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3) The basilar membrane inside the cochlea breaks the sound waves up into different frequencies. 4) Tiny hair cells which live on the basilar membrane translate mechanical vibrations into patterns of nerve impulses.
Your basilar membrane is lined with tiny hair cells, which are responsible for converting mechanical vibration of the basilar membrane to a chemical signal that stimulates your auditory nerve. Hair cells in your ear come in two flavours: one row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells.
The pictures below show electron micrographs of healthy hair cells (left) and hair cells after exposure to excessive noise (right).

Damage to the auditory nerve, indicated by the arrow, can cause sensorineural hearing loss. The near ("basal") end of the basilar membrane resonates to high frequencies, and the far ("apical") end resonates to low frequencies.
The inner hair cells are heavily connected to the auditory nerve, and they send sound information to your brain.
As you grow older, hair cells at the high frequency end of the cochlea also tend to wear out.
Vibrations at different locations on the basilar membrane therefore reveal what frequencies are present in the sound.

The job of the outer hair cells, in contrast, is to amplify the sound vibrations by dancing along. This little video shows you how the vibrations might look if the basilar membrane could be "rolled out in front of you".

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31.12.2014 admin

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