place it in a microwave for 1-2 minutes. The extract obtained from mango leaves is very effective and quick remedy against ear infections.
Tea tree Oil has mild antibacterial properties, so it can help immediately in cases of an earache. Mix 3 drops of Tea Tree Oil, two tablespoons of olive oil, one teaspoon of colloidal silver and a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar and warm up the mixture slightly.
Americans spend billions of dollars each year treating ear problems in children; much of it on doctor visits, drugs and surgery.
Children in general seem to experience far more ear infections than adults, and this is because their Eustachian tubes are immature. Anyone who has had difficulty clearing their ears after flying in an airplane, or anyone who has had the congestion of a cold that "clogged" their ears knows how Eustachian tube dysfunction feels. Molly was brought into my clinic by her mother because the kindergarten teacher was concerned that she was not paying attention in class.
Adenoids and tonsils are lymph tissues that normally enlarge as a child ages, peaking in size during elementary school years and beginning to shrink just before puberty.
Ear infections are the most infection children experience but not all infections require antibiotics. These recommendations will hopefully contribute to a decrease in the overuse of antibiotics and a reduction in bacterial resistance.
Ear infections are accumulation of mucus and bacteria within the Eustachian tube (see diagrams below).
Is there special season for ear infections?Cold season and allergy season is ear infection season.
Apparently a British woman visited Peru on a vacation trip and came home with far more than she bargained for. It’s probably a really good idea to seek medical attention, as this woman did when fluid started leaking out of her head and she was hearing scratching sounds in her head. Can you even imagine getting the news she did when she was referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist? When you have confirmed your password, you will be able to log in through Facebook on both sites.
Sign up to have exclusive Q-106.5 Country Club contests, events, coupons, presales, and much more delivered to you for FREE. Evans Your ears are amazing and intricate structures that capture sounds and convert them into electrical signals that zip into your brain. It is divided into the snail-shaped hearing organ (called the cochlea) and the balance organ which is composed of the semicircular canals among other things.
Then tiny cells inside the cochlea convert the sound pressure waves into electrical signals that are passed to the brain via the cochlear nerve. When incoming sound waves strike this membrane, it vibrates like a drum, and converts the sound waves into mechanical energy. The middle ear is a complex structure filled with air that surrounds a chain of three tiny bones.
Here, hair-like structures stimulate nerves to change sound waves into electrochemical impulses that are carried to the brain, which senses these impulses as sounds.
An inflammation in the middle ear is known as "otitis media." AOM is a middle ear infection caused by bacteria that traveled to middle ear from fluid build-up in the Eustachian tube. This condition occurs when fluid, called an effusion, becomes trapped behind the eardrum in one or both ears, even when there is no infection. This condition refers to persistent fluid behind the tympanic membrane without any infection present.
For pain relief, over-the-counter remedies such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen) usually help, but in severe cases opioid drugs may be prescribed. Viruses play an important role in many ear infections, and can set the scene for a bacterial infection. Nearly a third of infants and toddlers with upper respiratory infections go on to develop acute otitis media. Viruses can increase middle ear inflammation and interfere with antibiotics' efficacy in treating bacterial-causes ear infections.


Any medical or physical condition that reduces the ear's defense system can increase the risk for ear infections. About two-thirds of children will have a least one attack of AOM by age 3, and a third of these children will have at least 3 episodes. The earlier a child has a first ear infection, the more susceptible they are to recurrent episodes (for instance, 3 or more episodes within a 6-month period). OME is very common in children aged 6 months to 4 years, with about 90% of children having OME at some point.
Some doctors believe that an increase in allergies is also partially responsible for the higher number of ear infections.
Although ear infections themselves are not contagious, the respiratory infections that often precede them can pose a risk for children with close and frequent exposure to other children.
Parents who smoke pose a significant risk for both otitis media with effusion (OME) and recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) in their children. Several studies have found that the use of pacifiers place children at higher risk for ear infections. However, it is difficult to determine if an infant or child who hasn't yet learned to speak has an ear infection.
Some hearing loss may occur, but it is often fluctuating and hard to detect, even by observant parents. In such cases, some parents or teachers may attribute their behavior to lack of attention or even to an attention deficit disorder.
