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This is the full text of the Sound Advice Working Group recommendations on personal hearing protection for people who work in the music industry. 5.1 For a device to be categorised as personal hearing protection it must be CE-marked showing it meets the relevant European Standard BS EN 352.
In-ear monitors and headphone monitors do not generally meet the necessary criteria to be categorised as personal hearing protection devices, although some workers in the music and entertainment sector may wrongly consider them to be. 5.2 Personal hearing protection should be used where extra protection is needed above what can be achieved using noise control, and as a short-term measure while other, more permanent solutions, technical, engineering or organisational, are being sought. 5.3 The Noise Regulations make the use of personal hearing protection compulsory for employees whose exposure to noise is likely to reach either of the upper exposure action values and for any employees working within designated areas (hearing protection zones). 5.4 The use of hearing protection should not be made compulsory where the law doesn't require it. 5.6 People using personal hearing protection should at all times be able to hear any safety alarms and warning signals such as fire alarms, evacuation alerts, reversing vehicles, stage announcements concerning strobe effects etc.
5.7 Employers should provide protection that at least reduces the noise exposure to below 85 dB. 5.8 For workers with variable exposures, employers should ensure that their employees have protectors adequate for the worst situation likely to be encountered, and that they know when and where to use them.
5.9 The Table below gives an indication of the degree of protection that is likely to be suitable for different levels of noise. 5.10 Other methods of estimating the performance of hearing protection, for use where more detailed information on the character of the noise is available, are described in Part 5 of L108. 5.11 It is important to use the right type of hearing protector and to use it whenever hearing protection is required. 5.12 Training should promote the use of hearing protection if it is required and management should ensure it is properly used. 5.14 Many workers in music and entertainment, such as musicians, performers and sound engineers, need to hear sounds with as little distortion or colouration as possible, especially in the higher frequencies.
5.15 Fortunately, hearing protection technology has developed to the point where specialised products can reduce sound levels almost equally across a broad range of frequencies. 5.16 When there is no concern about sound quality, hearing protection can generally be both simple and inexpensive, and where the appearance of hearing protection is less important, there is a wider range of choice. All hearing protection alters the listening experience, and it can take a long time to get used to it.
With enough time to acclimatise to using the right hearing protection communication with other people should not be majorproblem. 5.17 The selection process should take account of consultation with employees or their representatives. 5.18 Before selecting hearing protection, find out whether the user has any medical disorder such as earache and irritation of the ear canal that could influence the selection. 5.19 When blowing their instruments, wind and brass players experience their own sound aurally, but also via the skull-bones conducting the vibrations from the instrument to the ears, as they play.
5.20 Ordinary compressible earplugs are generally unsuitable for players of reeded woodwind and brass instruments because of the occlusion effect (singers also find compressible earplugs make the voice sound strange).
5.21 There is a misconception among some woodwind and brass players that it is not possible to wear earplugs due to the build-up of pressure in the ear and the risk of further damage to the ear canal. 5.22 Some sources of noise in the music and entertainment sector have a large dynamic range (such as brass, percussion and much woodwind) or can be highly impulsive (such as firearms or pyrotechnics). 5.23 The tables below provide general guidance on the selection of suitable hearing protection.
Proximity to brass or percussion sections.Jaw resonance (occlusion effect) makes it difficult to monitor instrument while using conventional earplugs. Loud peak levels, intense high frequencies.Existing right-ear hearing loss results in perceived distortion. Jaw resonance (occlusion effect) makes it difficult to monitor instrument while using earplugs.
Uniform attenuation earplugsSome prefer amplitude-sensitive - particularly if near loud neighbours. High sound levels, intense higher frequency sounds such as cymbals.Conventional earplugs reduce sound levels too much and may result in over-hitting to compensate. 5.25 Instructions for all earplugs should give advice on the correct method of use as the seal created between the earplug and the ear is fundamental to its effectiveness.
Crew, venue staff, and other workers in situations in which sound quality and speech communication are not issues (especially non-music applications). 5.27 This type of earplug is more suited to job functions where the user does not need to hear the full frequency range of the sounds.
Uniform attenuation types generally not as 'flat' as custom-moulded uniform attenuation earplugs. Musicians and vocalists who want a relatively inexpensive earplug with relatively uniform attenuation for practice and rehearsals. Bar staff and other workers who want relatively inexpensive earplugs that do not muffle voices and other higher-frequency sounds as much as compressible plugs.
5.30 The silicone earplug is moulded to the shape of the user's ear canal and should be fit-tested.
5.31 In filter types, the filter, in conjunction with the air inside the bored-out section, offsets the loss of high frequencies that normally occurs when an object is inserted into the ear. Musicians playing or seated nearby to instruments that produce higher-frequency sounds (for example, violins, trumpets, piccolos, and pianos).
