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This is the full text of the Sound Advice Working Group introduction to its recommendations for controlling noise in the music and entertainment industry.
1.1 Music is perceived as pleasant but can sometimes be loud to produce its effect, while the sound of a jet engine, for example, is regarded as unpleasant. 1.2 The music and entertainment industries are unique in that high noise levels and extremely loud special effects are often regarded as essential elements of an event.
1.3 Reducing noise risks in music and entertainment is not about destroying art, but about protecting people - artists, performers and ancillary workers equally. 1.4 The purpose of this guidance is to provide practical advice on developing noise-control strategies in the music and entertainment industries to prevent or minimise the risk of hearing damage from the performance of both live and recorded music.
1.6 Risk assessments of the work should identify those people who are likely to be at risk.
1.7 Everyone in the production chain has a role to play in managing the noise risks - whether it is the promoter selecting a balanced line-up, a performer working with reduced monitor levels or stagehands using their earplugs. 1.8 The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Noise Regulations) require employers to prevent or reduce risks to health and safety from exposure to noise at work, so far as is reasonably practicable. 1.9 The duties in the Noise Regulations are in addition to the general duties set out in the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (the HSW Act). 1.10 This guidance applies to premises where employees or the self-employed are present, where live (whether amplified or not) or recorded music is being played for entertainment purposes at noise levels which will result in performers' or other workers' daily personal noise exposure being likely to exceed the exposure levels in the Noise Regulations.
The Noise Regulations mean operators of entertainment premises must protect their employees' hearing to a higher standard than the 1989 Noise at Work Regulations, which they replace. Employers are required to reduce exposure to noise and provide hearing protection and health surveillance including hearing tests (where appropriate) to employees directly involved with loud noise, such as musicians, DJs and bar staff. One Council has worked hard over the last two years to raise awareness of this change in the law and encourage bars, clubs and theatres to carry out workplace assessments and plan any changes needed to comply with the new Regulations.
The Council recognises existing licensed premises may find it difficult to carry out major building modifications immediately, but officers do expect employers to assess how best to protect employees from loud noise and come up with short-, medium- and longer-term solutions.
New businesses will be expected to incorporate noise-control measures during the design stage.
The Council wishes to take a staged and proportionate approach to enforcement although it will use statutory powers if employers fail to meet their obligations.
1.14 The Noise Regulations require employers to take specific action at certain action values. 1.17 Look at Useful information and glossary for a table of the actions required based on a comparison of exposure action values and exposure limit values. 1.18 The noise exposure level (often referred to as the 'noise dose') takes account of both the sound pressure level and how long it lasts. 1.19 Each 3 dB added doubles the sound energy (but this is only just noticeable to a listener).
A noise level reduction of 3 dB halves the sound pressure level (and its propensity to damage). 1.20 Halving the noise dose can be achieved either by halving the exposure time, or by halving the noise level, which corresponds to a reduction of 3 dB. 1.22 It is important that people consider noise exposure when not at work because cumulative exposure leads to hearing damage, whether or not it is work-related. Martin first noticed he had a problem when the ringing in his ears after a show never really disappeared, but became a permanent and very annoying feature of life.
For the most part Martin has had to give up live engineering and has had to make a living as a 'system tech' and administrator for a PA rental company. This list is not definitive but indicates the jobs of people working in the music and entertainment sectors that might be affected by loud noise from live or amplified music or special effects.
Frequency analysis: The breakdown of sound into discrete component frequencies, measured in Hertz and usually grouped in bands or octaves.
Noise exposure: 'The noise dose', which can be calculated, takes account of the actual volume of sound and how long it continues.
The event safety guide - A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events.
University of NSW professor Gary Housley has quashed the myth that when we experience temporary hearing loss after being exposed to loud music at a concert it is causing permanent damage, as Nine News reports. Housley’s paper, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) argues that whilst we may experience a loss of hearing after exposure to intensely loud music, it is just the ears way of adapting to the increased volume and it is reversible. Along with researchers from New Zealand and the US, Housley found that when sound levels rise, the cells in the cochlea release a hormone which causes a temporary reduction in hearing sensitivity. They found that when sound levels rise, the inner ear releases a hormone that binds to the receptor – missing in the genetically modified mice group. But before you start blasting your favourite song at full volume without a worry for your ears, or those of your poor neighbours, Prof.
When it comes to exceeding safe sound limits personal music players like iPods are the biggest offenders.
