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The product in display is made from gold plated material and is finished in an attractive gold color. The average price of Ashiana Designer Gold Flower with Marble Inlay work and Pearl Tassel Ear Cuff Earring d3 is Rs. Recent exhibitions of the work of the Italian painter, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (Fig. The exhibition of Caravaggio’s late works shown both in Naples and, slightly modified, in London, together with an exhibition of full-size digital transparencies of (nearly) all of Caravaggio’s paintings in Chicago under the title, “Caravaggio: La Mostra Impossible”, have served to focus attention once again on this remarkable artist. The earliest technical studies on Caravaggio’s paintings came shortly after the exhibition in Milan organized by Roberto Longhi in 1951.(7) This exhibition brought new attention to Caravaggio who had at that point somewhat faded from art historical attention. The three Contarelli Chapel paintings received conservation treatment during 1965-66 at the Istituto Centrale del Restauro during which highly discolored old varnish films were removed and the paintings were relined and mounted on new stretchers.
The detailed study of the Detroit Magdalen in 1974(12), followed by major exhibitions between 1985(13) and 1991-92(14) resulted in great advances in documentation and connoisseurship of Caravaggio’s oeuvre, “The Age of Caravaggio” in New York and Naples in 1985 followed by the exhibition in Florence, Rome and Milan with comprehensive technical studies, notably radiography and infra-red reflectography provided us with a significant basis for understanding Caravaggio’s materials and painting procedure and thus of connoisseurship.
Use of incisions done free-hand in the still moist ground to establish the composition and fix the pose of his models. Did not use preliminary sketches but began by loosely drawing the outline of forms in dark paint and locating major highlights in lead white (abozzo). By the end of the 17th century in Italy most painters had adopted the use of a linen support as a less expensive and more practical painting surface than wood panels that had predominated previously.
While gray grounds, more typical of Lombard painting, can be found in some of Caravaggio’s early paintings in Rome, such as the Kimbell Cardsharps and the Capitoline Fortune Teller, most of Caravaggio’s paintings have a dark red-brown, somewhat translucent ground that he came to utilize in a very particular manner. While most artists who were Caravaggio’s contemporaries were trained in drawing from life and from ancient statuary and in planning their compositions by means of careful drawings, Caravaggio seems to have shunned these practices. Where Caravaggio’s medium has been identified it appears to have been predominantly walnut oil, most likely it was first heated with litharge for quicker drying. In the painter’s workshop of the 17th century all paints had to be prepared daily and sufficient for the work at hand.
Caravaggio’s profoundly moving images were produced by an exceptionally efficient and increasingly effective technique adapted to the needs of execution using live models and later to the needs of swift execution. Fig.7 Brian Koelz working on a reconstruction of Caravaggio’s London Supper at Emmaus, at Northern Light Studio, St. The experience of handling and preparing the range of pigments used by Caravaggio and his contemporaries is exceptionally enlightening for anyone interested in art and art process.
Greaves, James L., and Meryl Johnson, “New Findings on Caravaggio’s Technique in the Detroit ‘Magdalen’”, Burlington Magazine, CXVI, no. The Age of Caravaggio, exhibition catalog, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, and the Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples (New York:The Metropolitan Museum of Art) 1985.
Keith, Larry, “Three Paintings by Caravaggio”, National Gallery Technical Bulletin, 19, 1998, pp.
This year (2006) will mark the 400th birthday of the great Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn (b. Our exploration of Rembrandt’s painting materials and techniques began with preparations for a workshop presented at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and a lecture at the Chicago Art Institute in connection with the exhibition “Rembrandt’s Journey” in 2004.
