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DESCRIPTION: This 'atlas' was the work of a family of Catalonian Jews who worked in Majorca at the end of the 14th century and was commissioned by Charles V of France at a time when the reputation of the Catalan chart makers was at its peak. The title of the Atlas shows clearly the spirit in which it was executed and its content: Mappamundi, that is to say, image of the world and of the regions which are on the earth and of the various kinds of peoples which inhabit it. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.a€?The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth. The Catalan Atlas is actually a world map built up around a portolan chart, thus combining aspects of the nautical chart by employing loxodromes and coastal detail with the medieval mappaemundi exemplified by its legends and illustrations. We know in unusual detail the circumstances in which the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (the date of the calendar which accompanies it) was produced and the career of the cartographer who compiled it. The patrons of Cresques, King Peter III of Aragon and his son, in addition to their scientific interests, were keenly interested in reports of Eastern lands, in relation to their forward economic policy, and were at special pains to secure manuscript copies of Marco Polo's Description of the World, the travels of Odoric of Pordenone Description of Eastern Regions and, what may surprise the modern reader, the Voiage of Sir John Mandeville. In the interior the position, extent, chief divisions, towns and rivers of China and the Mongol Empire are approximately represented. On the southern portion of the Cathay coast, the general uniformity of the coast is broken by three bays, and it is significant that these are associated with three great ports, Zayton [near Changchow], Cansay [Hangchow, better known in medieval records as Quinsay ] and Cincolam [Canton]. Quite a number of harbors are indicated on the eastern coast of India, a few of them still identifiable, while a sailing junk testifies to trading activity, especially with the island of Iana (?), which is here associated with the legendary isle of the Amazons (regio femarum [sic]) and symbolized by its queen. In mainland India, King Stephen has been represented: the text beside him indicates that this Christian ruler is a€?looking towards the town of Butifilis,a€? Marco Polo's kingdom of Mutifilis. The people of Gog and Magog following their monarch, bearing banners with the emblem of the devil, detail of the map of Asia.
Sources other than those embodied in Polo have also been used for the portion of the Indian Ocean included in the map.
If the map is stripped of its legends and drawings of the older tradition, it is apparent that the main interest of the compiler is concentrated in a central strip across Asia. In the west is the Organci [Oxus] river shown, as on most contemporary maps, flowing into the Caspian, and alongside it the early stages of the traditionally used overland route, from Urganj [the medieval Khiva] through Bokhara and Samarcand to the sources of the river in the mountains of Amol, on the eastern limits of Persia. This description, with several omissions, was in outline the route followed by Maffeo and Nicolo Polo (Marco Polo's father and uncle) on their journey to the Great Khan's court.
Scarcely less valuable, and certainly of special interest for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth. Hardly any place on the west coast of Africa is identified only one name, perhaps a mythical spot, is found south of Cape Bojador in the former Spanish Sahara, but we are told that Africa, land of ivory, starts at this point and that by traveling due south one reaches Ethiopia. East of the Sultan of Mali appears the King of Organa, in turban and blue dress, holding an oriental sword and a shield. In northeast Africa, a knowledge of the Nile valley as far south as Dongala, where there was a Catholic mission early in the 14th century, is apparent. On one matter, however, the mapmaker Cresques could hardly refrain from speculating, for the following reason: land exploration had, for a long time now, outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe area in the same latitudes. In Asia the Red Sea stands out, being shown as red, a characteristic that derives, we are told less from the color of the water than from that of the sea bed.
Moslem traders from cities along the Barbary Coast of North Africa began to cross the Sahara in the Middle Ages in an effort to bring back gold, rumored to be in great supply in the Sudan.
Within the means of cartographic representations on this Atlas there appears to be no specialities, those symbols and other graphics used by Cresques correspond to those commonly used in the Middle Ages. The compiler of the prototype used by Cresques for the Catalan Atlas had recourse to different, sometimes even contradictory sources.
In summary, the merit of the Catalan Atlas lay in the skill with which Cresques employed the best available contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, never proceeding further than the evidence warranted.
Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth.
As a response to this interest, Cresques extended his chart to include all that was then known of Asia, notably from Marco Polo's narrative. This town [Beijing] has an extent of 24 miles, is surrounded by a very thick outer wall and has a square ground plan. The description emphasizes the richness and urbanity of the Chinese capital at the edge of the civilized world. To the north is Catayo, the Great Khan and his capital of Chanbaleth; to the south Manji, with its great cities of Zayton and Cansay. This persistent irritating ringing sounds may be familiar to you and may even be more prominent when you are in a quiet location. This disorder that you had been experiencing is often known as tinnitus in medical world and is described as an abnormal noise (or sounds) that you can perceive.
You are more likely to concentrate on any mild ringing sounds in your ears and be distressed by it in any extreme silent environment since there is nothing else to pay attention to.
Avoid getting distressed or stressed by your ringing ears as this can make your condition even worse. Having ringing in the ears can have a significant impact on many aspects of your life including social communication and relationships with your loved ones. In his lifetime Conan Doyle endured no small measure of derision a€” a€?Is Conan Doyle Mad?a€? asked one newspaper headline a€” but for him Spiritualism would become a matter of faith. Kelvin Jones and Joe Cooper have both attempted to bring a sense of history and context to Conan Doylea€™s spirit crusade. With the exception of John Lamond, himself a committed Spiritualist, Conan Doylea€™s previous biographers have all been skeptics and disbelievers. Charles Higham, who devotes considerable space to Conan Doylea€™s spirit crusade, takes a similarly delicate stance. These brickbats seems unduly harsh when measured against the depth of feeling expressed so eloquently in Conan Doylea€™s many works on Spiritualism. That I am perfectly certain is surely demonstrated by the mere fact that I have abandoned my congenial and lucrative work, left my home for long periods at a time, and subjected myself to all sorts of inconveniences, losses, and even insults, in order to get the facts home to the people . All fine-drawn theories of the subconscious go to pieces before the plain statement of the intelligence, a€?I am a spirit. One may disagree with Conan Doyle about spirits, psychic photographs and fairies, but one cannot doubt the strength of his convictions or the purity of his motives. In Conan Doyle and the Spirits, Kelvin Jones traces the development of Conan Doylea€™s beliefs from his childhood in Edinburgh through his worldwide campaign to spread the a€?vital message.a€? Jones gives a careful accounting of Conan Doylea€?s rejection of Catholicism, his first tentative experimentations as a young doctor in Southsea, his public declaration of belief and the experiments and lecture tours which dominated his last years. By surveying Conan Doylea€™s entire life, Jones effectively lays to rest the persistent notion that he turned to Spiritualism for solace following the bereavements of World War I. It is possible that, in devoting so much attention to Conan Doylea€™s early life, Jones has cast his net too wide. Of a€?John Barrington Cowles,a€? we are told: a€?It seems clear that at this period of his life Conan Doyle saw the relationship between the conscious and the subconscious in terms of an inexorable battle for control between the male and female aspects of personality.
