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In the Balkhi-Istakhri-Ibn Hawqal set of writings, there are four distinct recessions of what is basically one set of maps. The main difference between the work of Ibn Hawqal (#213) and that of al- Istakhri is in the formera€™s discussion of the western (formerly Byzantine) part of Islam. The maps accompanying the geographical texts from what is termed the a€?Balkhi Schoola€? of geography seem at first sight to be an unnecessary supplement to the texts, the text being so complete in itself. The thirteen maps that represent the Persian-speaking provinces of the Islamic empire are fairly consistent in form throughout all the manuscripts.
The maps of each of these regions consist of an area that is roughly rectangular and usually, although not always, surrounded by a line representing its boundary with the surrounding areas.
This set of maps also does not cover the whole world as do the sectional maps of al-Idrisi that follow in the 12th century and the texts of the earlier geographers like Ibn al-Faqih or Ibn Khurradadhbih.
Besides this policy of portraying only the areas of the Abbasid caliphate at its greatest extent, it is further obvious that there is a bias toward things Iranian: so much so that Kramers has suggested there may have been old Iranian maps that are the basis of these Balkhi maps.
The second recession (Istakhri II) is not so symmetrical, and the mountain and three islands become much smaller (as they also do in the Mediterranean). The basic purpose of the maps (especially those of the Persian-speaking areas) seems to be to incorporate the caravan routes across the province, with all the stages marked. All the manuscripts in what is called the Ottoman Cluster [al-Istakhria€™s Kitab al-Masalik wa-al-Mamalik - Book of Roads and Kingdoms, henceforth KMMS] are written on thin, highly polished paper in tight, late, naskhi script with few diacritical marks. As Karen Pinto points out it is through the distinctive delineations in the maps that one can most easily identify the KMMS Ottoman Cluster as part of a single group. As on world maps in other KMMS manuscripts, the interior of the three continents on the Ottoman Cluster world map, which are always outlined in red ink, are left uncolored. A final but crucial aspect identified by Karen Pinto that individualizes all the maps in the Ottoman Cluster manuscripts is their unsophisticated execution and lackluster painting technique. Part of the cause of this ballooning is to be found in the simple fact that the maps of the Ottoman Cluster are on a larger size of paper, 19 cm compared with 13.2 cm in TSMK A.
The Slavic tribal belt on the western flank of the Black Sea, composed of (in order of occurrence) Sarir, the Khazar, the Burtas and the Rus, has also expanded and now presses into territory assigned to Bilad al-Rum. Of particular interest is the way in which the space accorded to the al-Ard al-Kabira min al-Rum [the Land of Greater Byzantium] on the European flank has grown to take over almost the entire European triangle. Noticeable too are the sizes of the landmasses in the Ottoman Cluster versions of the world map. The world map of the Ottoman Cluster was adroitly re-proportioned to impress upon the viewer the greatness and expanse of the Bilad aI-Rum and al-Ard al-Kabira min al-Rum - and the Ottoman Empire as successor to Byzantium - in comparison with all other territories of the world.
This world map is from al-Istakhria€™s manuscript copy of Kitab al-masalik wa-al-mamalik [Book of Routes and Realms], which is kept in Iran Bastan Museum in Tehran. The name of Armenia should be on the map, since it appears in the text as well as in the regional map entitled Surat Arminiya, Arran va Adharbeijan of the same manuscript. This is a world map drawn in line with the Islamic traditions, taken from al-lstakaria€™s original manuscript entitled Kitab al-masalik wa-al-mamalik [Book of Routes and Realms], a geographical treatise on the whole of the inhabited world. The large sea shown on the left is a combination of the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean shown with four circular islands.
The map shows Arminiya [Armenia] located southwest of the Caspian (or Back Sea), next to Azerbaijan. An Arabic wheel-map, that of Abu Ishaq al-Farisi al-Istakhri and Abu al-Qasim Muhammad idn Hawqal (950-970). A  In the Balkhi-Istakhri-Ibn Hawqal set of writings, there are four distinct recessions of what is basically one set of maps. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].
According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China.
These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also.
From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85). This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography. On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event. This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map. In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc.
This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character. From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries. From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century. A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology. We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan.
Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps. Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater. The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature.
Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century. There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers.
The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it. Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa.
But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?. Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book. This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa].
In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions.
The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period. A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality. We are seeking now those residents in Middle Tennessee, those individuals who have such experience. He does not appear in any of the standard Arab biographies, and all we know about him personally was his meeting with the more renown Ibn Hawqal (#213), which is related in the lattera€™s own book.
Their form was stereotyped by the time of the first al-Istakhri recession, and Ibn Hawqal seems to have found no need to change these maps.
These two maps are built up by what might be called a€?academic conjecturea€?a€”an armchair attempt to see all the provinces set down relative to each other. In the world map, the islands disappear altogether in the second recession but are there, very large, in the first. Neither do they mention longitude and latitude in any form, or any sort of map construction.
This is most noticeable on the map of the Khurasan Desert, where the boundary of the desert is given with the bordering villages and oases marked around it. In the northwestern quadrant (lower right) of each world map, is an elongated, tear-shaped Mediterranean Sea, with two outstretched arms representing the Nile (at right angles to the Mediterranean) and the Bosphorus (at 45 degrees). Consequently it is the blueness of the surrounding water that directs attention to the land, whose stark whiteness on the folios also serves to heighten the visual conflict between the threatening Persian Gulf and the placid Mediterranean. The area accorded to the Bulgars, designated Bulghar al-Dakhil, namely the Inner Bulghar, has been reduced in keeping with the fact that by this point Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II had incorporated most of Bulgaria into the Ottoman Empire. The semi-circular areas assigned to the Ifranja [the Franks] and Andalus [Muslim Spain] has shrunk considerably. The message is reinforced by the space accorded to the lands designated al-Saqaliba and Bulghar al-Dakhil, creating the impression of Ottoman control almost to the territorially voluminous northern steppes (Barari al-Shamal) and the lands of the Turksa€™ eponymous ancestors who, in the 11th and 12th centuries, as we know from the history of Turkic migrations from Inner Asia, made their way westward to Anatolia.
