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This study examined the effectiveness of cautioning and education on simulating a mild traumatic brain injury on several neuropsychological measures. We appologize if elements on this site render slowly or you occasionally run into problems with the display of pages.
If possible, consider upgrading to a newer, more secure version of IE or a different browser such as Firefox, Google Chrome, or Opera. The UNT Digital Library operated by the UNT Libraries provides resources to the UNT Community and users around the world. A concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head that can change the way your brain normally works. In rare cases, a dangerous blood clot may form on the brain in a person with a concussion and crowd the brain against the skull. Lose consciousness (a brief loss of consciousness should be taken seriously and the person should be carefully monitored). Some of these symptoms may appear right away, while others may not be noticed for days or months after the injury, or until the person starts resuming their everyday life and more demands are placed upon them. In addition to seeking medical attention, the Brain Health Education and Research Institute recommends adding the Dr. Ensure that the athlete is evaluated by a health care professional experienced in evaluating for concussion.
Inform the athlete’s parents or guardians about the possible concussion and give them the CDC’s fact sheet on concussion. Keep the athlete out of play the day of the injury and until a health care professional, experienced in evaluating for concussion, says they are symptom-free and it’s OK to return to play. Avoid doing anything that could cause another blow or jolt to the head, especially contact or recreational sports that could lead to another concussion. Ask your health care professional when it’s safe to drive a car, ride a bike, or use heavy equipment, because your ability to react may be slower after a brain injury. Write things down if you have a hard time remembering and consult with family members or close friends when making important decisions. Some people report that flying in airplanes makes their symptoms worse shortly after a concussion.
When your health care professional says you are well enough, return to your normal activities gradually, not all at once. It is important to monitor symptoms and cognitive function carefully during each increase of exertion. Remember, while most people will recover quickly and fully following a concussion, some will have symptoms for weeks or longer. On rare occasions, receiving another concussion before the brain has healed can result in brain swelling, permanent brain damage, and even death, particularly among children and teens.  If you already had a medical condition at the time of your concussion (such as chronic headaches), it may take longer for you to recover from the concussion. After you have recovered from your concussion, you should protect yourself from having another one. The severity of a TBI may range from mild (a brief change in mental status or consciousness) to severe (an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Buckling your child in the car using a child safety seat, booster seat, or seat belt (according to the child’s height, weight, and age). Children should start using a booster seat when they outgrow their child safety seats (usually when they weigh about 40 pounds). Each year, TBIs contribute to a substantial number of deaths and cases of permanent disability. Falls are the leading cause of TBI and recent data shows that the number of fall-related TBIs among children aged 0-4 years and in older adults aged 75 years or older is increasing.
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS), a form of abusive head trauma (AHT) and inflicted TBI, is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States.
Levin, HS, Gary, HE, Eisenberg, HM, et al.  Neurobehavioral outcome 1 year after severe head injury.
The study “the effect of holding time on the hardness of mild steel case hardened with carburizing material energized by cow-bone” has been x-rayed. In our highly competitive world of today where a heat treatment shop’s inability to provide quality service is an advantage to another shop, care must be taken to remain competitive in the business. In a work carried out by Aramide, et al [3], the authors investigated the mechanical properties of mild steel subjected to pack carburization treatment using pulverized bone as the carburizer.
The objective of this work is to clearly establish the effect of holding time on the hardness of mild steel case hardened with carburizing material energized by cow-bone.
To make a pack for carburization, a 20 mm thick layer of the compound was first poured into the box, and the steel specimens were placed in position inside the box and the box filled up with the compound.
Figure 3- Figure 5 all have the same shape of hardness profile just as Figure 2, rising from the left and descending towards the right as the hardness measurement is taken towards the core of the steel specimen.
Nicotine is present in Black and Mild cigars, and this addictive chemical narrows blood vessels, causing your heart to work harder. If you smoke cigars you may develop emphysema, which causes your lungs' air sacs to enlarge and burst.