Though Rembrandt never went to Italy unlike many of his artist colleagues in Holland, he studied with Pieter Lastman who had spent five years in Italy and who was profoundly influenced by Caravaggio. Recent and ongoing studies have provided us with an abundance of information about Rembrandt’s working methods and materials. Among the primary sources in the 17th century literature is an invaluable manuscript written by the Court Physician to Charles I, Theodore Turquet de May erne, whose curiosity about painter’s working methods led him to look over the shoulders of such artists as Rubens, van Dyck and Orazio Gentileschi. Rembrandt’s work has been changed, usually dramatically, with the removal of discolored varnish layers, the most famous instance being Rembrandt’s Night Watch that was transformed into a daytime scene when the old varnish was removed. Unlike Caravaggio, Rembrandt was a prolific draftsman (Fig.3) producing drawings in silver point, red and black chalk (Figs. There is general agreement among scientific studies on Rembrandt’s pigments, a simple palette consisting of lead white, vermilion (cinnabar), red and yellow lake pigments, lead-tin yellow, a range of earth pigments—ochers, siennas, and umbers—Cassel earth, smalt, azurite, malachite, bone black and charcoal black, with chalk used as a bulking agent and a means of producing glazes.
Rembrandt used typically a plain weave, fairly rough canvas mounted, as was typical for the period, on to a strainer or fixed wooden support using strings, a technique apparently unique to Holland and akin to the method of attaching sails on a ship. Fig.10 Aert de Gelder, The Artist as Zeuxis Painting an Old Woman, Frankfurt, Stadelsches Kunstinstitut.
A layer of rabbit skin glue size was then applied to the stretched linen, either by brush if warm or with a palette knife if in the gelled state.
Rembrandt then began painting by making a rough monochromatic sketch with a brush on the gray ground using a mixture of Cassel earth and umber. The making and use of this highly pastose paint has been a subject of intense curiosity by those observing his paintings, notably by artists such as van Gogh whose rough brush strokes were influenced directly by Rembrandt.
Sarah Belchetz-Swenson, who, as both painter and print maker, was familiar with “boiled plate oil” used by print-makers in making ink, proposed that Rembrandt would certainly have had burnt plate oil conveniently nearby as he had both his print making studio and his painting studio in his house. Since we found that there was some disagreement between the British research results and the results of the scientific studies in Holland we decided to try to reconstruct Rembrandt’s paint by making our own burnt plate oil. Through reconstruction work on Rembrandt’s medium, the authors were able to lend support to technical findings that Rembrandt used simple mixtures in his paint simply applied. Lala Ragimovs site is a nice place to start if you want to learn how to copy old masters drawings. This page provide a document of the painting process of a Vermeer-like composition painted by Jonathan Janson. The technique known as glazing was extensively exploited by artists since the invention of oil painting. Since glazing has fallen out of use, most modern painters fail to comprehend the theory and correct practice behind this technique. Every accomplished painter knows that a few perfectly placed touches may have an enormous impact on days, weeks or even months of hard work. Although glazes are by definition transparent layers of paint, it is generally believed that at least a touch of white should be added to the most transparent pigments to ever-so-slightly reduce their transparency to avoid a glassy, “candy-apple” effect.
This kind of light ultramarine blue glaze over a pastel-colored light blue was used by Vermeer in the blue turban of the Girl with a Pearl Earring. The badger brush must be use only for specific tasks, abusing it will draw all the life out of a work. With a fine, pointed brush, a deep blue glaze of ultramarine blues is slowly applied to the decorative elements of the carpet, beginning on the left-hand side. The shadow becomes much more suggestive and airy even though the tone is not lowered dramatically. Furthermore, this product features a dangle & drop shape, pearl stone and a design that renders it with the versatility to be worn as a festive occasion wear. The notion of Technical Art History is proving to be an invaluable undertaking towards providing the valuable stimulus of linking making and seeing, theory and practice, fact and value, science and art. 1) (1573-1610) have once again produced a group of his works for re-evaluation and study, many recently cleaned and newly documented.
The latter exhibition was put together by RAI the Italian radio and television network, while problematic, nevertheless provides opportunities to study and to see these paintings in reproduction in ways that they can not be seen normally.
Radiographs were made of the Contarelli Chapel paintings at the Istituto Centrale del Restauro in Rome with the startling discovery of at least two previous compositions beneath the Martyrdom of St.