The Nile is the vertical blue strip descending from Habashe to the Mediterranean, where it arrives between Misr and Maghrib. However, part of the map, which should have borne this name, is in the fold of the paper and has been damaged and the writing partially obliterated.
The map has South at the top and as per the Balkhi School of mapmakers, includes the Mediterranean and Indian Seas, with other standard features of the Islamic world maps. The sea on the right is the Mediterranean, with the downward curving Aegean Sea leading to the Black Sea, depicted as the bulge at the end of the curved line (though could conceivably be the Caspian Sea, which is not shown separately). Countries around the Caucasian Mountains are Arminiya, Azerbaijan, Khazar, Vilayet Rum and Saqaliba. Re-oriented with North at the top, it clearly shows the strong tendency to geometrical stylization characteristic of the second period of Arab cartography. The set consists of a world map, maps of the three seas: the Mediterranean, the Persian Sea [Indian Ocean] and the Caspian Sea, and maps of seventeen a€?provincesa€? of the Islamic empire.
The Iranian area is divided systematically into areas for mapping, whereas the areas the Arabs conquered from the Byzantines were treated in a much less systematic way.A  This may, however, reflect the administrative situation in the two empires that preceded the Islamic empire at the time when the Arab conquest took place.
Towns are sometimes squares, circles, or four-pointed stars or, if they are stopping places on a straight route, resemble small tents or perhaps doors to caravansaries.A  Thus much of the drafting is ruled with either a straight or a curved edge. The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji. This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India. Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country. Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective. They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture. Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?. The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992.
Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.
A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent. Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced.
It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty. Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean?
But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty.
When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody. This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.
The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa.
He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea.
Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp.
According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original. Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent. The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective.
Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition.
The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map. This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world.
Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty. In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa. We are seeking not only actors who have done major speaking roles, but also full production crews, from producers, directors, script and screen writers, Dp’s, lighting personnel, electric, set decorators, hair and make-up artist, editors, to those with experience in marketing and distribution.
A But he promised me on his returnA back to the United States I would be the first media personality to interview him in New York City.A  I never will forget how confident he was that he would return victorious. Even his work Kitab al-masalik wa-al-mamalik can be dated only from internal evidence, to the middle of the 10th century A.D.
Kramersa€™ example who refers to the four types as: Istakhri I, Istakhri II, Ibn Hawqal I, and Ibn Hawqal III. Even Azerbaijan and al-Jazirah, of which Ibn Hawqal produced good versions approved by al-Istakhri, do not seem to have changed much through Islamic cartography recessions.
Measurements are attempted; thus the width from the Encircling Ocean in northwestern Africa to the ocean in China was 400 daysa€™ journey. Straight lines then join those places on opposite sides where traffic flows, and the name of the route is written on the line so drawn. The Red Sea on the Persian Gulf maps has a distinctive sharp-toothed shape, while its shape on the Mediterranean maps also stands out for its pronounced oblong appearance. Africa, which always sweeps across the top of KMMS world maps, has a pronounced pointed dagger or crescent-like shape.
The paintwork, too, is patchy and unevenly applied, while the colors tend to be watered-down and pale.
2830, but a free-hand copy, which was subsequently faithfully traced in the other manuscripts of the Ottoman Cluster.
Territorial boundaries on the Cluster maps are marked with the same shapes as those employed by TSMK A. The swathe of land assigned to the Slavs (al-Saqaliba) along the northern end of the Bosphorus crossing over from Asia to Europe has been significantly elongated in A.S.
This change, more than any of the others, bears the mark of Mehmeta€™s territorial ambitions in Europe. What matters, according to the world map of the Ottoman Cluster, is that the Ottoman Empire dominates the image of the world as the new Byzantium with its nominative implication of a neo-Roman Empire. People in these two halves get blacker as you go south and whiter as you go north etc.a€? a€? The main kingdoms are listed together with the kingdoms that adjoin them.
The Black Sea seems to be the waterway connecting the Mediterranean with the surrounding ocean, but the Caspian and the Aral Seas are shown as circular inland lakes, with wide rivers flowing in. In Asia, which occupies the bulk of the map, there are many countries and provinces shown from Sham [Syria] in the west to Chin [China] in the east and Khuzestan in the south, to the land of Gog and Magog in the north.
The Mediterranean is bereft of any islands here, and the blue circle at bottom left is the Aral Sea. This map tends towards the more decorative rather than true representation of Islamic geography, a truer sample of which can be seen in the other illustrations herein.
Maqbul Ahmad has a theory that this Islamicization of the maps and geography was a deliberate policy developing independent of the work of the earlier al-Maa€™mun type of geographer, which, based mainly on Ptolemy, covered the whole of the known world. Al-Balkhi and al-Istakhri were both patronized by the Samanid rulers of Persia, and the emphasis is very much on the Iranian area. It therefore does not seem that the authors envisaged any kind of formal scale at all in constructing these maps. Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha. They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World. The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha). Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map. China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map. Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England). Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H. The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters.
Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period. Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map. But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented. But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them.
Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically. There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common. The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map. But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another.
Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral. Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki.
But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed. Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions.
Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area.


As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners. Yet when I surveyed all that my hands had done and what I had toiled to achieve, everything was meaningless, a chasing after the wind; nothing was gained under the sun. At Maxima Visions Films our real passion is with each and every project and film that we produce, that we do more than return a profit, but to make every film a Rembrandt! We need to put together two complete production crews to enable us to always have at least one film in pre-production, one in production and one in post year round. The manuscripts of Ibn Hawqal III, though all undated, are much later than the other texts, probably from the late 13th or early 14th century A.D.