Not every reader will agree with such statements, and the edges begin to fray when Jones revives the notorious alimentary interpretation of a€?The Leather Funnel,a€? the short story in which a leather funnel is revealed by psychic means to have been a torture device, employed to force a vast quantity of water into the villainous Marquise de Brunvilliers. The book comes on to firmer ground as the mature Conan Doyle, no longer a struggling doctor and writer, but now a celebrated author and public figure, becomes a public champion of the Spiritualist movement.
Even as Conan Doylea€™s commitment deepens, Jones is careful to demonstrate that his powers of discernment remained intact.
One must allow, however, that on occasion Conan Doylea€™s ostensible skepticism was simply a rhetorical device. Jones himself appears open-minded on the subject of psychic phenomena, though he is even-handed in his presentation.
A similar cloud hangs over the sensitive topic of Lady Conan Doylea€™s talent for automatic writing. The issue of Lady Conan Doylea€™s mediumship crops up again during the notorious Atlantic City seance with Harry Houdini in 1922.
The Atlantic City seance all but derailed Conan Doylea€™s friendship with Houdini, but Jones gives only scant attention to the unhappy fallout from the affair. Conan Doylea€™s Spiritualist activities during this period left little time for fiction, so the publication of The Land of Mist, serialized in The Strand Magazine in 1925, is especially notable. Jones goes on to point out a similarity between Professor Challenger and Joseph McCabe of the Rationalist Association, whom Conan Doyle had debated in a public forum in 1920. By this time Conan Doyle had developed a thick skin, which proved fortunate as the press became more and more antagonistic. Actually, it was not only the a€?camp followers of conventiona€? who questioned Conan Doylea€™s views. Jones says nothing of this friendly fire, though such jabs undoubtedly influenced Conan Doylea€™s ultimate resignation from the SPR following a quarrel with editor Theodore Besterman. Jonesa€™s reticence on some of these points is understandable; Conan Doyle has taken plenty of heat from other writers for his Spiritualistic beliefs. Whatever onea€™s personal views, Jones cuts to the heart of the matter when he says, a€?It would perhaps be more profitable to address the question why Arthur Conan Doyle chose spiritualism as his most deeply felt cause.a€? Conan Doyle and the Spirits does not adequately address this knotty question a€” the book has only two pages left to run when Jones poses it a€” but he has made a solid start, and opened the door to a fascinating and necessary field of inquiry. In September of 1981, at a snack bar in Canterbury, 74-year-old Frances Griffith turned to Joe Cooper and said, a€?From where I was, I could see the hatpins holding up the figures. By all rights, this should have been the end of the notorious episode of the Cottingley fairies, which so captured the worlda€™s attention sixty years earlier.
The Coming of the Fairies, as even Conan Doyle himself would acknowledge, did little to enhance his reputation. Cooper also gives a spirited history of fairy folklore to illustrate that Conan Doylea€™s position was not unprecedented, and he demonstrates that Conan Doyle was not the only great man to hold such views. Conan Doylea€™s initial resistance to the first of the fairy pictures seems to have crumbled before the assurances of photography expert Harold Snelling. Snellinga€™s authentication did nothing to turn aside the avalanche of ridicule which followed publication of the photographs.
Needless to say, that new vista has yet to open, so it is left to the final portion of Coopera€™s book to bring the story up to date.
This is, however, a fascinating and valuable book, and one which may light the way to further examination of this strange cul de sac of Conan Doylea€™s Spiritualist crusade.
This article was written in 1998, at a time when I was awash in research for Teller of Tales: The Life of Arthur Conan Doyle, which appeared the following year.
For all of the attention given to the subject, however, a number of misconceptions persist. And while wea€™re at it, please stop telling me that Conan Doyle believed in fairies because hea€™d been duped by a series of faked photographs. Over the years I have tried to approach these subjects in a spirit of understanding rather than derision, and I have made an effort to keep my mind open to the beliefs of others.
Charles Higham, who devotes considerable space to Conan Doylea€™sA  spiritA  crusade, takes a similarly delicate stance. For all of the attention given to the subject, however, a number of misconceptions persist.A  Ia€™ve lost count of how many times someone has told me, usually with a knowing smile and a sad shake of the head, that Conan Doyle believed in Spiritualism because his son died in the Great War. This phone is loud ringing tone circuit for generating the electricity bell in the old telephone. The detect ringing signal tone circuit with light and sound.It is easy to use and good quality, Do not enter the power supply. LED can be connected in series to increase, but less in proportion to the light.The circuit uses power from the telephone line.
The called signal from the telephone lines is entered through C1, R1 Come to the bridge diode circuit D1-D4, D5 is the positive voltage at 20V supply to pin 1 of IC1 that KA2411 or CS8205 as the Telephone Bell Replacement IC.
When IC1 is given the supply volt as I said, it will generator a ringing signals through the R5, to drive the Piezoelectric transducer BZ1 be a bell tone out to hear. We hear the sound of the Oscillator 2 series, which differ by the output frequency chops to be a frequency generator circuits.
All components in this circuit except of the piezoelectric transducers can be assembled into a perforated board. On the other hand, how awesome is it going to be when you open all your hexmas gifts this holiday season?!?!