However, uncomplicated chronic middle ear effusion generally poses no danger for developmental delays in otherwise healthy children. Certain children with severe or recurrent otitis media may be at risk for structural damage in the ear, including erosion of the ear canal. Inflammatory tissues in the ear called cholesteatomas are an uncommon complication of chronic or severe ear infections. In rare cases, even after a mild infection, some children develop calcification and hardening in the middle and, occasionally, in the inner ear. The condition is difficult to treat and requires intravenous antibiotics and drainage procedures. Some studies have indicated that children with chronic OME have problems with motor development and balance.
Very rarely, a child with acute otitis media may develop facial paralysis, which is temporary and usually relieved by antibiotics or possibly drainage surgery. An ear examination should be part of any routine physical examination in children, particularly because the problem is so common and may not cause symptoms.
Examining the ear can reveal the cause of symptoms such as an earache, the ear feeling full, or hearing loss. In this case, a small probe is held to the entrance of the ear canal and forms an airtight seal. Symptoms may include fever, pulling on the ear, pain, irritability, or discharge (otorrhea) from the ear.
It is important for a doctor to make this distinction as OME does not require antibiotic treatment.
EarCheck uses acoustic reflectometry technology, which bounces sound waves off the eardrum to assess mobility. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to test children under 2 years old for hearing problems.
Colds and flus are spread primarily when an infected person coughs or sneezes near someone else. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 5 years of age.
Newer vaccines contain very little egg protein, but an allergic reaction still may occur in people with strong allergies to eggs. Up to two-thirds of people who receive the influenza vaccine develop redness or soreness at the injection site for 1 - 2 days afterward. Antibiotics may occasionally be recommended to prevent bacterial infections in children with recurrent ear infections (4 or more episodes a year). Daily diets should include foods such as fresh, dark-colored fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants and other important food chemicals that help boost the immune system.
Researchers are studying the possible protective value of certain strains of lactobacilli, bacteria found in the intestines. Several studies have found that children who live with smokers have a significant risk for ear infections. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, exclusively breast-feeding for a baby’s first 6 months helps to prevent ear and other respiratory infections. The major debates rest on the use of antibiotics, surgery, and watchful waiting in both acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME).
Major studies now indicate that antibiotics are unnecessary in most cases of acute otitis media.
The intense and widespread use of antibiotics has led to a serious global problem of bacterial resistance to common antibiotics.
Studies have found that giving parents the option of delaying antibiotic treatment helps to reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics without causing any health problems for the children. For children older than 2 years, the observation period criteria are non-severe symptoms or uncertain diagnosis. Which children should be treated this way, as well as which antibiotics and for how long, have not been clearly determined. It is important for parents to recognize that persistent fluid behind the eardrum after treatment for acute otitis media does not indicate failed treatment.
Adenoidectomy (removal of adenoids) plus myringotomy (removal of fluid), with or without tube insertion, is sometimes recommended as a repeat surgical procedure. Home RemediesCareful monitoring of the child's condition (watchful waiting) along with home remedies may be a viable alternative to antibiotic treatment for many children with a first episode of acute otitis media.
Now, with current concern over antibiotic overuse, many of these remedies are again popular. There is no evidence to indicate that these candles are safe or effective for treatment of AOM or other ear conditions.
Parents should never give their child herbal remedies, including oral remedies, without approval from a doctor. A simple technique called the Valsalva's maneuver is useful in opening the Eustachian tubes and providing occasional relief from the chronic stuffy feeling accompanying otitis media with effusion. Auralgan provides short-acting pain relief and may help children endure ear discomfort until an oral pain reliever takes effect.
Reye syndrome, a very serious condition, is associated with aspirin use in children who have chickenpox or flu.
Researchers have found little or no benefits for acute otitis media or for otitis media with effusion using decongestants (either oral or nasal sprays or drops), antihistamines, or combination product.
Water pollutants or chemicals may exacerbate the infection, and underwater swimming causes pressure changes that can cause pain.
When antibiotics are needed, a number of different classes are available for treating acute ear infections.
Failure to finish is a major factor in the growth of bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics.
Earaches usually resolve within 24 hours after taking an antibiotic, although about 10% of children who are treated do not respond. During that period, children may have some hearing problems, but eventually the fluid almost always drains away. This specialist may perform a tympanocentesis or myringotomy, procedures in which fluid is drawn from the ear and examined for specific organisms.