It is therefore appropriate to describe these maps of the Iranian area and then use them as a standard for the rest of the set. The surprising difference is that the western tip of the Indian Ocean, which represents the Red Sea (Sea of Qulzum), points to the west in the ocean map, but in the world map it turns back on itself to almost touch the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea. At the other, left or eastern, end of the map, the combined Persian Gulf-Indian Ocean sweeps in as if threatening to hook onto the Mediterranean, a distinctive characteristic of this group of maps. The color palate is limited: on the world maps it is restricted to the blue of the sea, the white of the paper, and the red of the outlines and rubrication. For instance, the territory marked Bilad al-Rum [Byzantium] has been allocated disproportionately more space in the world maps of the Ottoman Cluster than it had in the mother map. As a result India, Tibet, China, and especially the northern wastelands, Barari aI-Shaman, have been given more space.
These should have been inscribed in the area between the Caspian, shown as comma-shaped, and the Back sea, which is the slanted blue band connecting the Mediterranean, located below center-right, to the ocean below.
The large lip-like features on top of the map are the Mountains of the Moon, thought as being the source of the Nile, while the five parallel lines are the five sources, thereafter combining to form the Nile, flowing north into the Mediterranean. That Ptolemy represented the inhabitable world as occupying 180 degrees of the earth supported this idea. The map of the Persian Sea is an enlarged version of a portion of the world map, although there are enough differences in the shape of the ocean in the two maps to necessitate some explanation. The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.
During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years. From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim].
Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India. Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways. Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world? The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east. It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch. In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence. In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death.
In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan. In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible. The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time. In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map. The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility.
Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map. Using the power of the medium of film we strive to create a story which will reach deep down inside our viewer and to at least plant a seed to cause this viewer to at least seek a deeper truth and meaning to life no matter how subliminal we may lead them through story, in hopes they will find it, at least eventually through The Word of God and through The Body of Christ. In the lower right corner of the image, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Encircling Ocean, is a triangular European land mass.
On the regional maps the blue and white monotony is broken only by an occasional red-brown mountain or a pale pink or oxidized copper-green desert.
Hence, the distinctive angle of the Mediterranean in the Ottoman Cluster maps as against those of TSMK A.
The space on the Ottoman Cluster world map Maghrib, Egypt and the Saharo-Sahelian sector lying to their south and to the Iranian territories in the east are visibly reduced, whereas the area accorded to Abyssinia has been increased.
Stretching across all of Anatolia and Syria, and incorporating almost the whole of the Levant, it can be read as synonymous with a desire to expand the, of the Ottoman Empire. This too is a telling change, because by 1474 Mehmet had overrun most of the lower Danube region and had designs on all of it, up to and beyond Buda. This is precisely what the boundaries of Rum can be read as representing on the world maps of the Ottoman Cluster. Only the names of Khazar and Adharbeijan, which are above the damaged area (south), are partially legible.
The world map of Ibn Hawqal III, however, is so different from the other world maps that it warrants special consideration.A  Kramers finds that the texts presumed to be by al-Istakhri can be divided into two groups, and he regards one as earlier in origin. Thus al- Istakhri represented the world as a circle surrounded by the Encompassing Sea, with the two main seas reaching in from the east and the west toward the center, where they would join except for a small, narrow land barriera€”the barzakh of the Qura€™an . Three large islands, Kharak, Awal [Bahrain] and Laft [Qishm Island], are set symmetrically in what is the Arabian Sea, with the Tigris to the left and the Indus to the right.
A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?.
Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent. In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa. Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan.
Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.
Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.
Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664). This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map. We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period. At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala. According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials.
But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do.
So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world. The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita. We want to use the powerful medium of film to shape our culture positively as opposed to how the medium has been used to shape our culture negatively over the past several decades.
Randall Maxwell, who brings his 35 years experience in Hollywood and Wilmington NC in the film industry to Nashville to direct this Nashville Operation.
The only exceptions are mountains, which are drawn as a collection of peaks or perhaps piles of rocks, though even here the base, which probably represents the position of the range on the map, is a straight line or a regular curve.
The world maps have a consistent diameter of approximately 19 to 20 cm, while the map of the Persian Gulf is approximately 24 x 17 cm.
The stark, unadorned stylistic simplicity of the maps and the dramatic shapes of the lands and seas are among the most visually striking features of the world maps in this group. The bulbous head of the Arabian peninsula has become smaller, significantly reducing assigned to the Arab tribes as well assigned to Iraq. However, the hint of European contact with the westernmost tip of North Africa present in the TSMK A. Oriented with South at the top, just as in the T-O maps of contemporary Latin Europe, but instead of the Earthly Paradise the Arab scholars knew enough to place in the furthest East both China and Tibet. The Mediterranean is shown with three large islands, westernmost of which is Cyprus, the others being Eqrites [Crete] and Saqalia [Sicily]. In this earlier group (Istakhri I), the maps are more geometric than the later ones (Istakhri II), while the text that goes with the later maps appears more complete and refined. Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected.
The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography.
For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith. This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield. And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world. Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account. The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea. But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated. Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan. Gouache pigments tend to be the same: dull blue washes for the seas, reddish -browns for the mountains, and pale pinks or oxidized copper greens for the deserts, with red ink as the preferred color for the outlines of the land masses and the territorial demarcations. The Indus River (marked Mehran on the world map) is sometimes squiggly as in the mother map - and sometimes straight. There were 210 daysa€™ journey through inhabitable lands, but the extreme north was uninhabited because of intense cold and the extreme south because of intense heat. On the other hand, it is the earlier texts that mention the name al-Istakhri, so that the cartographic historian Konrad Miller attributes the anonymous (Istakhri II) texts to al-Balkhi (#214.2), presuming wrongly that they are earlier than the others.
The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea.
The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map. It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography.