King Charles requested this map from Peter of Aragon, patron of the best Majorcan mapmaker of the time: Abraham Cresques. Originally the Catalan Atlas consisted of six large wooden panels that were covered with parchment on one side. To the right, from top to bottom, is a diagram of the tides; another lists the movable feasts, and a third drawing represents a blood-letting figure. The result is that the Atlas represents a transitionary step towards the world maps developed later during the Renaissance, especially by its extensive application of contemporary geographical knowledge and ambitious scope. Although the sailors were used to plainer charts whose importance lay principally in their utility and accuracy, even ordinary marine charts begin to follow the Catalan tradition with regards to their use of standardized color patterns. When in 1381 the envoy of the French king asked King Peter of Aragon for a copy of the latest world map (proof in itself that the reputation of the Catalan school had been widely recognized) he was given this example, which has been preserved in Paris ever since.
For the first time in medieval cartography this continent assumed a recognizable form, with one or two notable exceptions. From west to east, the main divisions of the Mongol territory include the Empire of Sarra [the Kipchak Khanate], the Empire of Medeia [the Chagtai Khanate of the middle], and the suzerain empire of the Great Khan, Catayo [China]. Each side has a length of six miles, the wall is 20 paces high and lo paces thick, has 12 gateways and a large tower, in which hangs a great bell, which rings at the hour of first sleep or earlier.
The vertical waterway is the Grand Canal built by Kublai from Manji to Cambulac; below are the 7548 islands, rich in all manner of spicery, placed by Marco in the Sea of Chin.
Of these, Canton is not mentioned by Marco Polo; it was, however, much frequented by Arab navigators and traders, upon whose reports the compiler was probably drawing.
Yule points out that Kao-li was the name given for Korea, and he therefore considers that the island Cresques depicts here represents confused notions about both the Korean peninsula and Japan; otherwise there is no obvious graphic reference or hint of Zipangu [Japan]. The first is difficult to explain; to make up for it the cartographer has inserted a great island of Jana [Java], which however was probably intended for Sumatra.
The notion that there were Christian rulers east of the Islamic world stems largely from the legend of Prester John; also important, however, were the real Christian minorities in India and the fact that the tomb of Saint Thomas was thought to be in Mailapore, a suburb of Madras, the Mirapore of the map.
And it sometimes happens though rarely, that the widow of the dead man throws herself into the flames,a€? a practice that recalls widow-burning (sutti) of India. There we are told that Satan came to his aid and helped him to imprison the Tartars Gog and Magog.
The Persian Gulf, extending almost due west, has an outline similar to that on the Dulcert map, but is otherwise superior to any earlier map. Herein lies a succession of physical features: mountains, rivers, lakes and towns with corrupt but recognizable forms of their medieval names as given in the narratives of the great travelers of the 13th century. It is also possible to discern traces of their second journey, accompanied by Marco, in which they employed the 'south road' of the silk route, and, except for a detour through Ormis at the bottom of the Persian Gulf, ran from Trebizond through Eri [Herat], Badakshan, and along the southern edge of the Tarim basin from Khotan to the city of Lop. Unlike many classical and fellow medieval scholars, the draftsman of Majorca showed praiseworthy restraint in this respect.
For here, as is often the case in other maps of the period, the cartographer compensated for the dearth of known geographical points by including historical facts.
The delineation of the Nile river system is vitiated, however, by the conception that it flowed from a great lake in the Guinea region, Lacus Nili.
As previously mentioned, the early draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. It is cut in two by a land passage, a conventional allusion to Moses' miraculous crossing (Exodus, 14:2122). Between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea appears the King of Tauris [Tabriz] and north of him Jani-Beg, ruler of the kingdom of the Golden Horde, who died in 1357. Stories reached 14th century Europe of the splendor of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali and lord of Guinea, one of the reputed richest of the 'Negro Kingdoms' of the Sudan, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324.
However, there are great differences to be observed between what is labeled by some the a€?portolano sectiona€? (sheets 3 and 4, Europe and North Africa) and the rest of the map sheets. The legendary Insula de Brazil, for example, which is found on various medieval maps of the North Atlantic and later gave its name to Brazil, is shown here twice, once west of Ireland and a second time farther south.
Elsewhere, however, the weight of received opinion is still felt, as, for example, in the various islands with fabulous names; they cannot represent the Madeiran group, as these islands were discovered only in 1418-1419.
In the same spirit he removed from the map many of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa blank rather than fill it with the anthropagi and other monsters which adorn the bulk of medieval maps. This contrasts strongly with the people of the islands farther east who are described as savages living naked, eating raw fish, and drinking sea water. However, comprehending what contributes to this condition and understanding what can be done will certainly help you in combating this ringing ears of yours. You may suffer from relentless tinnitus after undergoing loud sound for a prolong period of time.

You could listen to some more enjoyable soft music to assist in making the tinnitus less obvious.
For this instances, However, your ringing in the ears will typically stop when you stop taking these medication. You may discover it discouraging and distressing that people don’t always understand just how this condition had affected your peaceful life.
Together, I want to further improve our health status and continue to enjoy good health as we age.
Conan Doyle wrote these words in a€?The Captain of the Pole-Star,a€? published in l883, he could not have known how resonant they would become. Conan Doyle and the Spirits (Aquarian Press, 1989) tracks his evolving beliefs over the course of his lifetime, while The Case of the Cottingley Fairies (Robert Hale, 1990) brings a sharp focus to the episode that did more than any other to unhinge the reputation Conan Doyle had built as a writer and a public figure. Not surprisingly, they bring an air of strained tolerance to much of Conan Doylea€™s Spiritualist phase, and a great deal is passed over in embarrassed silence.
Anticipating the deaths of Conan Doylea€™s first son and his brother in World War I, Higham declares, a€?It is fortunate that Conan Doyle became converted when he did.
Then as now, psychic investigators marveled over Conan Doylea€™s ready acceptance of even the most transparently false phenomena. In the presence of Miss Besinnet as medium and of several witnesses I have seen my mother and my nephew, young Oscar Hornung, as plainly as I ever saw them in lifea€”so plainly that I could almost have counted the wrinkles of the one and the freckles of the other . The author, a school teacher currently living in Cornwall, fleshes out his account by drawing on the works of Conan Doylea€™s Spiritualist contemporaries, and on the archives of the Society for Psychical Research. It is certainly true that the war prompted him to go public, as Jones relates, but the foundations of his belief were already well established by this time.