Coming down from the northern province of Lombardy, and having trained with Lombard artists, one of whom, Peterzano, had studied with the great Venetian artist, Titian, Caravaggio’s technique and materials reflected his northern background. Keith Christiansen’s contributions to the use of technical studies in Caravaggio connoisseurship in the exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum in New York focused on Caravaggio’s two Lute Players in 1990 demonstrated Caravaggio’s working method in producing a second version of a painting with adaptations to suit the patron. Wood panels of cypress were supplied to both Annibale Carracci and to Caravaggio for their paintings in the Cerasi Chapel, however after painting and abandoning his first version of the Conversion of St Paul painted on panel, Caravaggio changed to canvas for both of his paintings in the chapel. Caravaggio’s contemporary, Giovan Pietro Bellori, observed that Caravaggio “left the ground visible in the half-tones” (…lascid in mezze tinte l’imprimatura della tela). We have no drawings by Caravaggio unlike the prolific work of his contemporary Annibale Carracci. For highlights on the skin tones he apparently used a mixture of oil and egg tempera, identified in the Detroit Magdalen and the London Boy Bitten. Most painters had assistants or apprentices employed for this work, but had put in their time preparing paint as apprentices themselves. The sound craftsmanship and materials used have produced paintings of exceptional durability. Each of the pigments has a unique origin whether from the ground in the form of minerals such as malachite, cinnabar and azurite or manufactured, in the case of lead white and lead-tin yellow, or from roots in the case of madder lake, insects in the case of cochineal or kermes, plants such as indigo or weld, and earth pigments, the umbers and ochers. Luigi dei Francesi a Roma”, Bollettino dell’Istituto Centrale del Restauro, Rome, 1966, pp. The authors, a conservator (Weil) and a painter (Belchetz- Swenson) explored the technical and art historical literature and did reconstructions.
Rembrandt’s admiration for the Dutch “Caravaggisti” is evident as he absorbed much of their example into formulating his own style. The Rembrandt Research Project, an ongoing effort to thoroughly document Rembrandt’s oeuvre and to distinguish works by the master’s hand from that of students, copyists and fakes, has resulted in the publication of three volumes (1982, 1986 and 1989) with others still in progress. We have very little from the master himself, though two of his students, Samuel van Hoogstraten and Gerard de Lairesse, wrote treatises that provide some insights into Rembrandt’s working methods.
Among the more unusual scientific studies of Rembrandt’s work was the use of neutron activation autoradiography undertaken in the late 1970s enabling us to obtain in some cases a picture of the artist’s underpainting sketch done in Cassel earth and umber, not normally detectable by any other means. 4-5), and ink drawings done with quill, reed and brush using primarily iron gall ink commonly used throughout Europe since the late Middle Ages.
7) shows the artist standing in front of a large easel with a wood panel prepared for painting.

9 Jan Brueghel II, Lady Pictura Painting Flowers, detail, table with painter’s equipment, c. The size layer served to separate the paint layers from the linen fabric and thereby prevent the oil from oxidizing and rotting the canvas. He then proceeded to lay in the underpainting or “dead coloring” followed by the top layers, typically working from background to foreground and in discreet areas. It would then have been highly likely and that Rembrandt would have used the plate oil mixed with the addition of chalk to get a thick, buttery paint.
The research group at the National Gallery had concluded on the basis of their studies that Rembrandt used a simple mixture of linseed oil, sometimes walnut oil, sometimes heat-bodied and a significant addition of chalk to produce pastose paint. 15 Reconstruction of Rembrandt’s paint by adding burnt plate oil and chalk to pigments ground in linseed oil. 16 Rembrandt, detail of Self-portrait in the National Gallery, Washington, DC, showing Rembrandt’s unique use of pastose paint and use of the gray ground in the half tones (to the right of the eye).