A lung cancer diagnosis means that you have cancerous cells, lumps, tumors or masses in your lungs or respiratory system. Black & Milds are long, thin cigars that more closely resemble cigarettes than traditional cigars.
Many people do not know that black and mild cigars provide the same health risk as cigarettes. Concussions can also occur from a fall or a blow to the body that causes the head and brain to move quickly back and forth. Look for signs and symptoms of a concussion if the athlete has experienced a bump or blow to the head or body. Make sure they know that the athlete should be seen by a health care professional experienced in evaluating for concussion.
A repeat concussion that occurs before the brain recovers from the first—usually within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks)—can slow recovery or increase the likelihood of having long-term problems. Athletes and students should only progress to the next level if they are not experiencing symptoms at the current level. This may include a history of migranes, depression, mood disorders, or anxiety, as well as developmental disorders such as learning disabilities and ADHD.
People who have had repeated concussions may have serious long-term problems, including chronic difficulty with concentration, memory, headache, and occasionally, physical skills, such as keeping one’s balance.
Report to Congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem.
A severe TBI not only impacts the life of an individual and their family, but it also has a large societal and economic toll. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. IntroductionThe need to establish control parameters in the shop floor for effective case hardening of mild steel cannot be overemphasized. A heat treatment shop that satisfies the customers will be the one that will be patronized.
EquipmentThe equipment used were, heat resisting steel pack carburization boxes, a large muffle electric furnace with a temperature sensitivity of ± 5C, lathe machine, hack saw, grinders and polishing disc, and Vickers Micro-hardness testing Machine model MHT-1 No: 8331 made by Matsuzawa Seiki Co.
The lid was then sealed with clay in order to make the box air tight and eliminate possibility of air ingress during pack carburization process. Pack Carburization ProcessA large muffle electric furnace with a temperature sensitivity of ± 5C was used. Hardness Testing and Effective Case Depth DeterminationSteel discs of 10 mm thick were cut from the central region of each of the carburized rod specimens and labeled. The profile is horizontally straight except for a simple deviation from the consistent values of hardness.
The hardness profile decreases towards the core of the steel specimen and is indicated by the descending graph. The hardness profile at 4 hrs is higher than that at 2 hrs, and the hardness profile at 6 hrs is higher than that at 4 hrs and so is the hardness profile at 8 hrs higher than the hardness profile at 6 hrs. ConclusionThe study has shown that holding time has effect on the hardness of carburized mild steel. Whether you inhale the smoke of a Black and Mild not, you are taking thousands of poisonous chemicals into your body. Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing are all symptoms of this disease. Even if you do not inhale the smoke of a Black and Mild cigar, nicotine will be absorbed into your body through the lining of your mouth. These cells grow at a rapid pace and cause chest pains, recurring lung infections, shortness of breath, extreme wheezing and body swelling. Black & Mild cigars are rolled with pipe tobacco and are available in a number of variations. Concussions may be described as a “mild” brain injury because they are usually not life-threatening. Still, others may not understand why they are having problems and what their problems really are, which can make them nervous and upset. Health care professionals have a number of methods that they can use to assess the severity of concussions. In rare cases, repeat concussions can result in edema (brain swelling), permanent brain damage, and even death. If symptoms return at any step, they should stop these activities as this may be a sign they are pushing too hard. The estimated economic cost of TBI in 2010, including direct and indirect medical costs, is estimated to be approximately $76.5 billion. Hardness values were obtained using Vickers Micro-hardness Tester Machine, from the hardness values, hardness profiles were plotted. From the author’s experience at the National Metallurgical Development Centre, Jos, heat treatment shop, a customer who is not satisfied with the heat treatment services rendered on his component hardly comes back again.
The authors observed that the mechanical properties of the mild steel were found to be strongly influenced by the process of carburization, carburizing temperature, and soaking time at the carburization temperature.


MaterialsThe materials used for the work included, RST 37 grade steel rods of 16 mm diameter obtained from Delta Steel Company, Aladja, acetone, water, clay, and carburizing compound. Material PreparationThe steel samples for carburization were cut from RST 37 grade steel rods of 16 mm diameter.