To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew. This can be explained on the basis of later Ottoman KMMS Cluster manuscripts being traced from an earlier exemplar in the cluster rather than directly copied from the mother manuscript; lines and shapes tend to be straightened out or further exaggerated in the process of transmission. Note how the tip of Africa points eastwards, a mistake that the Chinese geographers were the first to correct. The seas were described briefly, and the fact that the Khazar [Caspian] Sea and the Khwarazm [Aral] Sea were landlocked is mentioned, as well as the sea connection between the Encircling Ocean and Istanbula€”that is, the Baltic joins up to the Bosporus.
Hence India also has a large mountain (Adama€™s Peak) to match the Jabal al-Qilal near the Strait of Gibraltar. Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress. The two inland seas, the Caspian and the Aral, retain their keyhole appearance with minor variations. At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?.
The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon.
The word was used first to translate the Persian kishvar, which was a specific geographical region, and hence comes the present usage.
3349 and BL Oriental [Or.] 5305, the last manuscript in the series, represent departures from the strict color code.
North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America.
It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form.
It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms.
The maps in these two manuscripts are unpainted; instead they are outlined in either red or gold.
The map shows the Indus in the lower left, with the Indian Peninsula, Tibet and Chinese Empire and The Red Sea colored in red. You may want to scrawl down past the next several paragraphs, as they pertain to our professional training. The Euphrates noticeably does not meet up with either major sea but hangs almost as a frontier between them, reduced to a pronounced crescent shape.
In both the mother world map and the world maps of the Cluster, the Euphrates acts as the boundary separating the Arabian peninsula from the rest of the world. The manuscript is a cosmology, not meant to be accurate geographically, but only to present the reader with a systematic overview of the existing knowledge about the world at the time. We have found with all the distribution avenues available, if you can keep a film under a half million you can pretty much count on at least breaking even, with many making at least a small return.
The same applies to anyone interested in securing us for any of your professional production needs. Many of our films will also be very appealing to the Christian community. We take you now to an article which will tell some truths about films which appeal to the Christian community and why. A My second week at the course I got in early and became bored while waiting for my homeboys.
Not that you must come to work for us, as after training you will be more than qualified with professional training, as you will have actually worked on at least four real feature films in your chosen discipline that you can put on your resume, that you can practically chose the production company you want to work for anywhere in the US or abroad. A My teammates and coaches were often challenged by my "Just give me the ball and get the hell out of my way" attitude. The conversion experience as the father tells his son — Kirk Cameron, the teenage idol of TV hit Growing Pains — that Jesus died on the cross for him.
You may choose the discipline of acting, producing, directing, script & screen writing, editing, business of film making, basic film production, camera operator, director of photography, animation, any discipline within the collaborative art of film making. A I was not the best athlete on the field or on the court, but I thought I was.A When the game was on the line I wanted the ball in my hands. This is a two year certificate program with the top 50% of our graduating class being offered a two year paid internship with our production company, giving you a working resume in your chosen discipline where you can continue working for Maxima Vision Films or choose practically any other production company within the US or abroad. These workshops also get you working immediately with our professionals who are making movies each and every day.
It was written and directed by two brothers who are pastors at Sherwood Baptist Church in Albany, Ga.
These workshops can be either taken over weekends, camps, taken one day a week at 3 hour classes, or two days at 1 hour and half, both of which you will also be involved in a three hour workshop on the weekend at our production facilities. The cast was made up of church members, with the exception of Cameron, who is an evangelical Christian. All the actors, including Cameron, worked for free.Since “The Passion of the Christ” Christian films have skyrocketed! Nonetheless, the film struck a nerve with the untapped community of Christian moviegoers, who combined with curiosity-seekers to earn the movie almost $612 million.
If you are an aspiring actor, you need to at the very least know how to prepare for a casting interview, as you only have one shot in this business to get it right! Do you know how much work goes into the production of a film or television production? The movie, which is the highest grossing non-English language film of all time, earned over seventeen times its budget. You may spend literally hours looking over the numbers on Christian films by simply researching “Christian film making on google. A A It was a hot evening and the constant in and out of the woods was not a pleasant undertaking. Though there is a huge market within the Christian market, and films can be produced with low budgets and marketed rather inexpensively using marketing strategies such as “Fire Proof” Maxima Vision Films as well as our investment group is also very interested in making films geared towards the un-churched to reach them for the Kingdom, so many times these films will appear as secular film, but will introduce a redemptive message, hoping to at least plant a seed where the audience might leave the theatre and at least seek truth, hopefully finding it at church.
This is an absolute in this business & like preparing you for a casting interview, these are all a part and included in any of our camps, workshops and classes.If you are an aspiring actor? Make no mistake, the smartest way to break into the film business is by working as a film apprentice inside a film production company--and Maxima Visions School of Film and Television is the school that can put you there. Why would you spend better than 50 thousand dollars to go to film school at a college or film trade school, when you can spend far less money and go to film school in a real production company? Make the smart choice: learn directly from the pros in a real-world environment, gaining vital industry connections along the way.
Our film school alternative is the smartest, most cost efficient way to get a quality film education. As already stated, we are all about career and not simply into taking a student’s money and then wishing them the best as they leave film school to enter the job market.
What I thought would be a nine-hole outing turned into eighteen holes and a White House visit and a Presidential appointment in 1969. Remember, a demo reel is just what the name implies, it is a demo of your acting abilities.
By providing these new film makers the opportunity to not only learn the business from the ground floor up, and us teach them how to make films the way we want them taught, they have the opportunity to go to work for our production company straight out of school, really, ultimately paying for their time in film school.
