Hearing loss impact noise valencia,ringing in ears when hearing sounds robotics,natural remedies to cure tinnitus tratamiento,ringing ears and foggy head juegos - Plans On 2016

We all know somebody affected by hearing loss, as nearly 1 in 5 Australians live with the condition. Quality of life can be significantly compromised for people with hearing loss and their families. In contradiction to many people's understanding, hearing loss is rarely similar to the effect of turning down the volume on a stereo.
If you feel that your hearing is not what it used to be, or are concerned that a loved one may be experiencing hearing loss - take a couple of minutes to do the online hearing tests provided here. However, conductive loss accounts for only 10% of all hearing losses, and they range from mild to moderate in severity. When volume is sufficiently increased, clarity and understanding are usually intact for someone with a conductive hearing loss. Hearing loss that originates in the inner ear is referred to as sensorineural hearing loss or - in laymen's terms, nerve deafness. While the overall volume of sound may be reduced, the clarity of sounds or voices is also affected. An example of a mixed hearing loss may be someone with inner ear damage due to exposure to noise in their workplace over many years, who also currently has an infection that has led to a fluid build up in the middle ear.
While the ageing process is a major contributor to hearing loss, it is certainly not a condition reserved for the later stages of life. Not surprisingly, given the impact of noise, males are considerably more likely to have hearing loss than women - including being twice as likely to have a moderate to severe hearing loss.
This graph shown here illustrates the time it takes to cause permanent damage to your hearing when you're exposed to different levels of sound.
Nerves have different sensitivities to deformation of the sensory hair cells within the cochlea.
Content and images provided on this page are under license and copyright of Spinach Effect Pty Ltd and must not be reproduced in any way without express permission.
Technicians understand the shop is a noisy place, especially when tools and air compressors are running in full force. In order to better understand how Ingersoll Rand engineers products to reduce noise, it’s important to understand where the noise comes from. Ingersoll Rand’s engineers follow standard practices and procedures for measuring and quantifying the noise level of a pneumatic tool. In accordance with ISO standards, Ingersoll Rand tests each pneumatic tool using five microphones positioned on four sides 1 meter from the geometric center of the tool and one meter above the tool. Today, Ingersoll Rand measures the noise level of all its tools in an anechoic testing room to determine the sound power level in A-weighted decibels. The Pennsylvania Department of Health mandates school-administered hearing screens for children in kindergarten to third, seventh and 11th grades. Deepa Sekhar, assistant professor of pediatrics, compared the results of a special hearing screening designed to detect noise-related high-frequency hearing loss with the results of the standard Pennsylvania school hearing test. One in five adolescents experiences hearing loss, and most of this is high-frequency hearing loss related to continued exposure to noise hazards.
The middle ear consists of three tiny bones, or ossicles, that are suspended in an air-filled space.
In the inner ear, the cochlea is susceptible to damage from continued exposure to high-level noise.
Situated on top of the moving membrane are thousands of small hairlike structures with nerves connected to each hair cell.
If the hair cells in a particular region of the cochlea are destroyed, the nerves will not fire and the brain will not receive any information. Typically, hair cells are damaged or destroyed when their supporting structures are overworked.
Even though we cannot see sound, it is a force with real dimensions and three definite properties: intensity, frequency and duration.
The ear is a remarkable organ, responding to sounds ranging from dripping water to amplified music (Table 1). The other end of the scale is known as the threshold of pain (140 dB), the point at which the average person experiences pain.
Frequency is the number of sound waves (high and low pressure areas) produced by a noise source passing a given point per second. One of the first signs of loss is the inability to understand people (especially in a crowd) or other sources of voice communication such as the television or radio. The average person can be exposed to a sound source producing 90 dBA for a maximum of eight hours a day.
Physiological effects: noise-induced hearing loss or aural pain, nausea and reduced muscular control.
The ears provide two warning signs for overexposure to noise: temporary threshold shift (TTS) and ringing in the ears (tinnitus). This temporary hearing loss was taken into consideration in the exposure limits listed in Table 2. Hearing usually returns almost completely in 12 to 14 hours if there is no more noise exposure. People who have damaged their ears permanently from overexposure to noise often have constant ringing in their ears. The permanent damage that occurs from overexposure to noise results in a hearing loss that is most annoying and deceptive. The ability to identify the source of sound is greatly reduced and the listener seems inattentive.
When there is background noise, the listener with a high-frequency hearing loss cannot separate one voice from another.
With noise-induced hearing loss, hearing aids can help, but they do not totally restore the quality of hearing that was present before the loss. The psychological effects of noise are more difficult to describe than the physiological effects. Noise-induced hearing loss is a major problem because people are unaware of its warning signs and effects until it is too late. Engineering controls, when practical and economically feasible, are the most effective ways to reduce noise exposure because they reduce sound level at the source. Replacing worn, loose or unbalanced machine parts to cut down on the amount of vibration generated.
Making sure that machine parts are well-lubricated to cut down on noise exposure created by friction.