Treatment decisions take into account whether the child's condition is severe or non-severe.
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) is an injectable cephalosporin that may be prescribed as an alternative to amoxicillin-clavulanate, especially for children who have vomiting or other conditions that hamper oral administration. Patients with severe AOM who have failed to respond to amoxicillin-clavulanate after 48 - 72 hours may require the withdrawal of fluid from the ear (tympanocentesis) in order to identify the bacterial strain causing the infection.
These reactions can range from mild skin rashes to rare but severe, even life-threatening, anaphylactic shock. Tympanostomy is a simple procedure, and the child almost never has to spend the night in the hospital.
Otorrhea, drainage of secretion from the ear, is the most common complication after surgery and can be persistent in some children.
Rarely, allergic reactions or other complications, such as throat spasm or obstruction, may occur. Sometimes the tubes become blocked from sticky secretions or clotted blood after the operation. Many doctors feel that children should use earplugs when swimming while the tubes are in place in order to prevent infection.
Removal of the adenoids, called adenoidectomy, is usually only considered for OME if a pre-existing condition exists such as chronic sinusitis, nasal obstruction, or chronic adenoiditis (inflammation of the adenoids).
At present, there is not enough evidence to say whether it is as good as ear tubes, the standard procedure. Treatment of acute otitis media with probiotics in otitis-prone children-a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study. Antibiotic therapy to prevent the development of asymptomatic middle ear effusion in children with acute otitis media: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides conjugated to protein D for prevention of acute otitis media caused by both Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typable Haemophilus influenzae: a randomised double-blind efficacy study.
Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes: prevalences of bacteria and viruses. Wait-and-see prescription for the treatment of acute otitis media: a randomized controlled trial. Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media. Effect of antibiotics for otitis media on mastoiditis in children: a retrospective cohort study using the United kingdom general practice research database. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Common symptoms are earache, diarrhea, headache, tugging at the ear, poor response to sounds, fluid drainage from the ear, vomiting, problems with sleeping, high fever etc.
Then the sound waves reach the eardrum in the middle ear, where other important pats are located: hammer, anvil, stir up, semicircular, and middle canal. As soon as the sound wave reaches the nerves, the brain starts with the processing after which we can recognize and understand the sound. Damaged and raptured ear drum, as well as other complications can be prevented by proper treatment. Leave it to cool down in order not to apply it too hot, and apply four drops in the painful ear.
Wipe the inside part of the ear, around the outer edge and behind the ear with previously soaked cotton ball in the mixture.
Soak a clean cloth in warm water, squeeze the excess water out and put the cloth on the painful ear. Ear infections are the number one reason children visit a doctor's office, and the number of children coming in with ear infections has risen over the past decade.
Infants and children have a more horizontal Eustachian tube without gravity to assist in drainage. Through good hearing, a child learns language skills and an appreciation for the world around him or her. The adenoids are situated in the upper throat, in the back part of the nose, right next to the Eustachian tube opening. For years, doctors would automatically prescribe antibiotics when any fluid was found in the middle ear, especially in children. Many children with nasal disease seem to become "antibiotic-dependent" that is, their symptoms seem to be relieved while taking antibiotics, but then relapse shortly after the treatment course ends. Yes, we can reduce and prevent ear infections by keeping the nose clean, breast feed, stay away from large groups (day care), avoid exposure to smoke (this paralyzes the nose hair, the cilia) and keep your fingers crossed. The part of your ears that you see acts as a funnel to collect sound waves that pass down to your ear drum (also known as the tympanic membrane). These bones vibrate to the rhythm of the eardrum and pass the sound waves on to the inner ear. It is called suppurative chronic otitis when there is persistent inflammation in the middle ear or mastoids, or chronic rupture of the eardrum with drainage. Rhinovirus is a common virus that causes a cold and plays a leading role in the development of ear infections. Children with shorter than normal and relatively horizontal Eustachian tubes are at particular risk for initial and recurrent infections. Risk FactorsAcute ear infections account for 15 - 30 million visits to the doctor each year in the U.S. Some research suggests that the increase in ear and other infections may be due to the increasing attendance of very small children, including infants, in day care centers.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding for at least the baby's first 6 months. Sucking increases production of saliva, which helps bacteria travel up the Eustachian tubes to the middle ear. The only sign to a parent that the condition exists may be when a child complains of "plugged up" hearing. As the majority of chronic ear effusion cases eventually clear up on their own, many doctors recommend against placement of tympanostomy tubes for most children.