Other demonstrations, such as the fabrication of iron gall ink clearly show that drawings now appearing as (and often mis-described as) brown ink were originally a cool blue black. A general Rembrandt bibliography with special reference to technical matters can also be found on the website. The text below explains both the origin of the composition used for this demonstration as well as the techniques and materials employed in the simplest manner possible without resorting to any undue sophistication.
Unfortunately, there exist no written historic source which describes in any degree of detail either the materials or basic procedures of glazing used by early painters.
Final touches not only serve to define more precisely form, texture and enhance the sensation of light, but bring into focus or register more correctly the original image of the artist’s mind. This third phase is followed by a refining of modeling and adjusting of tonal values which are not all clearly perceptible in these digital images.
After the blue wrap has been modeled in tints white and ultramarine and is thoroughly dried, it is glazed with a small quantity of pure ultramarine blue beginning with the lowest area near the foreground chair and afterwards proceeding upwards gradually lightening the glaze as the light-fall of light intensifies. The purpose of this light glaze is to deepen the blue wrap and give it more substance and chromatic vibrancy. The lighter areas of the drapery near the still life are retouched with a bit of white to increase the illusion of light. The carpet must now be glazed to alter the local colors and create a sense of depth in the shadows and ulterior brilliance in the lights. This detail of the carpet shows that the local color of the shadows have been applied sparingly and that the tooth of the canvas can be made out here and there. With the blue wrap firmly in place, the last important glazes are reserved for the oriental carpet.
The purpose of such a thick paint is that it can be evened out with a badger brush but the borders of the glazed areas will remain almost unaltered, imperceptibly blurred lending a natural softness to the design of carpet. From the right-hand side to the left, a thick glaze of alizarin red plus a touch of black is laid on with the utmost care over the shadowed red areas of the carpet previously painted with light cadmium red.
The EndHEADLINES FROM THE YEAR: 2059 Ozone created by electric cars now killing millions in the seventh largest country in the world, Mexifornia, (formerly California)White minorities still trying to have English recognized as Mexifornia's third language. Caravaggio’s training in Rome was assisting in the studio of Giuseppe Cesare, the Cavaliere d’Arpino, where he seems to have specialized in the painting of fruit and flowers and assisting in fresco projects. Caravaggio did not paint in fresco in a time when large major commissions were available to decorate the walls of churches and palaces and though he worked as an assistant to the Cavaliere d’Arpino in his fresco commissions. This particular feature of Caravaggio’s technique, something of a short cut, can be observed particularly in most of his mature and late works, and has been discussed by Larry Keith in regard to the Boy Bitten by the Lizard in the National Gallery, London(18) (Fig.4). Caravaggio insisted on painting directly from life and utilized an approach of rapid but careful sketching his composition in brush and dark paint, establishing the principal highlights with dashes of white lead, and incising the principal outlines of his composition into the still wet ground before applying the colors. His pigments were relatively few, in comparison with the great range found in Venetian paintings. An understanding of the materials and experience in their handling and application can contribute exceptionally to appreciation of his work. Caravaggio’s use of dramatic lighting effects, his ability to communicate profound emotion and moving human drama, as well as his technical inventiveness and use of a palette primarily of earth tones were all deeply influential on Rembrandt’s formation as an artist.
When fresh, iron gall ink is a dark blue- black that would have been the original appearance of Rembrandt’s drawings. 10), one of Rembrandt’s pupils, and a painting of an artist at work by Gerard Dou (Fig 11) demonstrate this method of mounting a canvas that allows the canvas to be tightened by simply pulling on the strings. 9) shows ground pigments in mussel shells in a bowl of water under the table next to a curious monkey. The first ground, typically a dark red mixture of red ocher, yellow ocher, umber, lead white, and chalk ground in linseed oil was then applied using a grounding knife. Final touches consisted of scratched-in highlights (Fig.2) and impasto highlights in lead-tin yellow or lead white done in stiff paint that stood out from the surface of the painting and caught the light producing a sparkle and liveliness to the surfaces. The research in Holland concluded that Rembrandt produced an emulsion with linseed oil, glue and egg yolk to achieve the same effect. Demonstrations of original techniques, materials and reconstruction are an exceptionally useful teaching tool for all ages. In the simplest terms, glazing consists in brushing a transparent layer of paint over another thoroughly dried layer of opaque paint. The difficulty of grasping the rationale behind glazing has been compounded by a misunderstanding that was diffused in the first half of the twentieth century by Max Doerner and has resisted until today.