Other mistakes are imported from Charles Higham; we are told once again that McClurea€™s Magazine engineered the resurrection of Sherlock Holmes, when in fact it was Colliera€™s.
Conan Doylea€™s public declaration of belief in 1916 comes roughly at the booka€™s mid-point, leaving a vast amount of material to be covered in a limited space. Jones makes good use of his Spiritualist volumes and travel writings to present a lucid and interesting account of Conan Doylea€™s activities from 1916 forward. Several times Jones shows Conan Doyle sounding a note of caution when approaching a new medium. Conan Doyle was a gifted propagandist by then, and knew the value of acknowledging an opponenta€™s view in order to strengthen his own argument. In a few cases, however, he takes the psychic demonstrations at face value when some degree of suspicion is warranted. Earlier, Jones has quoted Sir Arthur as saying that automatic writing is the form of mediumship which must be rested most rigidly.
Jones gives a concise account of the episode, during which Lady Conan Doyle received a lengthy message from Houdinia€™s mother, Cecilia Weiss. Within weeks the two men were attacking each other in the press a€” a€?Doyle in Denver Defies Houdini,a€? screamed one headline, to Conan Doylea€™s acute embarrassment. This is slightly misleading, since Challenger was created many years earlier, but Jonesa€™s speculation that McCabe may have influenced the later version of Challenger is entirely plausible. Jones reports at length on the hostile reception accorded to Pheneas Speaks, a compendium of messages received through Lady Conan Doylea€™s spirit guide. Nor does Jones mention the familya€™s legal maneuvers when an account of these apocalyptic prophecies appeared in a newspaper after Conan Doylea€™s death. For the most part, Jones keeps a steady hand on the rudder, and presents both sides of each case. Instead, as Cooper relates in The Case of the Cottingley Fairies, the confession of Frances Griffith became simply another twist in an already convoluted tale.
Arthur Wright was astonished, when he developed the glass plate negative later that evening, to see a strange image emerge: young Frances peering out over a quartet of tiny winged figures. Joe Cooper, in treating the incident as a legitimate paranormal investigation, allows Conan Doyle to keep his dignity. The Case of the Cottingley Fairies is a solid accounting of the affair, and Cooper carries it off with rare panache. The author met Elsie and Frances while filming a program about the fairies for Yorkshire Television in July 1976.
The reader may not share Coopera€™s views on the existence of fairies, but he performs an invaluable service in dispelling any lingering doubts about the photographs.
I believed at the time a€” as I do today a€” that both authors were to be commended for their open-minded treatment of Conan Doylea€™s fascination with Spiritualism. Yes, the infamous Cottingley photographs were the catalyst for his public pronouncements on the subject, but the episode cana€™t be explained away by a single instance of trickery. The reader may not share Coopera€™s views on the existence of fairies, butA  he performsA  an invaluable service in dispelling any lingering doubts about the photographs.
Which as Detect ringing signal tone circuit Or ring tones on the telephone line, a signal incoming calls. This form later was transformed into a block-book, in which each sheet formed a double page, the parchment itself serving as a hinge between each of the two wooden panels.
The latter is accompanied by a long text describing the world; it deals with its creation, the four elements of which it is composed, its shape, dimensions, and divisions. Though the Catalan Atlas is the earliest complete example of its kind which has survived, it was undoubtedly preceded by other similar attempts at extending the range of the portolan chart.
Thus, pilots knew at a glance, for instance, that any port lettered in red offered revictualing and a safe harbor; dots and crosses, on the other hand, indicated underwater hazards.
Continental interiors are filled with detail, compass lines drawn, and decorative items are added to enhance the nearly up-to-date picture.
Its capital at Cambalucr or Chanbaleth [Beijing], the city of the Great Khan which so intrigued the chroniclers of the 14th century, receives due prominence, with a long legend describing its magnitude and grandeurs.
When it has finished ringing, no one may pass through the town, and at each gate a thousand men are on guard, not out of fear but in honor of the sovereign. The attempt at representing the configuration of the coast suggests at least that his informants were interested from a maritime point of view. Altogether, as mentioned above, we are told there are 7,548 islands in the Indian Ocean; they are rich in gold, silver, spices, and precious stones, so much so that a€?great ships of many different nationsa€? trade in their waters.
Farther north is the realm of Kebek Khan, a historical figure who reigned from 1309 to 1326: a€?Here reigns King Chabeh, ruler of the Kingdom of the Middle Horde. Here the text contains information from Marco Polo's account of how in the province of Malabar the death of criminals, who are compelled to commit suicide, is celebrated by their relatives with his observation on the custom of widows immolating themselves on the pyres of their dead husbands, mentioned a few lines later. In the Gulf, the island of Ormis [Hormuz] is shown, opposite the former settlement of the same name on the mainland.
These are jumbled together in a manner sometimes difficult to understand, but with the help of Marco Polo's narrative, it is possible to disentangle the itineraries which the map was evidently intended to set out. East of this lies the lake, Yssikol [Issik Kul], and Emalech the seat of the Khan, the Armalec of other travelers, in the Kuldja region. The compiler, however, perhaps because he confused this desert area with the Gobi, has transferred this stretch to the north of the Issik Kul.