General William Rogers, Hattie, President Nixon and HBA Petey and I would become great friends and in 1965 we would meet again. Not only that, but they can add real experience to their resume to show other potential production companies if they choose to seek elsewhere. A The United Planning Organization a self-help community organization was hiring "Neighborhood Workers." A They hired three, me, Petey and H. Finally, from the very beginning of a student’s course work, their mentor teaches and encourages students to be their own producer, as they will learn about the whole production process as opposed to simply learning one track in the process. At your own school or church, we can even make available a after school program for the cost of basically any other after school program, but you are learning what you are passionate about, making movies. A Two years later Rap would be named Chairman of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. Each of these programs will ultimately produce a short student film that you may use on your resume for your chosen discipline, entered into competition with other Christian schools and churches in our upcoming 2015 film festival.
A I would become a Roving Leader (Youth Gang Task Force) for the DC Recreation Department and Petey would find his new home in radio at WOL. A Three UPO "Neighborhood Workers" would go on to establish their own independent idenities. We are not interested in the number of times you have had an extra spot in a film, or even a speaking role in a student film at some film school.
A Petey would win 2 Emmy Awards and in 2007 there was a feeble attempt to do his life story on the big screen.
You may read about these two films on the same page, “Sister Surrendered” and “Rachel’s Grace”. The following graph represents Maxima Visions International owning the whole pie;    In the first stage Maxima Visions International is seeking $100,000 for seed monies to get company off the ground and running and giving up 50% ownership of this production company to those not so sophisticated investor but who have a real passion for the film industry a chance to own a piece of the action for as little as a $5,000 investment, which gives them a cumulative 50% ownership in this company. As mentioned, we are as committed to quality product, films that will help to shape our culture positively, as we are to hiring as much local talents as possible. We are absolutely committed to producing such quality that in the near future that anyone who has any interest in producing a redemptive story idea, there is only one logical solution as to what company one is to come to for producing such a product, and that is Maxima Vision Films.
It basically breaks down to the same opportunity as we offer in the Carolinas but we are having to raise less seed funds as the facilities in Carolina are much more expensive, but at the same time much larger, which provide both our film school and sound stages and editing suites to produce films. He is now in jail serving a life sentence for the murder of a black Deputy Sherrif in Fulton County, Georgia.
We feel after viewing how serious we are about those talents we hire above, you will realize how serious we are in producing for you the most professional production money can buy.
In Tennessee we are offering 20% of our share for the use of such a facility. We are raising at present a total of $100,000 for said purpose.
Get involved now with a company who is committed to harnessing the power of the mediums of film and television to help shape our culture positively verses negatively, as Hollywood has for decades. In fact, for our purpose in the projection we will assume at this point that the investment group we already have who have committed to doing twenty films over the next five years never gets around to actually funding a film. We are just going to go under the assumption that we remain as just a film school level and have only those films produced at film school. Brian McIntyre.A  He was sitting almost alone and there was no one waiting in line (compared to today's media circus).
This is also a good place to insert that there are actually two different types of film schools, one for ages 12-18, which teach just the fundamentals of film production, but culminate with a ten minute student film produced by the students and the second is a full fledge film school for adults who are seeking a career in the film industry which will culminate in two produced feature films per year produced with funds from tuition for each of the two years the student is seeking their certificate in the student's choice of discipline.


All student shorts will be developed into webseries which wil establish ourselves firmly in an internet presence. We could continue to map out the progress made six months at a time, however, we feel anyone who is sophisticated enough to invest $5,000 that may be immature.
As you consider this, keep in mind, the average film school in this country has between 300 to 500 students all the time. Please also remember, anyone who begins film school will spend on average two years in our film school, so assuming only adding 25 students is very conservative.
A  I looked down and notice that all the white media were seated on one side of half-court and all the blacks were seated on the other side of the half-court line. However, agan, just to keep this illustration simple we will be looking at just 50 students in the ages 12-18 category and 50 students in the adult film school beginning the Spring Quarter for year 2015.
Considering these very conservative enrollment increases, the following is a projection of what a potential investor at this stage may see as their return on investment for their first two years. Keep in mind, we have already shown you the potential for the first six months which that $216,687.50 will be added at the bottom. This means at this point, your original investment at $2 has increased in value to $3, meaning you have a return on your investment of $1 per share for simply keeping your stock and interest in our company. He stepped in front of me and said "I got it."A It would be the start of the 4th quarter that Mark returned to the press table table and apologize for his unprofessional actions. You think this is exciting, just wait until stage three where we finally go public at $5 per share and we begin out strategy to take on the principle players in the film and television industry.  There will of course be operational expenses which will have to come out of these huge returns.
However, if you will notice from these projections, this particular investment covers management for first year of operation and Dr.
A There were other mistakes like someone thought a black Judy Holland was VP material---far from it.
Randall Maxwell has agreed as part of this he will be instructor of each of these classes throughout this year and through the Spring Quarter next year as a part of this management expense.
Over the next five years, even if we remain at “Stage One” in development, and just looking at the films we produce from tuition of students, we will have produced at least ten feature films over the upcoming five years, not considering all the student shorts. This alone is where any potential investor should be looking at seeing their real return on investment.   A Personal message and guarantee from our CEO and Director of the School, Dr. A It took a minute but in the meantime, he was making an effort to bring about change in his own way.
Randall Maxwell; First, I would like to personally thank you for spending this time here at our site taking a look at this investment opportunity. A But according veteran (32 years) sports writer Bill Rhoden of the New York Times, progress in sports media pressrooms around the country are on a slow boat to China.A His recent appearance on the widely acclaimed television news show Meet the Press, he said, "the NBA, NFL and MLB are still dragging their feet.
I hope you realize after spending the time you have spent here what a lucrative opportunity for such a small investment that it truly is. I hope you also realize just how little risk there is in this opportunity considering it being an actual investment in the film industry, as it is really totally un-heard of. Media pressrooms at Deadline are still the last plantations.A A Pioneering broadcaster and former NBA CBS basketball analyst Sonny Hill and now a sports talk show host on WIP Radio in Philadelphia said, "I am not surprised by Rhoden's statement, very little has changed in media pressrooms. A One of the problems there is no networking among blacks who have moved it up the ladder." A That is an understatement.