Research also suggests that people are regularly listening to personal music devices in excess of 100 decibels.
With so many young people permanently plugged into their iPod or mobile phones, the European Union is trying to tackle the issue head on by implementing a noise level restriction on all personal music devices.
This latest research is one of many musically themed studies conducted in the name of science.
Get the latest music news, opinion, interviews, freebies, tracks, videos and more delivered straight to your inbox at lunchtime every weekday. That said, there are two kinds of hearing damage and one of them is the temporary healing impairment.
In addition to the temporary ear damage, there is the permanent damage to this hearing organ, which means that, most likely, you will never recover the use of your hearing ability again. NIOSH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, says exposure to 100 decibels  can cause permanent hearing damage after just 15 minutes (total, not continuous) per day of exposure. So music — usually loud, although Karageorghis does not specifically mention decibel level — will improve your workout. What I do suggest is that you get yourself a good pair of earplugs and stay away from the speakers. AARP is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that helps people 50 and older improve the quality of their lives. This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications. Special thanks to Tiffany Do for her research and interest in creating the timeline, and Hillary Jenks and Alexis Moreno for their help in writing the entries. 50,000 a€“ 15,000 BC People of northeast Asia follow herds of caribou, bison & mammoth and migrate across the present day Bering Strait. 1542 Juan Cabrillo claims Southern California territory for the Spanish kingdom, beginning over three and half centuries of occupation. 1822A  Spanish rule in California becomes Mexican rule with the rise of the Republic of Mexico and the country's successful War for Independence from Spain. 1833 The Mexican government secularizes the missions, making them public property and allows for land to be distributed to Indian neophytes and Mexican soldiers as payment for service in the military. 1843 Manuel Micheltorena, governor of southern California, decrees the restoration of southern missions to church control. 1846 Governor Pio Pico sells most of the San Fernando Valley land to Eulogio de Celis before the Mexican War.
1846 - 1848 The Mexican American War results in California becoming part of the United States, along with more than half of former Mexican land. 1847 Agreement of peace (Cahuenga Capitulation) between Fremont and Pico gives Americans control of California in the war.
1849 The gold rush in Northern California draws people, and the Valley is cow country full of ranchos that feed them. 1850 California joins the United States; Los Angeles County (which includes the San Fernando Valley) initially comprises 4,340 square miles and the first United States Census measures its population at 3,530. 1851 Alexander Bell and David Alexander become the first American landowners in the Valley after Vicente de Osa sells Rancho Providencia.
1854 Rancho Ex-Mission de San Fernando falls into hands of Andres Pico who becomes known for his hospitality and entertainment. 1855 A new road allows lines of stages, trains of wagons and pack mules to travel to Kern River gold fields. 1860 Geronimo Lopez’s adobe home becomes known as the Lopez Station for housing the stagehouse for the Valley. 1880 San Fernando Farm Homestead Association officially distributes property to stockholders. 1887 A real estate boom partitions up the Valley, beginning with the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, which buys land from the Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company.
1897 Squatters of the Land Settlers league attempt to squat in the San Fernando Valley under the belief that it is public land for settlement.
1907 Los Angeles approves a 23 million dollar bond issue for aqueduct construction from Owens Valley.
In 1915, the city of Los Angeles annexes the San Fernando ValleyA  - a crucial development as this enables the Valley to gain access to the water coming from Owens Valley from the Los Angeles Aqueduct (completed two years earlier under the direction of William Mulholland).
1916 Due to the influx of water provided by the LA Aqueduct, Valley residents begin growing oranges. 1918 The Valley reports record crops including 55,000,000 pounds of beans, and a variety of fruits and vegetables including apricots, citrus, peaches, potatoes, and sugar beets.


1926 The town of Sherman Oaks and the street Sherman Way bear legacy to pioneer of the San Fernando Valley General Moses Hazeltine Sherman. 1931 Residents protest changing the name of Cahuenga to Highland because of the uniqueness of the name Cahuenga. 1941- May 29 Disney Studio animators strike Disney due to Walt Disney's inconsistent monetary rewards for better workers.
1941 When the United States joins World War II, the Valley changes from a place of agriculture to manufacturing as part of the war effort and defense institutions like Lockheed. 1941 Old Trapper’s Lodge Motel with giant trapper sculptures is built as an attraction. 1945 Despite the wartime ban against strikes, set designers from the Conference of Studio Unions strike against Warner Brothers film studio for 30 weeks. 1956 The San Fernando Valley Campus of the Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences (CSUN) opens.