In addition to Asia, the narratives of contemporary travelers were also extensively used by Cresques in Africa. We are told, for example, that merchants bound for Guinea pass the Atlas mountain range, shown here in its typical form of a bird's leg with three claws at its eastern end, at Val de Durcha. This rare speculation on the part of Cresques contained at least some partial truth because the Lacus Nili, the Pactolus of Strabo, and the Palolus of later maps, which in the Catalan Atlas and subsequent works is located in the neighborhood of Timbuktu, may reasonably be identified with the flood region of the Niger. By so doing, however, they found themselves reducing the vast extent of the Sahara almost to a vanishing point. The port of Quseir is clearly marked, and the accompanying text specifies that it is here that spices are taken on land and sent to Cairo and Alexandria. The importance of Baghdad as a center of the spice trade is emphasized; from there, precious wares from India are sent throughout the Syrian land and especially to Damascus. This African prince appears in the Catalan Atlas in a stately fashion with crown, orb, and scepter, with the inscription: The richest and noblest King in the world. In this section the coastlines are greatly differentiated and the abundance of names is in great contrast with the quantity of information, literally and graphically, supplied in sheets 5 and 6 (Asia). Nor can they be the Azores, which are first mentioned in 1427, or the Cape Verde Islands discovered only in 1455-1456. They are obviously to be identified with the Ichthyophagi, one of the fabulous races traditionally placed in Asia or in Africa. This sort of noises that tinnitus sufferers often hear include: buzzing, buzzing, whistles, roaring or humming type of noises.
See your General Practitioner if you think that the medication you are taking is triggering your ringing ears distress.They should be able to recommend an option for you.
Conan Doyle was a man of many opinions a€” some of them very strange indeed a€” and not all of his biographers have resisted the temptation to ridicule. Both authors draw on a great wealth of knowledge about the Spiritualist movement, and Conan Doylea€™s beliefs are treated with respect. He makes particular use of Conan Doylea€™s correspondence with the physicist Sir Oliver Lodge, another leading light of the Spiritualist movement. Even after the war, however, Conan Doyle remained on his guard against phony mediums, whom he regarded as beneath contempt.
Taken individually, these mistakes arc minor enough, and no doubt some of them are simple typos, but they gather a cumulative force as the book goes along.
While Jones is right to emphasize that Conan Doylea€™s beliefs took hold early, this approach leaves him in the awkward position of giving equal weight to two unequal segments of his life a€” the early phase, in which he was a mere dabbler, and the later one, when he became the worlda€™s most outspoken champion of the cause. This ambiguity only serves to heighten the sense of sexual perversity which runs through the narrative.a€? This interpretation, it seems fair to say, has not gained any luster since Charles Higham unleashed it in The Adventures of Conan Doyle.
Conan Doylea€™s own accounts are supplemented by material from Light, Two Worlds, and other Spiritualist journals of the day. In a few cases of suspected trickery, Conan Doyle appears to have been too polite to make a public declaration of fraud. We learn, for instance, that Conan Doyle was amazed when a particular medium referred to his departed loved ones as a€?Kingsleya€? and a€?Innes,a€? the names used within the immediate family. He then carefully records that Lady Conan Doyle was introduced to automatic writing by her friend Lily Loder-Symonds, who subsequently died, and that Lady Conan Doyle was reluctant to attempt it herself for fear that any messages she produced might emanate from her own subconscious. In Conan Doylea€™s view, this message was unquestionably a€?evidential.a€? Better still, Houdini himself had manifested psychic power by jotting down the name a€?Powell,a€? which Conan Doyle took to be a sign from the late Dr. Two years later, Houdini presented his side of the episode in his book A Magician Among the Spirits.
When Pheneas began to warn of an impending global apocalypse, voices of dissent could be heard in Conan Doylea€™s own camp. In some instances, however, he leaves an open verdict on mediums who probably do not warrant his good faith.
From the very beginning, many who saw the images agreed with the curt dismissal of Arthur Wright. Given his well-documented interest in otherworldly affairs, it seems only natural that the images should have captured his attention.
Cooper, whose other books include The Mystery of Telepathy and Modern Psychic Experiences, approaches the Cottingley incident with appreciable caution. At times he seems to be mugging for the cameras a€” a€?Ia€™m a foiled songA­and-dance man,a€? he tells Frances at one stage, a€?with a dash of the cheery thug intellectuala€? a€” but his facts are in order. In hindsight, it is clear that this confidence was misplaced, but Snellinga€™s ringing endorsement gave ammunition to the girlsa€™ supporters: a€?These two negatives are entirely genuine and unfaked photographs of single exposure, open air work, show movement in all fairy figures, and there is no trace whatever of studio work involving card or paper models, dark backgrounds, painted figures, etc.
One newspaper photograph showed him with fairies buzzing around his head, another suggested that at the crisis of Peter Pan, when Peter exhorts the audience to revive the dying Tinkerbell, the loudest shouts of a€?I do believe in fairies!a€? would be Conan Doylea€™s. At the time, the two women had stuck to their story for more than half a century, and Cooper had no reason to suppose they would recant at this late stage. Cooper provides a thorough examination of Conan Doylea€™s role in the affair, but the underlying reasons for his belief are not addressed a€” and it seems reasonable to say that Cooper, the genial fairy enthusiast, is not the best candidate for the job. Conan Doyle knew more than most men of his time about camera techniques, having been interested in photography since his student days.
In November of 1999, shortly after Teller of Tales appeared, I received an angry letter from a gentleman who had attended Conan Doylea€™s memorial service at the Royal Albert Hall some seventy years earlier.
Then try to connect the telephone lines, then call come in, will be have hear the ringing tone, if the sound is not impressive, you can change the RC with formula given above. This arrangement led to the folds of the precious sheets becoming worn through with use, so that these sheets were divided into 12 half-sheets, mounted on boards to fold like a screen. Then come geographical accounts of countries, continents, oceans, and tides, as well as astronomical and meteorological information. Abraham Cresques, a Jew of Palma on the island of Majorca, for many years was 'master of mappaemundi and compasses', i.e. From the Mar del Sarra [Caspian Sea] in the west, with a fairly accurate outline in the style of the portolan charts, the Mongol domains stretch away eastwards to the coasts of Catayo [China]. Some of the islands off Quinsay may stand for the Chusan archipelago, and further to the south is the large island of Caynam, [Hainan].
The kingdoms of India as enumerated by Polo are absent from the map, and there are significant differences in the towns appearing in the two documents. The reference is to the gate that Alexander is supposed to have built in the Caspian Mountains to exclude Gog and Magog, who are here equated with various Central Asian tribes.