I am so confident in its success that I will personally guarantee to purchase back any stock any investor has purchased from this company and school and pay them in addition to what they have invested an additional 10% return per year plus their original investment back if in two years from their original investment they decide they want out for whatever reason. The second million will be used for the purchase of additional property, more equipment, including an additional 5 Production kits like the one purchased in “Stage One” above.
We will also use this fund for building new sound stages on property, additional class rooms and editing suites. A  The copy rights for Inside Sports is own by News Week Magazine and it is own by the Washington Post. The remaining 675,000 shares will be issued to the parent company, known as Maxima Visions International, retaining controlling interest in the hands of parent company. A A First, there was a a problem with the PR Men from hell, Brian Sereno and Matt Williams. A A It was brought to my attention that Sereno was disrespecting the ladies of The Roundball Report.
It is however at this stage where we first begin looking at accomplishing the vision of this company, which is to become the 8th major contender in the film industry. By any sort of a calculated guess as to what amount would be needed to accomplish this it would take at least 10 Billion in available assets. A The meeting was set before a Wizard's game in the press louge but Scott Hall was the lead man. At this point in the vision, being year one in the foundational process to make this total vision a reality, at this time we have no way of knowing the amount of funding that might have been set aside for future investment in the organization for phase three. Thus, there is no way of knowing the amount of funding that may be necessary at phase three time in order to take on the major players within the film and television industry.
A He listened and we disagreed on some points but when we walked away from the table we were on the same page. The main thing at present that we need to focus on is telling stories that matter and that help to shape our culture positively verses negatively, and in so doing, produce quality product. We already have two investment groups, one of which have already committed to funding four feature films or television productions each year over the upcoming five years with our company. This is a major reason they insist on us accomplishing the entire above prior to them investing with us. D.
The reason for this is the vast number of networks having to provide content 24 hours per day 7 days a week.
This is not to mention; just look at some of the stuff that is on some of these cable networks, a bunch of pure crap.
This allows us as well as our investment group whose desire is to produce stories that matter to do this, in hopes to at least share a message of hope for a hurting world, while at the same time at least break even if not make a little money while doing so. A The community and everyone in it was a friend, the old and the young, the black and the white and the healthy and the lame. We also know that at least one film out of every six or seven will make a substantial profit.
This will mean, out of twenty films over the next five years we will have at least two with substantial profit. 2nd.
A I was honored to speak at his retirement held at the arena just before the Bullets moved to Washington and changed their name to the Wizards.A Denny Gordon was in ticket sales and it seem like he knew everyone who brought a ticket. Since opening our academy last year we have already had better than 100 students who have taken advantage of various workshops.  These workshops have gone for around $250 per student, meaning a total of $25,000 total income. Thus, if we never were to grow, just maintaining just the present level of income, which if that were our only interest we would never seek seed money investors, you our potential investor owning half the company, you the investment group would take in $12,500 per year.
The main point here is this; we do not want you to invest if you were not to make a profit and were to lose your investment completely, because of the very nature of this business this could happen.
We are really seeking those who could afford to lose, but more importantly we are seeking those who have the funds needed, who have a passion for telling stories that matter, and who have a real passion like ourselves who have a passion on using the powerful medium of film and television to help shape our whole culture positively verses negatively. A He was made the scapegoat after being sold out by his assisstant coach Bernie Bickerstaff and others. A The meeting revolved around a charity all-star game scheduled for the Bahamas, the island home of NBA star Mycal Thompson. Please readOur most pressing news as of September 2015, something I hope all readers might read before searching other pages on this site. A Magic Johnson was one of All-Stars participating.A Representatives from the NBA included VP Ron Thorne, Legal Counsel Gary Bettman and head of security Horace Balmer. A A Gary Bettman is the Commissioner of the NHL, Thorne is somewhere lurking in the NBA, Balmer has since retired and Magic is a role model for Black America? A A The short lived existence of basketball legend Michael Jordan as a Wizard's player and Executive in the front office. Maxwell will be deciding upon and after this illness passed we will take a look at producing these scripts into feature films or television productions.
A After the story broke he and several teammates made light of it during introductions of a game.
A He was eventually suspended for most of the 2009a€“10 season.A The thing that I find disturbing about this Donald Sterling charade is that folks are acting like they were surprised by his rants against blacks. Maxwell is spending this time taking care of his wife, and not in production, he has plenty of time to read scripts. A A I also notice the same "Old faces and voices" are called on to respond to the racist acts by men like Sterling---when they are a part of the problem . A He and Sterling were good friends because "Birds of a feather flock together." A  Check Magic's history out and you will discover the two have a lot in common. Now, all the services offered at our other production facilities will be available to serve Tennessee. A Magic's claim to be a minority owner of the LA Dodgers is another sham (token black face). James Brown (CBS Sports) another mis-guilded brother claiming to be a minority baseball owner and an expert on racism. A He did finally admit on the late George Michael Show (Sports Machine) "I have no say in making baseball decisions as a minority owner." A His role as a minority owner is to be paraded out on Opening Day as the black face to read the starting line-ups.
A A This is the same Michael Wilbon that I had at least two recent conversations about the use of the N word as a term of endearment.
A I have to give him credit, he will at least talk to me face to face and not behind my back. At present we have two major investment groups, one of which has already committed funding four feature films or television productions every year over the next five years.
A I tried to explain that his rationale that his grandfather's use the word as a term of endearment does not make it right today.
A I told him he should not go on national television saying it is okay to use the N word among friends and family. A It gives bigots like Donald Sterling the Green Light to do the same among his friends and family. No one in Nashville is even producing a film per year, let alone cranking out four feature films or television productions each and every year, not until now.