Facial paralysis may also occur for patients with chronic otitis media and a cholesteatoma (tissue in the middle ear). Infection in the outer ear, however, can be confirmed by tugging the outer ear, which will produce pain. A doctor should always check for this first when a small child indicates pain or problems in the ear. While the air pressure is varied, a sound with a fixed tone is directed at the eardrum and its energy is measured. In patients with OME, an air bubble may be visible and the eardrum is often cloudy and very immobile.
When fluid is present behind the middle ear (a symptom of AOM and OME), the eardrum will not be as mobile. This is most often performed by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist, and usually only in severe or recurrent cases. Preventing influenza (the "flu') may be a more important protective measure against ear infections than preventing bacterial infections. One such drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), is approved for use in children age 1 year and older. Also, infants are held during breast-feeding in a position that allows the Eustachian tubes to function well. Between 80 - 90% of all children with uncomplicated ear infections recover within a week without antibiotics.
Current guidelines released by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend an initial observation period of 48 - 72 hours for select children. Unfortunately, surveys indicate that although medical guidelines recommend watchful waiting, few doctors regularly practice it. Antibiotics, decongestants, antihistamines and corticosteroids do not help and are not recommended for routine management of OME. Ear tube insertion may be recommended when fluid builds up behind your child's eardrum and does not go away after 4 months or longer. The American College of Chest Physicians recommends against the use of nonprescription cough and cold medicines in children age 14 years and younger.


This may occur when a virus is present or if the bacteria causing the ear infection is resistant to the prescribed antibiotic. Other drug classes may be prescribed if a child is allergic to penicillin or does not respond to the initial therapy. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) is sufficient for any postoperative pain in most children. The risk is highest in children who have other medical conditions, most commonly upper respiratory infections, lung disease, or gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD).
Failure to achieve normal or near-normal hearing is usually due to complicated conditions, such as preexisting ear problems or persistent OME in children who have had previous multiple tympanostomies.
Others feel that as long as the child does not dive or swim underwater, earplugs may not be necessary.
Apply 2-3 drops from the juice in the painful ear; wait for a while and then place the head in a proper position so the juice could come out from the ear.
There are several reasons for this including bottle-feeding, increased allergies, greater pollution, more children in daycare, and exposure to cigarette smoke.
It is also much shorter and collapses more easily compared to an adult tube; the opening in the throat is more rounded, making it easier for secretions to find their way up into the middle ear.
These children think the world always sounds muffled and it is no surprise that they cannot speak clearly. Mom wanted to avoid medications if possible, and favored a more natural ear treatment strategy, so she agreed to try nasal rinsing.
If the fluid persisted, they would recommend surgical placement of drainage ports, PE tubes, in the eardrum - a manmade exit for the fluid. Sometimes these medications are warranted, but I recommend a first line treatment that is much safer and often more effective in addressing the core issue as compared to medication: Nasal washing with hypertonic buffered salt water.
A new antibiotic is then started, and the cycle then repeats itself over and over, sometimes for many months. The nasal membranes swell, excessive mucus is produced, thicken mucus in the drainage pipes (the nose, the sinus, the ears) fail to drain well. When doctors talk about “fluid in the ears” as a problem, what they are talking about is fluid in the MIDDLE ear space. Usually, your middle ear is filled with air, but if you have inflammation, the space becomes filled with mucus.
CausesAcute otitis media (middle ear infection) is usually due to a combination of factors that increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections in the middle ear.
Some parents believe that tugging on the ear indicates an infection, but this gesture is more likely to indicate pain from teething. Other symptoms can include loud talking, not responding to verbal commands, and turning up the television or radio.
Pressing the bulb and observing the action of the air against the eardrum allows the doctor to gauge the eardrum's movement.
This device can detect fluid in the middle air and also obstruction in the Eustachian tube.