The Southern Arabian coast has names differing from those given by Polo, and in one of them, Adramant, we may recognize the modern Hadhramaut. The delineation is then confused by the repetition of the Badakshan uplands, the mountains of Baldassia, a mistake that probably arose from confusion over the river system of southern Asia. In fact the section illustrated by #235B is thought to represent Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, with their Mongol envoys, crossing the Tien Shan mountains on their way through what is now China's Sinkiang Province, to Beijing (south is at the top). Here the special feature of interest on the Catalan Atlas is the inscription and picture of the vessel recording the departure of the Catalan, Jacome Ferrer, on a voyage to the 'river of gold' southwest of the new Finisterre of Bojador in 1346.
More geographical information is given on the Maghreb, which, after all, is part of the Mediterranean. Thanks to their notorious capacity to travel long distances without water, they completely transformed African trade, opening sub-Saharan areas to Islam. In Arabia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, is located the kingdom of Sheba; the queen, who came to visit King Solomon, is shown crowned and holding a golden disk as symbol of her wealth.
Navigational information is also recorded: a€?From the mouth of the river of Baghdad, the Indian and Persian Oceans open out. The mountains in the European and African section are arranged in chains or chain-like symbols, in Asia they appear as regular humped garlands of rocks. The Catalan Atlas, in fact, marks the progress in the gradual discovery of the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa with an illustration of Jaime Ferrera€™s ship, which, we are told, set sail on lo August 1346 bound for the fabulous Rio de Oro [River of Gold] in Africa.
In this spirit of critical realism, Cresques and his fellow Catalan cartographers of the 14th century, threw off the bonds of tradition and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance. The city stands near the apex of a triangle formed by two rivers and the ocean; each of the two rivers divides into three before reaching the sea, a representation embodying a somewhat confused notion of the inter-linked natural and artificial waterways of China. Some people with this ringing in the ears are likewise more sensitive to the regular daily sounds. You can possibly hear the noises in one or both ears, and it may be difficult to pinpoint where the ringing sound appears to come from.
If you end up getting extreme nervous or become depressed, it is best to see a physician for recommendations on treatment. His devotion to the cause of Spiritualism has always presented a challenge to those who would understand his life.
Many readers will find these accounts inclining too much toward the Spiritualist viewpoint, but both men bring a fair measure of objectivity to the endeavor. These letters, currently housed at Cambridge, offer useful glimpses of a less guarded Conan Doyle, expressing his enthusiasm over a new medium, or his distress over an anti-Spiritualist attack.
At every opportunity Jones is careful to show that Conan Doyle retained some measure of critical perception, even after he had given himself over to the cause. This shakiness is compounded by the booka€™s index, which bears only a nodding acquaintance with the text. As a result, in the first half of the book Jones seems to be straining to find psychic significance in every nook and cranny, as be follows closely in the footsteps of Owen Dudley Edwards, Geoffrey Stavert, and Charles Higham. It is certainly true that a macabre strain runs through much of Conan Doylea€™s early work, but possibly this owes more to Conan Doylea€™s admiration for Poe than to his unresolved sexual issues.

In others, he may have believed that the medium bad simply added a few dubious flourishes to a genuine psychic display.
The phenomenon becomes less impressive when it is realized that Conan Doyle often referred to them as such in print a€” especially in the psychic press. Conan Doyle put his views forward in a two-part article in The Strand Magazine, which later found its way into his posthumous collection The Edge of the Unknown. Conan Doyle, for his part, mentioned only William Rutherford, a professor from his Edinburgh University days.) Jones also traces several episodes from the novel to Conan Doylea€™s own experiences in the seance room. Mina Crandon, William Hope, and Ada Besinnet will continue to rally their supporters as long as such matters are debated. His lecturing commitments prevented him from traveling to Cottingley, but he sent a representative, Edward Gardner of the Theosophical Society. He also provides a great deal of new information, based on interviews and correspondence with the adult Frances and Elsie. Indeed, Cooper himself believed in the authenticity of the photos for five years, and saw himself as a gallant defender of the honor of two elderly ladies. Not a word is said about Conan Doylea€™s Celtic background, his fathera€™s and his Uncle Richarda€™s interest in fairies and their frequent depiction of them in their artwork, or his courtly inclination to take the word of two seemingly guileless girls. In recent years wea€™ve seen any number of books that touch upon various aspects of Conan Doylea€™s psychic endeavors, and ita€™s commonplace to see him depicted in film and on television as an earnest, if perhaps overly credulous psychic investigator.
A camera and developing equipment were fixtures of his life as a young doctor, and he contributed many essays to the British Journal of Photography. He insisted that I could not have read any of the Spiritualist books, such as The Vital Message or The New Revelation, listed in my bibliography. These letters, currently housed at Cambridge, offer useful glimpses of a less guarded Conan Doyle, expressing his enthusiasm over a new medium, orA  his distress over an anti-Spiritualist attack. Four half-sheets are occupied by cosmographical and navigational data, they describe the whole concept of the world, show astronomical and astrological representations, and provide information about the calendar, the sun, moon, planets, the signs of the zodiac and the tides. The second sheet presents a spectacular diagram of a large astronomical and astrological wheel. This country makes a sweep from east to south with an approach to its actual form, and along it's coast appear several of the great medieval ports and trading centers frequented by Arab merchants.
There Cresques placed some of the fabulous and monstrous races legendary in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages: a€?On this island are people who are very different from the rest of mankind. Conspicuous on the map is the Christian Kingdom and city of Columbo, placed on the east coast.
And know that these people marry at the age of about twelve years and generally live to be 40 years old. The island of Scotra, an important stage on the trade route from Aden to India, is misplaced to the east, and appears to occupy the approximate position of the Kuria Muria Islands. The legend above them reads, in translation: This caravan left the Empire of Sarra to go to Catayo, across a Great Desert (Sarai, on the Edil [Volga], was the capital of the Kipchak Tartars, from which the Polos had set out about 1262. This refers to the northwest coast of Africa which extends beyond Cape Bojador to a point just north of the Rio d'Oro. Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the west African coast, south of Bojador. Here they fish for pearls, which are supplied to the town of Baghdad.a€? We learn that a€?before they dive to the bottom of the sea, pearl fishers recite magic spells with which they frighten away the fisha€? a piece of information that comes straight from Marco Polo, who mentions that the pearl fishers on the Malabar coast are protected by the magic and spells of the Brahmins. The heathens believe that Paradise is situated there, because the islands have such a temperate climate and such a great fertility of the soil.