A Plus, Michael told me he was not going to appear on the ESPN Show Outside the Lines because the white host had no horse in the race! A A I wish that Magic, James, Michael and the rest of the media experts would defer to black men like Hank Aaron, Dr. A But they wear the battle scars and have been on the front lines of the civil rights movement in real life and in the sports arenas of America.
A In other words, they have been there and done that.A I guess that is wishful thinking, especially when everyone wants to be an expert on television.
A In the meantime, they don't know their asses from a hole in the ground but the beat goes on and on. A Auerbach would go a step further in the 1966-67 NBA season, when he stepped A down after winning nine titles in 11 years, and made Bill Russell player-coach.
A A trailblazers, RED AND DOTIE AUERBACHi»? ON INSIDE SPORTSA Russell would eventually be the first black to win an NBA championship.
A There are far too many crying "Foul" and playing the victims in this charade, to include some NBA owners.A Let me start with my homeboy, the great Elgin Baylor who was the Clippers GM for over 2 decades. His teams were perennial losers on the court and in attendance, but he picked up his check every two weeks and kept his mouth shut. A A In his deposition, Elgin spoke about what he called Sterling's 'plantation mentality,' alleging the owner in the late 1990s rejected a coaching candidate, Jim Brewer, because of race. A Talking about an organization needing a change of name and a face-lift---meet Leon Jenkins.A Jenkins seen above at a press conference trying to explain why the li»?ocal branch was honoring Sterling during the 100th Anniversary of the organization next month. A A He explained the previous award had been approved by the man he replaced and he just went along to get along. A A Sterling won't be the first to sleep black and think white when it comes to sex, politics and money. Slave owners lived by the credo and in modern day history there was the late Senator Strom Thurmond. A Nike NBA rep John Phillips and I met with VP Rod Thorn, League Counsel Gary Bettman and Head of League Security, Horace Balmer. A The meeting centered around whether Magic Johnson, Mycal Thompson and a group of NBA All-Stars would be allowed to travel to the Bahamas for a charity basketball game without league approval.
The game had been played in the Bahamas the previous year without incident or controversy.A It was obvious that there was a power-play being made by the league office to cancel the game. Thorn open the meeting by asking who was going to be responsible if one of the players was hurt during the game?
A Magic suggested that the topic of conversation just might be centered around an injury to a player. I tried to explain that playing the game was no different then one of the players participating in a pick-up game on a New York City playground in the off season. A What is this some kind of plantation?"A The room went silent and Horace Balmer the only other black in the room just shook his head and seem to be lost for words. A Thorn called off the discussion and promised to get back to us but he never did.A In the meantime, Magic Johnson disappeared and changed his number. A Mycal was a class act but his hands were tied when Magic decided to do his Houdini act.A Gary Bettman now runs the NHL, Ron Thorn is still in the NBA somewhere calling the shots, Horace Balmer has since retired and Magic is the face (black) in the middle of the Donald Sterling charade.
A When all is said and done, the real victim despite all of her baggage is the girlfriend (The Whistle Blower) V.
A NBA Commissioner Adam Silver during his annoucement as it related to the punishment of Donald Sterling apologize to black NBA pioneers Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and Magic Johnson. A He reminds me of the controversial Celebrity Chef Paula Deen who alledgely use The N word to describe her love for black folks.
A  How should we expect her to know if she has never walked in our shoes ?A  When it is a part of your DNA it is difficult to rid yourself of the gene.A  A One morning I was watching Ms. This award was longed overdue and I wonder why it took the NAACP so long to finally recognized Mr. Belafonte in accepting the award asked, "Where are today's black leaders?A  Our children's blood is still running in our streets---there is work still to be done. The coalition stated it will urge President Obama to mention an urban jobs plan in his state of the Union speech on February 12th----Good luck! Ben Carson of John Hopkins University Hospital.A  His prayer and message was centered around health care, the economy, American debt, and tax reform, thus taking dead aim at President Obama's platform for the nation.
Carson spend 25 minutes talking about the nation's ills and solutions with the President sitting less than 5 feet from him.A  When all was said and done, President Obama was not looking so Presidential! Carson set the record straight from the very beginning.A  He made it clear he was not taking any wooden nickels.
In 2010, he became that series' youngest driver and the first black driver to win a race at Greenville-Pickens Speedway. A close friend of mine that has been partially paralyzed by strokes, pays for aids to "help". If they show up, they usually just sit and do nothing, root through her jewelry and personal effects, and some have been caught stealing jewelry.
One was there when she collapsed with another stroke, and instead of calling for help, she called her boyfriend and left, leaving her patient to manage on her own.
It runs M - F from 10am - Noon and starting on Monday July 22 will repeat from 4pm - 6pm each day.
My opinions about Tiger Woods or any other issue are mine and I could give a damn about what Feinstein or anybody else things about them. In their prime at theA Washington Post, they were among the best sports writers in the country.
A I was up close and personal with the sports department.A Kindred and Chad were talented writers but you could not trust them, Cornheiser and Feintstein's talent, they easily blended in with the landscape of the paper. A Feinstein called Wilbon the biggest ass kisser in sports media, if that is true he had great teacher in Cornheiser. A When Solomon tried to kick Cornheiser to the curve (fire him) in the 80s he was able to move to the Style section of the paper. A One black female Washington Post columnist wrote a book titled "Plantation on the Potomac." A She was describing her employer. A Hopefully, they were asked to participate and were of the same mindset as Wilbon not comfortable with Mr.
A Goodell makes more than any player in the NFL and he never has to make a tackle or catch a pass.A The owners recent pay out to the players for injuries suffered on their watch was peanuts compared to the billions they make year in and year out. A When he refused a request by his mother to cease using the word and a similar plea by poet Myra Angelo.
Martin Luther Kinga€™s 1963 march on Washington and 46 years since his assassination in Memphis, Tenn. With the high-scoring Macauley, elite passer Cousy, and new prodigy Sharman, Auerbach had a core that provided high-octane fast-break basketball.