A scarred, thick, or opaque eardrum may make it difficult for the doctor to distinguish between acute otitis media and OME. In most cases, tympanocentesis is not necessary in order to obtain an accurate enough diagnosis for effective treatment. For example, studies report that children who are vaccinated against influenza experience a third fewer ear infections during flu season than unvaccinated children. Antibodies to the influenza virus generally develop within 2 weeks of vaccination, and immunity peaks within 4 - 6 weeks, then gradually wanes. These symptoms are not influenza itself but an immune response to the virus proteins in the vaccine.
Studies report significant reduction in symptoms and in the incidence of ear infections with this drug. It is included in the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule and is specifically approved for preventing otitis media. TreatmentMany of the treatments for ear infections, particularly antibiotic use and surgical procedures, are often unnecessary in many children.
Likewise, receiving antibiotics for an acute ear infection does not seem to prevent children from having fluid behind the ears after the infection is cleared up.
Pain relief can initially be given with acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil), or topical benzocaine drops.
For one, the condition resolves without treatment in nearly all children, especially those whose OME followed an acute ear infection. Between 20 - 50% of children who undergo this procedure may have OME relapse and need additional surgery). Other antibiotics are available for children who are allergic to penicillin or who do not respond within 2 - 3 days.
It is not necessary to perform an adenoidectomy along with tube insertion for children under 4 years of age. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Moreover, breast milk is also efficient in cases of minor burns, eye infection and minor cuts. Interestingly, boys develop infections in the ears more often than girls do, and it is not clear why. Additionally, babies tend not to swallow when they are asleep (they drool), and less swallowing means less ventilation of the middle ear. The most common causes of Eustachian tube dysfunction are allergies and respiratory infections. Soon Molly was "washing" like a pro, and two weeks later the repeat hearing test was normal.
These tissues will remain enlarged if constantly irritated, aggravated and stimulated by recurrent infections or allergies. These tubes do not correct the original problem, but they do allow the fluid to drain out the ear canal if the Eustachian tube is blocked. Normally, the middle ear space should be filled with air, and the air pressure should be the same as the air outside your body.
Otitis externa can also be precipitated by overly aggressively scratching or cleaning ears or when an object gets stuck in the ears. The primary setting for middle ear infections is in a child's Eustachian tube, which runs from the middle ear to the nose and upper throat.
If a cold does occur, the virus can cause the membranes along the walls of the inner passages to swell and obstruct the airways. Genetic conditions, such as Kartagener's syndrome in which the cilia (hair-like structures) in the ear are immobile and cause fluid build up, also increase the risk. However, a causal relationship between allergies and ear infections has not been definitively established.
PrognosisDoctors should carefully evaluate ear infections in infants fewer than 3 months old, and consider more serious infections, such as meningitis. DiagnosisThe doctor should be sure to ask the parent if the child has had a recent cold, flu, or other respiratory infection. Results indicate the likelihood of the presence of fluid and may help patients decide whether they need to contact their child's doctor. Another antiviral drug, zanamivir (Relenza), is available for children older than age 7 years .
The recommended schedule of pneumococcal immunization is four doses, given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 - 15 months of age. Antihistamines and decongestants may cause more harm than good by provoking side effects such as stomach upset and drowsiness. But most children do not have long-term damage to their hearing or their ability to speak even when the fluid remains for many months.
Only a small percentage of hearing loss cases can be attributed to complications of the operation itself. The heat will help the liquid to come out from the ear and to alleviate the pain and the swelling.
All of these differences result in a buildup of negative pressure which causes pain and this leads to restless nights. Traditionally doctors have given antihistamines to dry up secretions and decongestants to clear the passages. These chronically enlarged tissues prevent the Eustachian tube's normal drainage, which can contribute to recurrent ear infections. More recently, the Academy of Pediatrics acknowledged that routine antibiotics and PE tubes may not be the best approach and has now released new recommendations. I have personally witnessed this over 25 years of medical practice and many of my colleagues agree. This allows air to pass up and down the tube from your throat to the middle ear and in the opposite direction.
The Eustachian tube is shorter and narrower in children than adults, and therefore more vulnerable to blockage.
If this inflammation blocks the narrow Eustachian tube, the middle ear may not drain properly. Children with Down syndrome or Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may also be at increased risk due to anatomical abnormalities. If the child complains of pain or has other symptoms of otitis media, such as redness and inflammation, the doctor should rule out any other causes. However, it is not recommended that children be treated with antibiotics based on the findings using this device.