For this reason the heathens of India believe that their souls are transported to these islands after death, where they live for ever on the scent of these fruits. For example, folks with tinnitus often discover that a radio or TV is painfully loud when it is at a normal volume for many people. This looks much like a hearing aid but makes an enjoyable sound which helps to mask the unpleasant tinnitus sound.
Even his staunchest admirers have been troubled by his apparent credulity, and it has become a familiar refrain to wonder how the creator of Sherlock Holmes, the a€?perfect reasoning and observing machine,a€? could have given himself so wholly to a cause that appears to defy logic.
More importantly, both are careful to show that Conan Doyle was not alone in his views, and was not, as so many have supposed, a credulous old dupe. Because the spiritual activity of Conan Doylea€™s early years is comparatively sparse, Jones scours the early fiction for signs of psychic influence. That he continued to profess his astonishment at each recurrence is perhaps more an indication of his trusting nature a€” and his need to believe a€” than of the genuine character of the phenomenon. Houdini, while convinced of Lady Conan Doylea€™s sincerity, had grave misgivings about the seance. He has little to say, however, about the booka€™s success or failure as a piece of psychic propaganda, or its possible impact on Conan Doylea€™s reputation. Encouraged by Gardnera€™s favorable impression of the girls, and by the reports of photographic experts, Conan Doyle used his name and influence to bring the photographs to the attention of the public.
And yet, despite the first-hand confession of Frances, Cooper is a man who cheerfully admits that he does, in fact, believe in fairies. The first section of the book recounts the events from 1917, when the first photographs were taken, through the early 1920s, when Conan Doylea€™s involvement brought worldwide notoriety.
When Elsie made her confession, Cooper writes, a€?My world shifted a little and I had no words.a€? For most investigators, this would be the end of the matter. Conan Doyle could easily have seen through the Cottingley photographs, had he been of a mind to do so. Ia€™ve read many books about paranormal phenomena, including Chariots of the Gods, Uri Geller: My Story, and any number of turgid ramblings from Aleister Crowley. An even earlier chart (probably covering the whole 'world' originally), that by Angelino Dulcert, of Majorca, dated 1339, also has points of resemblance to the Catalan Atlas. There are several references to world maps executed by him, though this is the only one now known.
There is a further allusion to Alexander having erected two trumpet-blowing figures in bronze; these, according to various medieval legends, resounded with the wind and frightened the Tartars until the instruments were blocked up by various nesting birds and animals. For India and the ocean to the west, therefore, we may conclude that charts were used which differed in detail from Polo's account, though similar in general features. Here unfortunately the map ends; unlike the Medici Atlas, or some others, it makes no attempt at a representation, conjecture or otherwise, of the southern portion of this continent. The text beside a Touareg riding on a camel and also a group of tents informs us that this land is inhabited by veiled people living in tents and riding camels. Various trading stations are indicated on the shore of the Indian Ocean from Hormus, a€?where India begins,a€? to Quilon in Kerala. With meticulous care the islands in the region of the portolan chart section are displayed, they are painted in color, some of them like Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are shown in gold. As John Dickson Carr wrote, echoing the popular attitude toward Conan Doylea€™s beliefs, a€?For a quarter of a century he had loomed thick-shouldered as the sturdy Briton, with no damned nonsense about him. He offers compelling examples of how the young doctora€™s interest in telepathy and mesmerism found its way into early stories such as a€?John Barrington Cowlesa€? and a€?The Great Keinplatz Experiment,a€? and the novels The Mystery of Cloomber and The Parasite. He noted that Lady Conan Doyle had scribbled a sign of the cross, though his mother was the wife of an Orthodox rabbi.
Jones dutifully reports that Pecoraro could produce no phenomena when tied up by Harry Houdini, but the story did not end there. He reproduced the images in The Strand Magazine, and brought out a book called The Coming of the Fairies. Like Kelvin Jones, Cooper performs a great service in emphasizing Conan Doylea€™s cautious approach to the matter. Cooper, however, believes that Elsiea€™s admission of fraud was simply a red herring a€” a€?the device of a tired and ailing old lady not wanting to be bothered by reporters any more.a€? Not all readers will be willing to follow him down this particular garden path, but Cooper makes an elegant case.
The other elements (fire, air, water) are incorporated into the next three concentric circles; then come the seven planets, the band of the zodiac, and the various stations and phases of the moon. In view of the possible identity of Dulcert, and the Ligurian origin of the Medici Atlas, we may conclude that this type of world map, though developed by Catalans, originated early in the 14th century in northern Italy, where the narrative of Marco Polo, which, as will be seen, supplied many of the details embodied in the map, would be most readily available. After his death in 1387, his work was carried on by his son, Jafuda, who eventually instructed the Portuguese under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator. This form of the name (it is rendered Coilum by Polo), and other details, suggest that the compiler drew upon the writings of Friar Jordanus, who was a missionary in this area, and whose Book of Marvels was completed and in circulation by 1340. It is marked by a line of towns up the valley of the Edil from Agitarchan [Astrakhan] through Sarra [Sarai], Borgar, and thence eastward through Pascherit [probably representing the territory of the Bashkirs east of the middle Volga], and Sebur, or Sibir, a medieval settlement whose site is unknown, but thought to be on the upper Irtish.
The crowned black man holding a golden disk is identified as Musse Melly, a€?lord of the negroes of Guineaa€? - in fact, Mansa Musa, of fabulous wealth. Speculation of this sort did at least have the merit of enabling the mapmaker to draw the Sahara with greater accuracy. At times, however, when the psychic content is less apparent, Jones shifts to a less persuasive form of psychosexual analysis.
A year after Conan Doylea€™s death, the medium made an admission of fraud to the New York Herald Tribune under the headline a€?Nino Pecoraro, Who Helped Conan Doylea€™s faith in Mystic World, Admits Deceit.a€? Obviously Conan Doyle could not have known that this would happen.