In the next years until 1956, the Celtics would make the playoffs every year, but never won the title. Brown was desperate to turn around his struggling and financially strapped franchise, which was reeling from a 22a€“46 record.[5]A The still young but already seasoned Auerbach was made coach. A Nike NBA rep John Phillips and I met with VP Rod Thorn, League Counsel Gary Bettman and Head of League Security, Horace Balmer.A The meeting centered around whether Magic Johnson, Mycal Thompson and a group of NBA All-Stars would be allowed to travel to the Bahamas for a charity basketball game without league approval. A He was right on point.A To this day I think Magic had a previous discussion with the league office. James Gholson, Red Auerbach, Biff Carter, Jessie Chase, Morgan Wooten, Everett Cookie Payne Sr., Frank Bolden, Dr. Leo Hill, Roper McNair, Earl Alfred, Maxwell Honemond, Tilman Sease, William Roundtree, Charlie Baltimore, Jaky Mathews, Ferdinand Day, Nick Turner, Walter Brooks, Ted McIntye, and my saviors, Dave Brown and Bighouse Gaines.A  They knew their Xs and Os, but more important, they were there for our highs and lows.A  Where have all those flowers gone?
We never could have made it without them.I have given up on the Pigskin Club, but keeping hope alive for the DC Recreation Department and the Roving Leader Program. BELL 12-25-1940---8-1-2013A A GOOD COP WHO BROKE THE CODE OF SILENCE IN THE WASHINGTON, DC POLICE DEPARTMENT. A The real Serpico is seen leaving the Bronx Courthouse alone after testifying before the Knapp Commission on wide spread police corruption in the department.
A In the old days police A would carry a "drop knife---an inexpensive weapon cops would bring along on patrol to drop onto or next to suspect that they had taken out so that they could say that he had threaten them. A Today you don't even need to do that; all that you have to do is justify the use of deadly force if you are a police officer is to say that you feared for your life, for whatever reason.
If the victim dies, that just means there will one less witness around to contradict the test-lie. A In the case of Officer Michael Slager of the North Charleston police, it appears he was being extra-carefulto cover his tracks. A Probably he could have gotten away with simply declaring, as he did in the radioed report, that Walter Scott "took my taser," and that would have probably have sufficed to exonerate him.
A But Slager having shot Scott eight times in the back--as everyone can see in the now famous video--perhaps felt that he needed a little help explaining what he was up to. A So apparently dropped his Taser next to Scott's body, which would obviously help to make the case that Scott "Took my taster."A If you think that what happen in North Charleston is a unique case, its not.
A Only recently, in another case, a policewoman in Pennsylvania first Tasered a black man then shot him twice in the back as he lay face down in the snow.
A Unless honesty is rewarded more often then corruption, the police will lose credibility altogether.
A I wrote a letter to President Bill Clinton in 1994 addressing this very issue, saying that honest cops have never been rewarded, and maybe there ought to be a medal for them, he wrote back but nothing change. A If enough testi-lying is uncovered, then who is going to believe the police even when they are telling the truth? A A Until now the shoot first fear of my life mantra has eliminated any cause for concern in the taking of life by police.
A When a civilian committs a crime, every nuance is looked at, the better to "throw the book at" the suspect.
A The other day I got a letter from a journalist in Argentina who was complaining about police and judicial corruption there. A I wrote back to him, there are good cops, even where you live, but if the good cops don't want to be painted with the same broad brush as the bad cops, they need to come forward and expose the guys who are doing bad things. A Take New York City detective who was caught on camera recently abusing an Uber driver with threats and foul language, A This was truly disgusting behavior. Yet predictably enough the detective union leader, Michael Palladino, was out there making excuses for him, suggesting that, well, it was only one incident, and everyone has a bad day.
A Afterward Police Commissioner William Bratton announced he was removing the detective's shield and placing him temporarily on desk duty while an investigation is conducted . A But this man needs to be demoted to uniform at the very least, or "back in the bag" as we use to say. A Imagine what he is capable of doing under the cover of darkness if he can talk to someone like that in broad daylight. A There are plenty legitimate incidents where police believe, correctly, that their lives are in danger. A I was in a few of those situations myself during the course of my career.A But unless the police forces and society as a whole take action we're not going to be able to distinguish between the legititimate claims and made-up testimony. A A long time ago Norman Rockwell painted a famous picture of a friendly neighborhood cop bending down to help a little boy.
A For example; I could name someone who is a great athlete but a lousy human being or I could name someone who is a great human being but not a great athlete.
A Heading the list is Muhammad Ali (The Greatest), Red Auerbach (NBA), Dave Bing (NBA), Lenny Moore (NFL), Bert R. Sugar (Boxing), Lee Jones (NBA), Roy Jefferson (NFL) and Harold McLinton (NFL), finding pro athletes like them today are far, few and in-between.
A And that is a sad commentary when you think about the hundreds of men and women I have interviewed on Inside Sports and worked with as a youth advocate (Kids In Trouble). Moore, LB Dave Robinson (2013 NFL Hall of Fame inductee) and WR Roy Jefferson host KIT toy party.
A Sam Jones (NBA), Lenny Moore (NFL) and Roy Jefferson (NFL) participate in KIT clothing drive for needy children at Union Station. A Bert Sugar (Boxing) receives KIT Life Time Achievement Award and Dave Bing (NBA) pays tribute to KIT Saturday Program All-Stars.I had the opportunity to hear an interview on Sirius A XM Radio (channel 126) on the Maggie Linton Show recently, her guest was NFL Washington Pro football player, wide receiver Peirre Garcon.
A I have not been very impressed with todaya€™s pro athletes and their give back commitment to their family, friends and community. A He has three older sisters making him the youngest and the only one born in the United States.His father died when he was 4 years old leaving his mother to raise him and his 3 sisters alone.
A My background is similar to Peirrea€™s, my mother had to raise 4 boys alone with an assist from Grandma Bell.



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