Anyone working with or around amplified sound (for example, musicians, vocalists, DJs, sound engineers, conductors, and teachers). Allow musicians playing lower-frequency instruments to hear themselves while screening out surrounding higher-frequency sounds. Right and left earplugs can be adjusted separately to compensate for right-ear hearing loss in flute and piccolo players. Musicians playing bass and lower-frequency instruments (for example, lower strings, reeded woodwinds, and low brasses) who wish to shield themselves against high-frequency sounds from percussion or trumpet sections. 5.37 Earmuffs (sometimes referred to as 'ear defenders') are hard plastic cups that fit over and surround the ears and are sealed to the head by cushion seals.
5.39 Some earmuffs incorporate systems to relay communication or other audio signals (for example, music for DJs). 5.40 Earmuffs, like all hearing protectors, should be selected on the basis of comfort, practicality and hygiene to help ensure they are worn properly. A large contact area between the seal and head helps reduce the contact pressure but in hot conditions may cause sweating. Weight - the lighter the better but the cups need to be large enough to fit right over the user's ears. Crew members who need protection while working around loud sound and who are not concerned with how the earmuffs look. Exposure action values (EAV): Levels of exposure to noise at which certain actions need to be taken (see Useful information and glossary). Health surveillance:For the purposes of this guidance, ongoing assessment of the state of aural health of an employee as related to exposure to noise. Noise exposure: 'The noise dose', which can be calculated, takes account of the actual volume of sound and how long it continues.
Noise limiter: Sometimes known as volume regulatory device (VRD), controls noise exposure from amplified music. Occlusion effect: Occurs when an object (like an unvented earplug) completely fills the outer portion of the ear canal.
Single number rating (SNR) value: Method of indicating the degree of protection offered by a hearing protector. GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. We have found these latest generation earplugs to be outstanding in effectiveness and comfort. The laminated structure of SleepSoft earplugs is produced from a unique, durable soft flexible plastic. The ear is a complex sensory system composed of three fundamental components; an outer ear, a middle ear, and the inner ear.
Do not remove during pressurization and during the first 30 minutes after reaching full pressure. If you do not have the software Adobe Acrobat Reader, you can download the free software by clicking on the Get Adobe Acrobat Reader button below. These set criteria for a range of quality and safety aspects, such as comfort, ergonomics, provision of information, factors related to ageing, quality of production, as well as the level of sound reduction. However, IEMs and headphone monitors have a valuable role in reducing the risk of hearing damage as they allow a reduced level of reproduced sound on stages and in other work areas.
Personal hearing protection should not be used as an alternative to controlling noise by technical and organisational means. Where the exposure to noise is likely to reach either of the lower exposure action values but be below the upper exposure action values, the employer must provide personal hearing protection to any worker who requests it. It is bad practice to have a 'blanket' approach to hearing protection; it is better to target its use and encourage people to wear it only when they need to. Where any doubt exists about the ability of a worker to hear such warnings, alternative means of communication must be provided, for example visible lights or other methods such as vibrating pads. It might be that using more than one type of hearing protector is an appropriate solution for people whose work varies significantly during the day or from day to day.
It is also important to realise how rapidly the upper action value can be exceeded and how hearing can be damaged in a noisy environment. Hearing protectors will only provide good protection when used properly - simply handing them out is not acceptable. With regard to the particular needs of workers in music and entertainment, there is a greater variety of products within the earplugs category. This can cause problems when using personal hearing protection, as conventional hearing protectors tend to reduce higher frequencies more than lower frequencies. This means that the user perceives the sound as being far more natural and positive than with ordinary earplugs. The acclimatisation process should be managed - if not, people will give up and their hearing will become increasingly damaged. Where employees have any such disorders, employers should seek medical advice as to the suitability of hearing protection. Using earplugs can affect this balance as the musician's ear hears less treble sound while experiencing more bass sound via bone conduction. In these situations 'amplitude-sensitive' or 'level-dependent' hearing protection could be suitable.
They are less visually intrusive than external ear protection but need careful selection as they represent a very personal protection against specific noise sources under specific conditions.

Where earplugs are supplied by an employer there is a duty to ensure that correct training is given. Musicians and sound engineers may not find these suitable during a performance but they are useful as a last resort.
They are typically made by a laboratory that supplies local audiologists and hearing clinics. Not only can the frequency attenuation of the fitting be specifically tuned to the user's needs, but also the plugs themselves will be comfortable and highly effective and are readily reusable. Canal caps (sometimes called semi-aural plugs) generally have rounded tips that cover the entrance to the ear canal, while semi-insert plugs generally have tapered tips that are pushed into the ear canal.
These have a microphone on the outside and a speaker on the inside, often electronically limited, to enable the wearer to hear external signals. These devices reduce the ambient noise levels and therefore allow the wearer to listen to the music at a reduced level. The signal is directed straight into the inner part of the ear, bypassing the middle and outer parts of the ear. Noise exposure is not the same as sound level, which is the level of noise measured at a particular moment. This changes the way sounds are produced in the ear canal, especially noises produced by the body (for example breathing, swallowing and noise travelling through bone and tissue.) The result is these noises appear louder. If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate. Use to reduce excessive ambient noise and snoring noise whilst crying baby, door bell or alarm buzzer sounds remain sufficiently audible. The earplug easily fits into the shape of the ear canal within a few minutes, due to body heat and thus is very comfortable to wear.