Final touches may range from a slight glaze to tone down a color or a dash of impasto white to indicate a highlight on the edge of a ceramic bowl to render its glass-like surface.
Some areas which have been painted with much raw umber (the legs of the foreground chair) have “sunken in.” They seem lighter in tone and create a fastidious chalky finish that, however, will be restored to its original depth and color with a light passage of retouch varnish once the whole surface of the painting has been brought to the very final stages of the working process. Impasto retouching can be seen on the bright side of the ceramic vase, the details of the carpet and the illuminated parts of the models white sleeve. There are essentially two glazes in this passage, one for the red part of the carpet and one for the blue. Mixed with the ultramarine blue, this paint becomes very thick, almost tacky, inhibiting the easy flow of oil paint. This ultramarine glazes deepens the underlying blue giving it a jewel-like quality that cannot be obtain with admixtures of opaque paints. Recent thorough and interesting technical studies have been published on specific paintings, such as the Madonna de’Palafrenieri (2), the Madonna di Loreto (3), the Martyrdom of St. This ground characterized by Keith as “naturally translucent as well as dark in color”, is composed of chalk (calcite), earth pigments and a little lead white, and is visible in the shadows on the upper body beneath the head, and in the drapery to the right of the head. His basic palette included lead white, red and yellow ocher, lead-tin yellow, vermilion (cinnbar), malachite, carbon black and earth colors, plus madder lake and copper resinate glazes. The painter can also paint cleanly out to the edge of the canvas without the interference of the stretcher behind.
Most ground pigments could be kept for several days if submerged in water to exclude oxygen.
Whereas Caravaggio’s scratching into the paint was done at an early stage of the painting to establish the composition and position of models, Rembrandt’s scratching was done at the end to pick out highlights and specific details such as hairs. The effect is analogous to placing a sheet of brightly colored acetate over a monochrome photograph. Doerner’s “glazing myth,” as it is now referred to, asserted that Rembrandt constructed his images in two stages.
Of all the facets of painting, perhaps the final touching stage is the most difficult reduce to methodical procedure. Glazes too are generally executed in the later stages of the work since they are very hard to calibrate and must take into account the overall equilibrium of the composition as well as the reigning color harmony. It is used dry to remove brush marks, even out a layer of paint and blend adjacent colors imperceptibly. 2, 3) Caravaggio’s willingness to completely rework on top of previously established compositions is a characteristic that occurs here notably in Caravaggio’s working process.
His one other painting on panel, the David and Goliath in Vienna, was painted on top of a painting by a different artist. Its translucency is apparently imparted by the considerable quantity of chalk in the mixture.
In the background are a worktable, jars perhaps holding linseed oil, and a boat-shaped grinding stone for preparing paint.
De Gelder shows himself holding palette, mahlstick and brushes in his left hand while he scrapes his palette knife on a klad pot or holder of waste paint. The pastose paint used for highlights became more and more of a fascination for Rembrandt as his technique evolved, and where his contemporaries were more and more inclined towards eliminating all visible brush strokes, Rembrandt used heavy brush strokes increasingly in order to present a more lively and life-like illusion. We made our own burnt plate oil according to a recipe found in Abraham Bosse’s print making treatise of 1645, Traicte des Manieres de Graver…, and comparable more recent recipes that were in general agreement. Glazing creates a unique “shine through” stained glass effect that is not obtainable by direct application of opaque paints no matter how brilliant they might be. According to Doerner, Rembrandt painted a monochrome underpainting which was intended to establish the fundamental form and lighting scheme of his image.