1959 Valley leaders and parents protest the increase in mailed pornography in the community.
1966 A coalition of property owning and tax paying associations come together to create a mass group to protest hikes on property taxes.
Between 1967 and 1971 there are six massive demonstrations at San Fernando Valley State College (now known as California State University Northridge) against the lack of representation or curricula related to ethnic studies and the war in Vietnam. 1971 The Sylmar Tunnel Disaster strikes when Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company tunnels to bring water from the Feather River to the Los Angeles basin. 1979A  Valley residents march against Rocketdyne’s Canoga Park facility on the anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings to protest the dangerous activities of operations involving nuclear energy.
1991 Motorist Rodney King is pulled over on Foothill Boulevard in Lake View Terrace where 15 LAPD officers in patrol cars converged on him.
1992 The Rodney King trial takes place in Simi Valley with a jury of ten whites, one Latino, and one Asian. 1994 a€“ 57 people lose their lives in the wake of the 6.7 magnitude Northridge Earthquake. 1996 Unrest occurs at California State University Northridge when Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke speaks on campus.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. It may help you to understand why noise control is so important in this industry, and includes information about permanent hearing loss, temporary deafness and tinnitus. High levels of sound are common, for example in bars, nightclubs, orchestras, theatres and recording studios.
It will also help performers and other workers and employers meet their legal obligations under the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Noise Regulations). These will include musicians and performers, technical staff and others working directly on the entertainment, but also may include staff involved in work activities connected to the entertainment, for example ushers, security, front of house, bar and catering staff etc, depending on their location and length of time spent in the noisy environment. The main responsibility rests with the employer, but everyone should help reduce noise exposure and take a range of simple steps to protect themselves and others from the hazards of loud noise or lengthy exposure to noise at work. These general duties extend to the safeguarding of the health and safety, including the risk of hearing damage, of people who are not your employees, such as contractors and members of the public. Anyone whose work may create a noise hazard has a responsibility to themselves and to anyone else who may be affected.
Unless stated otherwise, readers should assume that values representing average, typical or representative noise levels have been measured using an A-weighting and values representing peak noise with a C-weighting. However, when considering ways to control noise, low-frequency noise needs to be treated differently to high-frequency noise. Generally the potential for hearing to be damaged by noise is related to the noise 'dose' a person receives. When 10 dB is added, the energy is increased ten-fold, while adding 20dB is a hundred-fold increase.
People often experience temporary deafness after leaving a noisy place such as a night club or a rock concert. It may only be when damage caused by noise over years combines with hearing loss due to ageing that people realise how deaf they have become. He often operated stage monitors with a wide range of performers and show formats, including at festivals where he would act as the 'house' engineer - mixing a number of the bands himself and acting as a 'babysitter' to visiting monitor engineers. Appropriate for selecting suitable hearing protection and designing acoustic control measures. Noise exposure is not the same as sound level, which is the level of noise measured at a particular moment. The released hormones reduce the amount of sound transmitted to the ear, causing hearing sensitivity to worsen as a protective measure.
Housley warns that continued loud noise can lead to irreversible damage through the loss of high-frequency hearing. “It’s like sun exposure,” explains Professor Housley.
By comparison, safe sound levels, according to workplace legislation, are set at an upper limit of 85 decibels for eight hours a day. New legislation coming into effect earlier this year means that all music players and mobile phones sold in the EU must have their sound capped at 85 decibels. So for now you can still annoy everyone else on the train with your iPod blaring Eminem loud enough for the whole carriage to hear. From serious studies to the more absurd, with conclusions including rock music makes your racist and that music is better than sex.
When the ear is unable to detect sound at certain frequencies, then it is said to be impaired. Luckily, this is not the end of the line for you because medical technology has come up with the best digital and analog hearing aids to make sure that you hear sound as it is. Loud music is an integral part of many workout activities — spin classes are a prime example. Researcher Costas Karageorghis has been studying the effects of music on physical performance for more than 25 years. It should be “congruent with the socio-cultural background and age group of listeners.” The rhythm should approximate the rhythm of the activity. If you’re wearing earbuds because you like your own music better than what’s coming over the gym speakers, don’t turn them up so loud that they drown out the gym music. They move south along ice-fee corridors into the North American continent to what is now California.
With him are two Franciscan padres, Junipero Serra and Juan Crespi, who record the expedition and found the first mission.