The silicone ear plug has four circumferential rings which provide an air-tight seal between the product and the ear canal. As air flows through the microscopic pores of the CeramX flow regulator particles of pollen, soot, airborne bacteria and cerumen become trapped within. The middle ear is a closed cavity beginning behind the ear drum and extending into the temporal bone to the inner ear. A cold, flu, or allergy will cause inflammation, fluid buildup, and swelling in the middle ear and Eustachian tubes. Employers should satisfy themselves that any devices supplied to workers as personal hearing protection are CE-marked and meet the requirements of the relevant part of BS EN 352.
The use of IEMs and headphone monitors is covered in Sound Advice Note 10 Rock and pop and Sound Advice Note 15 Studios. Employers must provide protection against impulsive noise, such as gunfire or pyrotechnic effects, sufficient to reduce the C-weighted peak sound pressure level at the ear to below the upper exposure action value of 137 dB. This information is intended as a guide, and will not be appropriate if there is significant low-frequency noise.
For example, a compressible foam plug that reduces sounds in the 125 Hz range by 25 dB may reduce sounds in the 4000 Hz range by almost 40 dB. With the correct earplugs, with patience and sufficient acclimatisation, brass and woodwind players will find they are able to wear appropriate earplugs and have no need to worry that they will suffer further damage to their ears. These use mechanical or electronic mechanisms to allow lower-level sounds to pass relatively unhindered, but 'clip' very high-energy noise.
In circumstances where a health surveillance programme is in operation it would be best to incorporate the appropriate selection, fitting and training as part of that programme. Closing the vent increases higher-frequency attenuation to as much as 28 dB (performance similar to compressible earplugs). Both types are convenient for situations where the hearing protection has to be taken on and off frequently. They are easy to fit and use, once appropriate training is given, and their use is easily monitored.
The CeramX filter is a controlled-porosity filter; one end of which is exposed to the external chamber pressure, and the opposite is inserted into the ear. The partially-collapsed Eustachian tubes impede the flow of changing chamber pressure to the middle ear cavity behind the ear drum.
The accompanying chart illustrates the fact that a 15 minute pressurization cycle to 2.0 ATA is increased to a 30 minute cycle measured at the patient's ear drums.
This will be strange for the player, can take some time to get used to and will vary from one individual to another.
The type with mechanical mechanisms often use the acoustic properties of carefully designed air ducts to give different protection at different noise levels. The certification of different earplugs to comply with European Standards is progressing as new types of earplugs are developed. Here each plug is bored out, and then fitted with an adjustable vent or capped with a button-sized filter attached to its outer end. They have been clinically tested in both hyperbaric and oxygen-enriched environments and may be purchased without a prescription.
As the hyperbaric chamber pressure changes a pressure differential is created across the CeramX filter, thereby causing oxygen to flow through the filter. Under these conditions, it becomes even more difficult to relieve the pressure buildup; and in some cases, results in extreme pain. These protectors have been found helpful where there is a particular need for verbal communication, such as for bar staff. Trade literature should clearly identify if the type of earplug on offer has been certified. Check that limiters are fitted to limit the level of sound reproduced at the wearer's ears. Normally, the ET opens and relieves pressure across the eardrum whenever one swallows or yawns, occurring naturally and unconsciously approximately every three to five minutes in a health individual. However, the pressure regulating CeramX filter (in the external ear canal) provides an opposing impedence to the rapidly changing chamber pressure. The pressure differential across the ear drum is greatly reduced; discomfort is lessened because both the exterior and interior surfaces of the ear drum undergo a more-nearly equal rate of pressure change. If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads. If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control. The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments.
This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur.
Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below. Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11).
It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge. They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult.
When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes. Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan.
Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14). Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem. If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad.
Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor. They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one. The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment.
You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment. Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws. This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer.
Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis. If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it.
There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment.
These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19).
Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern. Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator. Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem. If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem. The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized. Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time.

Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal. It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions. Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under. Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights.
For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes. Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion. The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2. The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end. The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself. If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much.
If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater.
The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature.
In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer. The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad. If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat. Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils. Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings.
If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further. If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems. The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work. If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity. Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees. With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself.
It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice.
In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens. If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord. Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers.
If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat. Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater. If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes. Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater.
Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work.
The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4. Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head.
Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head.
The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head. Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head. Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal.
When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY. If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat.
Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully.
If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism.
However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear. If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly.
Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow. Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate. Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book. If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer. Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat. The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater. These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer. Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps. Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad. Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad.
Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system. Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point.
UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch.
If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem. The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor.
This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out.
Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis. Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which. These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty.
COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective. To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures. The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb.
The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other.
By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.

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13.08.2015 admin

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