Some final touches are programmed but a great many are required to compensate for the effects that the painter had not been able to achieve in the working-up phase. Maria del Popolo (5), and the Medusa, a painted shield in the Uffizi (6) all of which have shed new light on the considerable literature previously published. Among peculiarities noted in his painting technique is the fact that Caravaggio apparently did not make careful preliminary drawings before painting nor did he devote himself to drawing after ancient sculpture as did most of his contemporaries. Caravaggio’s canvases were typically a medium, simple weave, 7 x 7 cm sq., but on occasion he used a twill weave canvas called “tela Olona”, typical for the Veneto, for example in the Madonna dei Palafrenieri, and a linen with interwoven lozenge pattern called “tela di Fiandra” normally used for table cloths, as in the Cleveland Saint Andrew.

Flesh tones and highlights— Reconstruction by Sarah Belchetz-Swenson after the Madonna di Loreto.
An observer of the young Rembrandt and his studio companion, Jan Lievens, remarked on the special interest the young artists took in experimenting with their paints in order to achieve the textural effects that baffled their contemporaries who scorned their use of texture as a “rough manner”. This latter studio utensil served as a means of collecting excess paint that was often reused as ground or priming.
We heated linseed oil until it reached the stage of spontaneous combustion (about 400°C.) whereupon the mixture became thick and viscous and could be pulled out in strings of twelve inches or more.
The underpainting, on which the glaze is applied, is normally monochromatic but it may also contain some color. In order to give full color, he then applied a series of transparent colored glazes upon this pictorial skeleton using a highly transparent resinous medium.
Some painters barely put more than a few highlights after the working-up stage while other painters, who have a more perfectionist approach, spend days on end making minor alterations that even the most distinguished connoisseurs of the time would have failed to recognize. Most painters began by making sketches that they then worked up into a final, carefully detailed drawing. A number of Caravaggio’s paintings are on top of previous paintings, such as in the Still Life in the Ambrosiana, the Fortune Teller in the Capitoline Museum, and the Lute Player in the Metropolitan Museum, New York.
Where Caravaggio used a rough twill weave canvas, such as in the Madonna dei Palafrenieri, he first applied a layer of gesso composed of chalk and glue to minimize the canvas texture before applying the dark red-brown oil ground. A klad pot can be found in a detail of a painter’s table on the far right in a painting by Jan Brueghel II. We were able to reproduce all of the various dots, loops and swirls as well as the thick, buttery brush strokes of impasto that are the signature of Rembrandt’s mature work by varying the amount of plate oil and chalk added to the pigments during grinding.
The drawing was then transferred to the prepared canvas by one of several techniques including “pouncing” the pricked lines with charcoal dust, incising the lines into the wet ground using a stylus or other means. While it is true that Rembrandt, like the great part of his contemporaries, worked up his painting over a monochrome underpainting, the great part of the colored areas were painted in a straightforward conventional manner using mixtures of opaque or semi-opaque paint to approximate the final color. The canvas would have been typically linen attached by tacks to a wood strainer and prepared with animal glue priming followed by a ground or preliminary layer consisting of pigment ground in oil that served to fill in the rough texture of the canvas.
12-15) In the late paintings Rembrandt’s mastery of the use of pastose paint can be seen in the exceptional example of the detail in Fig. By Caravaggio’s time it would have been possible to purchase a canvas to which a ground had previously been applied. Postal Service raises price of first class stamp to $17.89 and reduces mail delivery to Wednesday only. Typically by the late 1500’s the ground would have been composed primarily of inexpensive pigments— red earth, yellow ocher, umber and a small amount of lead white to assist in drying, plus a fair amount of chalk. Perhaps Doerner’s “glazing myth” has influenced more than one Vermeer expert and not a few modern painters who earnestly wish to emulate Vermeer’s or the Great Masters’ technique.