Cooper quotes many instances in which Conan Doyle shared his doubts with Oliver Lodge and others, dispelling the notion that he rushed headlong into an endorsement of the photographs.
He establishes that both girls regarded the appearance of the fairies as a normal and not especially interesting occurrence, and that they often referred to the fairies in private conversation and correspondence, in circumstances which did nothing to advance any public deception. Greenhough Smith, the editor of The Strand Magazine, as a€?Houghton,a€? one begins lo suspect that biographical details are not his greatest concern.
These proportions are of some significance, for they have undoubtedly restricted the cartographer in his portrayal of the extreme northern and southern regions. The next six rings are devoted to the lunar calendar and to an account of the effect of the moon when it is found in the different signs of the zodiac. The Catalan Atlas says: The circumference of the earth is 180,000 stadia, that is to say 20,052 miles (this is the same calculation as Ptolemy's, yet it was given a full thirty years prior to the first known Latin translation of his Geographia, #119 ). But the day of the Jewish school of cartography at Majorca was already drawing to a close, owing to the wave of persecution which swept through the Aragon kingdom in the latter years of the century. Possibly additions were also made so that the map might serve as an illustration to his narrative.
In this quarter, the information upon which the map is based was not drawn from Marco Polo. Also its treatment of the Atlantic islands: the Azores, Canary, and Madeira groups, is more complete than any representation of earlier times. The gap in the snake-like Atlas Mountain chain of North Africa is meant to illustrate a pass that these Arab merchants commonly used (#235A). As for Powell, Houdini said, he had been thinking of his friend Frederick Eugene Powell, who was in poor health. Jones, with the benefit of hindsight, might have done a better job of weeding out the acknowledged fakes a€” a€?The rotten twigs must come off,a€? as Conan Doyle himself once said. Ia€™m not the type.a€? But Cooper believes that Elsie and Frances saw something at the foot of the garden, though the photographs themselves were fakes. This was perhaps to some extent deliberate, for two years before the composition of this map, we hear of the Infant John (son of Peter of Aragon) demanding a map 'well executed and drawn with its East and West' and figuring 'all that could be shown of the West and of the Strait [of Gibraltar] leading to the West'. Three more rings show, respectively, the division of the circle into degrees, while the last gives an account of the Golden Number. There are still other names which are not found in Jordanus either; but the commercial importance of Cambay (Canbetum, on the map) would account for the relatively detailed information about this region. To the south is a long east-west range, called the Mountains of Sebur, representing the northwestern face of the Tien Shan and Altai. His pilgrimage to Mecca, including a visit to Cairo, was famous for the enormous amount of gold he spent on that occasion. The Infant, in other words, was interested, not in northern Europe and Asia or in southern Africa, but in the Orient and the Western Ocean. They eat white men and strangers, if they can catch them.a€? The reference is to giants familiar from the medieval Alexander legend, specifically defined here as Anthropophagi. There is, surprisingly, no indication of the river Indus, a striking omission also from Polo's narrative.
In the late 13th and early 14th centuries there were Franciscan mission stations at these localities, and the details no doubt came originally from the friars. This is plausible enough, for he controlled a large part of Africa, from Gambia and Senegal to Gao on the Niger, and had access to some of its richest gold deposits. The cartographer satisfied him by cutting out, as it were, an east-west rectangle from a circular world map which would cover the desired area. George Grosjean, in his commentary on the 1977 facsimile edition of the Atlas, stresses that the orientation of this map must be understood from its essential part. To these far distant waters are also relegated mermaids, some of them probably the traditional half-woman and half-fish, the others more siren-like half-birds. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.a€?The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian.
Reports of the fabulous wealth of this African ruler did much to encourage an interest in the exploration of Africa. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. Weissa€™s birthday, a date of considerable importance to Houdini, but the spirit presence made no reference to it.) Not surprisingly, as Jones reports, Conan Doyle brushed aside Houdinia€™s objections. The map was constructed in the portolano style, a type of medieval navigation chart which was intended to lie on the chart-table of a ship and always was oriented to the necessities of navigation, thus there is no 'orientation of priority' of such maps. The one illustrated has two fishtails, in accordance with one of the most common medieval conventions.
Farther north appear the Three Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem and at the top (or bottom) of the map a caravan; all of the latter figures are drawn upside down, as the map was probably meant to be laid horizontally and viewed from both sides.
The Christian cross and the English message were products of the a€?translating effecta€? which occurred in the minds of many mediums. The shape of the Catalan Atlas, therefore, must not be taken as evidence on questions such as the extent, form or knowledge of the African continent; nor does the change from a circular to a rectangular frame indicate specifically any change in ideas relating to the shape of the earth. Since the Atlas was not intended as a portolano for daily use but instead was a luxury edition for a princely library, it is useless to ask for correct orientation of the map-sheets.
Camels laden with goods are followed by their drivers; behind them various people, one of them asleep, are riding horses. And Ellis Powell, Conan Doyle insisted, was a€?the one man who might be expected to communicatea€? under the circumstances. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.a€?A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano.
Designed to assist mariners find their way at sea, it served a practical purpose akin to that of the future road map, but it answered this purpose by depicting not the route itself, but detailed coastlines and hazards to shipping. Mariners previously had to rely on written itineraries which can be traced back to the peripli or coastal pilots of the classical world.
Following the introduction of the mariner's compass in Europe towards the end of the 13th century, nautical or portolan charts were made as an extension of the peripli, constructed on a framework of radiating compass lines, with north at the top. Places were located and marked around the coasts, while places located further inland and usually the entire interior of the continents were left blank.
The province and town of Lop mentioned by Marco Polo can be connected with the modern town of Ruoqiang (Charkhlik) south of Lop Nor. It should be emphasized that while the Atlas was drawn in the portolano style, it is not, strictly speaking, a portolan chart. The typical nautical chart, which some scholars believe had its origin with the Catalan mapmakers, had hitherto been cartographically the very opposite of the medieval theocratic or ecclesiastical maps. Portolan charts traditionally displayed only known, discovered coasts, precisely detailed harbors, river mouths, rocks, shallows, currents, etc.

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