Of the missions’ eight million acres originally designated as the property of converted Native Americans, 500 land grants are created for influential families.
Though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ends the war, it becomes an issue of contention when existing Californio rights are not honored as promised, and the Treaty is breached. The treaty takes place at the house of Don Feliz (Campo de Cahuenga) near the Cahuenga Pass.
His adobe house eventually becomes state historical monument: Los Encinos State Historical Park. This pamphlet extolls the benefits of living in Southern California in order to be healed of many diseases like tuberculosis. Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company, the successor to the Homestead Association, promotes wheat and flour-milling industry.
Going back to Native American terms, the word Cahuenga reflects the Native American origins of the San Fernando Valley.
Phyllis O’Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. This will be the third institution of higher education founded in the Valley; in 1947 Pierce College is founded and in 1949 Valley College opens.
Murrow televises the Sodium Reactor Experiment from the Santa Susana Research Facility on his program as it powered Moorpark. Although safety inspector Wally Zavattero discovers hazardous conditions and orders precautions taken, they are ignored, leading to an explosion that killed 17 people.
Protesting for equality, the senior citizens gather at the Van Nuys-Sherman Oaks Recreation Center to band together. A local resident videotapes the beating, which becomes a national discussion on police brutality. With twenty billion dollars in damage, it is one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history.
If the 300 square mile area that is the Valley were a single city, it would be the 5th largest in the nation. We have thousands and thousands of them but eventually it means you can't hear some sounds.'The research also discovered music was being turned up in classes because it had to compete with equipment noises to be heard and most instructors like to have music loud as it motivated participants.
There are cases of performers being unable to carry on their profession because of hearing damage as a consequence of their work. It has been produced by a working group of industry stakeholders with the support of the Health and Safety Executive. The Regulations specify the minimum requirements for the protection of workers from the risks to their health and safety arising, or likely to arise, from exposure to noise at work.
Employees also have duties under the HSW Act to take care of their own health and safety and that of others whom their work may affect and to co-operate with employers so that they may comply with health and safety legislation.
For example, people cannot usually hear bats communicating at very high frequencies or when whales use very low frequencies.


The terms dB(A) and dB(C) are not used but where noise has been measured using the C-weighting these are referred to as 'peak'. So the division of the A-weighted measurement into its constituent frequencies (frequency analysis) becomes necessary. Common off-hours exposure to high noise levels may include audio and video equipment (personal car stereos, computer speakers, televisions), concerts, clubs and cinemas, sporting events, power tools and noisy hobbies. This may mean their family complains about the television being too loud, they cannot keep up with conversations in a group, or they have trouble using a telephone. Other rarer conditions include hyperacusis (a general intolerance or oversensitivity to everyday sounds) and diplacusis (a difference in the perception of sound by the ears, either in frequency or time). At the end of each simulation the hearing level undamaged by noise for the age of the person is demonstrated.
He eventually plucked up courage to go to his GP, and was diagnosed with noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus and a condition called diplacusis where the two ears hear a given pitch as two distinct tones - definitely not a good attribute for musical work.
Well never fear, new research lead by a NSW professor is challenging our perceptions about the damage that excessive volumes can have on our ears.
During that time, the ears are less sensitive to acute sounds, but also able to tolerate louder-than-usual volumes without causing permanent damage. We compiled 15 of the wackiest facts science has taught us about music, which you can view in the slideshow below. Many conditions could bring this kind of impairment about and therefore it is important that you take care to subject your ears to the best conditions possible. It is therefore important that you define the causes of the temporary hearing loss so that you can keep away from them.
There are many causes of permanent hearing damage but the first one is that if temporary ear damage is not taken care of, then it escalates into permanent hearing loss.
The first thing to do is to find out what causes hearing damage and then put it under control. A recent article in the New York Times found that the noise levels in a spin class at Crunch averaged 100 decibels over 40 minutes, and hit 105 decibels in its loudest five minutes. Nevertheless, instructors — who experience the greatest exposure, and therefore are at greatest risk — often like loud music. In a 2011 article he (and co-authors) wrote that music improves exercise performance by either reducing fatigue or increasing work capacity. Readers, especially those who work in the field of hearing health, will expect me now to suggest turning down the music.
Google “best workout headphones” and you’ll find a large variety at different price levels and for different kinds of workouts. The Sacred Expedition is a religious & military project of missionization and colonization on behalf of Spain. Using Native American workers to not only construct the mission but also work it, the mission quickly becomes one of the most prosperous in California, producing abundant harvests and goods.
Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the region’s climate. The dam is approximately 200 feet high in San Francisquito Canyon, about 5 miles northeast of what is now Magic Mountain. Photographs at right by Dorothea Lange of the San Fernando Valley in 1936, care of the Library of Congress. Producers pelt metal nuts and bolts from the roof and police hose workers and throw tear gas. In July the Sodium Reactor Experiment suffers a partial meltdown; its estimated release is 240 times that of 3 Mile Island.
Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley.
This guidance aims to help prevent damage to the hearing of people working in music and entertainment from loud noise, including music. Hearing damage is permanent, irreversible and causes deafness - hearing aids cannot reverse it.
With properly implemented measures, the risk from noise in the workplace and the risk of damage to workers' hearing will be reduced. It supplements the general HSE guidance on the Noise Regulations (L108) Controlling noise at work: The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005. To account for the way that the human ear responds to sound of various frequencies a frequency weighting, known as the A-weighting, is commonly applied when measuring noise. It is also very important, particularly in music and entertainment, when selecting personal hearing protection, to ensure the correct type for protection from the most damaging frequencies identified during a noise risk assessment. In general, an employer needs only to consider the work-related noise exposure when deciding what action to take to control risks. It is a sign that if you continue to be exposed to high levels of noise your hearing could be permanently damaged.
Eventually everything becomes muffled and people find it difficult to catch sounds like 't', 'd', and 's', so they confuse similar words.
Danish research among symphony orchestras suggests more than 27% of musicians suffer hearing loss, with 24% suffering from tinnitus, 25% from hyperacusis, 12% from distortion and 5% from diplacusis.
At the same time, it is also important to know of the normal conditions around us that cause ear damage. Accidents, noise pollution, loud bangs and explosions that cause the rupturing of the eardrums and many other causes lead to permanent hearing ability loss. You need to keep the stereo volume at a moderate level and you have to wear ear protection plugs if you work in areas where there is bound to be bangs and explosions like mining, construction sites and others. A staffer for the Hearing Health Foundation found that the decibel level at her gym hit 115 decibels.
The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valley’s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry. But the taking of this water destroys the environment and the economy of the Owens Valley, once a beautiful valley known for its migrating birds and diverse, self-sustaining ecosystems. The dam fails upon its first full filling on March 12, killing 450 people in the San Francisquito and Santa Clara River valleys. Performers and other workers in music and entertainment are just as likely to have their hearing permanently damaged as workers in other industries. The exception is when measuring peak noises, where a C-weighting is applied to ensure that proper account is taken of the sound energy in the peak sound.
However the employer needs to consider whether risk-control measures need to be adapted in certain situations, for example if it is known that an employee is exposed to noise during other employment. Permanent hearing damage can be caused immediately by sudden, extremely loud, explosive noises such as caused by pyrotechnics.
However, there are other studies which give a range of figures from 10-60% for hearing damage among musicians. Some of the major culprits are the conditions that we are used to every day and which nonetheless we take for granted. Karageorghis adds that music is especially beneficial in medical rehabilitation settings where exercise plays a role. Composer Bill Conti, creator of the Rocky theme, pointed out that music has always inspired performance.
Senator Maclay goes to the County Recorder in Los Angeles and creates the City of San Fernando (township) through a map of development plans. This bloody event leads to the passage of the 1947 Taft Hartley Act, which severely restricts workers’ abilities to strike and the power of unions.
Additional fuel-element handling accidents occurred during the recovery process that resulted in radiological releases to the environment and surrounding communities. When you suffer an impairment in your hearing organ, then that does not mean that all is lost for you.
But again, this only happens when you do not keep the music to the essential decibel levels. Upon hearing the verdict, hundreds of Los Angelenos begin a protest that turns into a a€?livea€? televised six-day riot where 53 people die and the total cost of damages equals $1,000,000,000. The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valleya€™s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry. Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the regiona€™s climate. Many singers record Jenkinsa€™ song including Bing Crosby (whose version hits #1 on Billboard Magazinea€™s chart in 1944) and the King Sisters; the publicity helps build a population explosion. The Westerns a€?Bells of San Fernandoa€? and the Western a€?San Fernando Valleya€? are released. Phyllis Oa€™Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying.
Welcome to a Timeline of the San Fernando Valley This timeline was created for the Museum of the San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.
Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley.This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.



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