The artist would then normally add a light gray or tan second ground on to which he would transfer his drawing and begin to paint. Glazing must be used sparingly and for specific passages, it is not a painting method in itself. While Caravaggio used a light gray ground in some of his earlier works, by the time of the Contarelli Chapel paintings, his first major commission, he had begun to paint directly on to the dark, earth toned red-brown, or dark brown single ground which he used to enormous dramatic effect with brilliant single source light. The best works of the Dutch masters, including Vermeer, worked up their compositions with opaque and semi-opaque paint and inserted glazes were they were needed.
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Caravaggio was known not to have used a thoroughly worked out drawing which he then transferred to the canvas, but rather began drawing directly on the canvas and, another anomaly, worked typically directly from live posed models. WITNESS: Getting laid ____________________________________________ ATTORNEY: She had three children, right? Important Women's Health Issue:* Do you have feelings of inadequacy?* Do you suffer from shyness?* Do you sometimes wish you were more assertive?* Do you suffer exhaustion from the day to day grind? If you answered yes to any of these questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist about Margaritas. Margaritas are the safe, natural way to feel better and more confident about yourself and your actions. Margaritas can help ease you out of your shyness and let you tell the world that you're ready and willing to do just about anything. You will notice the benefits of Margaritas almost immediately and with a regimen of regular doses you can overcome any obstacles that prevent you from living the life you want to live.
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The next time you are washing your hands and complain because the water temperature isn't just how you like it, think about how things used to be. Here are some facts about the 1500s: Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May, and they still smelled pretty good by June.
The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Hence the saying, "Don't throw the baby out with the Bath water!" Houses had thatched roofs-thick straw-piled high with no wood underneath .
It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the cats and other small animals (mice, bugs) lived in the roof.
Hence the saying "It's raining cats and dogs." There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house.
This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could mess up your nice clean bed. Hence the saying, "Dirt poor." The wealthy had slate floors that would get slippery in the winter when wet, so they spread thresh (straw) on floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on, they added more thresh until, when you opened the door, it would all start slipping outside.
They would eat the stew for dinner, leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Hence the rhyme: Peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old. It was a sign of wealth that a man could, "bring home the bacon." They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and chew the fat.
Food with high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food, causing lead poisoning death. This happened most often with tomatoes, so for the next 400 years or so, tomatoes were considered poisonous. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or the upper crust. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. So they would dig up coffins and would take the bones to a bone-house, and reuse the grave.
When reopening these coffins, 1 out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive. So they would tie a string on the wrist of the corpse, lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell.
I thought I saw an eye doctor on an Alaskan island, but it turned outto be an optical Aleutian .3. A rubber band pistol was confiscated from algebra class, because itwas a weapon of math disruption.5. It's important to have a woman, who helps at home, who cooks from time to time, cleans up and has a job. It's very, very important that these four women do not know each otherNew Tests For Long Term Care During a visit to my doctor, I asked him, "How do you determine whetheror not an older person should be put in an old age home?" Well," he said, "We fill up a bathtub, then we offer a teaspoon, a teacup and a bucket to the person to empty the bathtub." Oh, I understand," I said.
Bartenders Ever since I was a child I've always had a fear of someone under my bed at night. I was so happy to have saved all that money that I went and bought me a new pickup!' 'Is that so!' With a bit of an attitude he said, 'and how, may I ask, did a bartender cure you?' 'He told me to cut the legs off the bed! Here's how the scam works: Two seriously good-looking 20-21 year-old girls come over to your car as you are packing your shopping into the trunk. They both start wiping your windshield with a rag and Windex, with their breasts almost falling out of their skimpy T-shirts.
When you thank them and offer them a tip, they say 'No' and instead ask you for a ride to McDonald's. Then one of them climbs over into the front seat and starts crawling all over you, while the other one steals your wallet. I had my wallet stolen March 4th, 9th, 10th, twice on the 15th, 17th, 20th,24th & 29th.
Writer Samuel Clemens took the term for his pen name after a stint as an apprentice river pilot.

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