The temperature distribution in the furnace over the 800C – 1000C range was first established and it showed the existence of a uniform temperature within the central region of the furnace extending over an area of 320 x 320 mm and up to 150 mm high from the furnace floor. They were then prepared and polished for hardness measurement on a micro-hardness indenter.
The composition clearly indicates that the steel is mild steel with carbon content of 0.13% carbon [5]. This is normal because of the presence of impurities which may occur in the steel in the form of inclusions (oxide inclusions) this tend to lower the hardness of the steel at that point [1, 7].
The highest value of 830 Hv occurred at 0.2 mm and the lowest value of 228 Hv occurred at 4 mm towards the core. The hardness profiles have clearly demonstrated that as the holding time is increasing so also is the hardness of the carburized steel increasing. It has clearly proven that as the holding time increases the hardness of the carburized steel also increases.
According to the SmokeFree website, these small cigars are just as addictive as cigarettes. Just as with cigarettes, you can become a nicotine addict by smoking Black and Mild cigars, and those who quit will experience nicotine withdrawal. Those who have had a TBI in the past are also at risk of having another one and may find that it takes longer to recover if they have another TBI.
Only after additional rest, when the person is once again not experiencing symptoms for a minimum of 24 hours, should he or she start again at the previous step during which symptoms were experienced. Additionally, the cost of fatal TBIs and TBIs requiring hospitalization, many of which are severe, account for approximately 90% of the total TBI medical costs. The result of the study clearly showed that the hardness of the carburized steel increased with increase in holding time. The appropriate use of the control parameters in case hardening saves energy, time, and material. A gear component was brought to the shop for case hardening, unfortunately such parameters as composition of the gear, heating temperature, holding time, efficacy of the carburizing material used and the quenching and post-quenching treatment were not adequately considered; at the end of the case hardening the gear component did not meet the specified hardness value given by the customer.
In another work carried out by the author he observed that carbon potential is very important in attaining high hardness value, however, carbon potential depend on the nature of the carburizing material used, the carburizing temperature, and holding time just like the diffusion of the carbon into the surface of the mild steel [4]. The composition of the steel used is shown in Table 1 and the composition of the carburizing compound used was 65% charcoal and 35% cow-bone. The pack boxes were introduced into the muffle furnace within the uniform temperature zone which had already attained the carburizing temperature. It can also be seen from the hardness profiles (Figure 2- Figure 5) that at 0.2 mm the hardness value is 830 Hv at 2 hrs, 850 Hv at 4 hrs, 900 Hv at 6 hrs and 1000 Hv at 8 hrs.
The hardness profile results were higher for higher holding time (surface hardness: 830 Hv for 2 hrs, 850 Hv for 4 hrs, 900 Hv for 6 hrs and 1000 Hv for 8 hrs) and also the plot of the profile for 8 hrs holding time was higher than that of 6 hrs, and that of 6 hrs was higher than that of 4 hrs, and in that order.
These 30 mm long rods were thoroughly washed in acetone and dried and their faces (ends) coated with ceramic clay. The heating-up time needed to make up for the sudden temperature drop which followed the introduction of the packs into the furnace was less than 10 minutes and was therefore negligible compared to the carburizing time. A temperature fluctuation or reading error may be responsible, since the carburizing material was the same in all the carburizing boxes.
This is a proof that as the holding time increases so also the hardness of the carburized steel increases. The study pointed out that as the holding time is increased the effective case depth also is increased.
Chronic bronchitis sufferers cough up mucus frequently and are at risk of developing pneumonia. Your lungs will work hard continuously to combat this illness, so the symptoms are present when you are awake and while you are resting. The above experience stresses the importance of control parameters in case hardening operation. This was done to remove foreign material from the samples to avoid the occurrence of soft spots and to prevent carburization from occurring at the ends.
Pack carburization runs with the carburizing compound was carried out at 900C for 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 8 hours.
From the hardness values obtained for each specimen, hardness profiles were plotted and effective case depths at various times were extracted.




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