Waterless hand cleaners that contain an alcohol-based gel are also effective for everyday use and may even kill cold viruses. FluMist is made from a live but weakened influenza virus; flu shots use inactivated (not live) viruses. In general, regions and institutions with the highest rate of resistance are those in which antibiotics are the most heavily prescribed. At present, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that allergy treatment can assist with OME management nor has a causal relationship between allergies and OME been established.
Adenoidectomy is not recommended as an initial procedure unless some other condition (chronic sinusitis, nasal obstruction, adenoiditis) is present.
Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. However, the side effects of these two medications can be problematic, especially in children. A watch and wait approach to most ear infections is the newest guideline, but as in the past, it is up to each physician to decide on the necessity of using antibiotics. The Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports NOT treating with antibiotics unless the child is very ill, feverish, or very young.
Children younger than 2 years old, and children younger than age 5 who have asthma or recurrent wheezing, should not receive FluMist. Even if OME lasts for longer than 3 months, the condition generally resolves on its own without any long term effects on language or development and intervention may not be necessary. Parents have become desperate to find effective treatments for ear infection, including natural ear infection treatments and home remedies. Rather than immediately turning to surgery and medication, parents should explore less traumatic and risky remedies for ear infection. In such cases, alcohol-based rinses are needed.) Antibacterial soaps add little protection, particularly against viruses. The doctor will re-evaluate the child at periodic intervals to determine if there is risk for hearing loss.
In fact overuse of antibiotics results in bacteria to develop resistance, among other issues. Wiping surfaces with a solution that contains 1 part bleach to 10 parts water is very effective in killing viruses.
This often happens after a middle ear infection (acute otitis media) or similar conditions that cause inflammation in this area.
If your child has nasal allergies to pets or dust, or has hay fever, he or she may be more likely to develop glue ear. Inflammation caused by the allergic reaction may cause their Eustachian tubes to swell and become blocked more easily.
In addition, children who are born with a cleft lip or palate, or who have Down's syndrome are more likely to get middle ear infections, making them more susceptible to glue ear. At least half of children with glue ear get better within three months, and 95 out of 100 children get better within a year. In this technique, your child uses his or her nose to inflate a special balloon (called an Otovent, which can be bought from some pharmacies).
Some studies have shown this technique to be helpful in the short term, but more research is needed into the long-term effects. These include infection or, with grommets, the possibility of permanent damage to your child's eardrum. Hearing problems caused by glue ear may also come and go, which makes it even harder to notice. Your child may often ask you to repeat what you have said or have trouble hearing in a noisy environment. Children can become withdrawn or have trouble concentrating, which can lead to frustration and irritability. For older children, hearing loss can affect other language skills such as reading and writing and they may start to struggle at school. A healthy eardrum is flexible and allows sound to pass through it and into your middle and inner ear.
Tympanometry can be done with babies and young children because it doesn't test hearing and doesn't rely on getting a reaction from your child. A pump will then change the pressure in the ear and measure the amount of sound that bounces back. Different sounds will be played and when your child hears them, he or she will turn towards the sound.
As your child does this, he or she will be given a reward, for example, the toy will light up. The tester can gradually turn down the volume of the sound to find out the quietest sound your child can hear. It's also safe for your child to go swimming a couple of weeks after a grommet operation, but he or she should keep his or her head above the water. It’s best not to dive or swim underwater as this increases the pressure of the water. When your child is swimming in a well-maintained swimming pool, with adequate levels of chlorine, he or she shouldn't need to wear earplugs, although it’s fine to do so if you prefer.
Infections after grommets aren't usually painful and your child may not seem ill, but if you see a yellowish liquid coming out of your child's ear, see your GP for advice. Your GP may prescribe antibiotic eardrops for your child to take or, if your child is more unwell, a course of antibiotics by mouth.
Breast milk is thought to contain proteins that can help stop inflammation and help to protect against glue ear, even when your child is no longer breastfeeding. The grommets will help air to move in and out of your child’s ear more easily, which will reduce stress on your child's eardrum and makes changes in air pressure easier to cope with.
This will help to prevent pain when the plane is ascending or when it's coming down to land. Your child will also be able to swim, provided two weeks have passed since the operation, but make sure he or she doesn't dive or swim underwater.



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28.11.2013 admin



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