Installing a good, high-quality muffler on all engine-powered equipment to reduce vibration produced by airflow. To get information on the sound levels of various tractor models, write to: Tractor Testing Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583. Reduction of noise exposure on new tractors is only a part of the total noise problem in agriculture.
Altered work schedules are a second alternative to prevent noise-related problems by reducing the amount of exposure to high sound levels on farms. For example, for a tractor that produces a noise level of 95 dBA, the safe exposure is four hours per day per person. Personal protection equipment is the final alternative for farm workers who wish to cut down on noise exposure. Earplugs are available as preformed inserts made of rubber, plastic or foam and hand-formed inserts of disposable materials such as wax or Swedish Wool. Preformed earplugs may be cheaper, but because of differences in the shape of each person's ear canal, trained personnel should fit each individual for plugs. Operators who have suffered previous hearing losses may find that they are unable to detect certain sounds necessary to ensure proper machine operation when they are using ear protection. If you are continually exposed to high sound levels, you should have a hearing test periodically. If you allow your ears to be exposed to the invisible dangers of agricultural noise or other sources of high sound levels, the result could be a permanent loss of hearing.
The extent of the hearing loss varies too, from a mild to a severe hearing loss where loud safety signals may not be heard. The good news is that conductive hearing loss can often be medically treated, and in many cases, hearing can be completely restored. Other symptoms may also be present, such as ear pain, drainage from the ears, or a feeling of pressure or a blockage. In more than 95% of cases involving sensorineural hearing loss, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the recommended course of treatment. People with sensorineural hearing loss will often hear people speaking, but can't always understand all the words, even when the volume is adequate. Studies have shown that exposure to noise is thought to be a contributing factor in around 37% of cases of the condition - and interestingly, around 50% of Australians with hearing loss are still of traditional working age (i.e. This is illustrated through mandatory provision of ear protection on work sites and within factories. A sound that has high frequencies of vibration will excite receptor cells near the opening of the cochlea, while a sound mostly containing low frequencies will stimulate cells at the end of the cochlea.
Ways to reduce process noise include better clamping of the part noise treatment surrounding the work piece, covering the impacting hammer with a heavy rubber jacket, maintaining sharp tools and wearing hearing protection. The main contributor to vibration noise is the physical dynamic motion of the mechanical components inside the tool. An Ingersoll Rand pneumatic drill with Quiet Tool technology is approximately 80dB decibels, which is comparable to a garbage disposal at three feet. Researchers administered both the statewide school screening and a high-frequency screening.
Vuvuzela media coverage during the 2010 FIFA soccer world cup tournament: Impact on raising awareness of noise-induced hearing loss. Evaluation of noise-induced hearing loss in young people using a web-based survey technique. The Audiologist′s Role in Occupational and Environmental Hearing Conservation [Position Statement] 1996.
Acoustics-Determination of Occupational Noise Exposure and Estimation of Noise-Induced Hearing Impairment. A survey of college students′ knowledge and awareness of hearing, hearing loss and hearing health. Reflections on community health campaigns: Secular trends and the capacity to effect change. This is due in part to the many potential sources of loud noise on the farm: tractors, combines, grinders, choppers, shotguns, conveyors, grain dryers, chain saws, etc.
The cochlea (Latin term meaning snail shell) is a fluid-filled hydraulic system driven by the piston action of the last ossicle. When a hair cell is bent because of membrane motion, the nerve fires and the message is transmitted to the brain. If part of the hair cells are destroyed, the brain may receive a distorted message that it cannot interpret.

When the microscopic structures are damaged, there is no way to repair them to restore reasonable hearing. With continued exposure to high-level noise, the membrane motion is great and the cells that support the hair cells swell.
The normal range of hearing begins at about 0 decibels, a level at which a person with excellent hearing is able to detect a sound. A noise-induced hearing loss first causes the loss of the ability to hear sounds at 4,000 Hz.
This is because a large number of sound waves are transmitted to the ears with a force greater than they can tolerate. In Table 2, the right-hand column lists various high sound levels and the left-hand column indicates the length of exposure that is safe for the corresponding noise level during a day.
For example, if you purchased a tractor with a 95 dBA rating, you would be risking a hearing loss after four hours of exposure. After leaving a noisy area or piece of equipment, many people commonly experience both of these symptoms.
For example, should you be exposed to a noise level of 100 dBA for two hours, the remaining 22 hours of that day's exposure should be at a noise level below 90 dBA. Any amount of hearing that does not return becomes a permanent threshold shift (PTS), or permanent hearing loss. In general, most noises damage the hair cells near the base of the cochlea, where high-frequency information is processed. Thus the level of a sound must be high before it is understood, but if it is slightly higher, it may be intolerably loud.
Psychological effects such as depression and nervousness are a result of the ear's inability to adjust to sound.
Did you ever try to communicate with someone while a tractor was running or around a grain dryer without yelling? Since there is strong social pressure to have normal hearing, an individual rarely admits to having a hearing problem until the effects are very substantial. In recent years, farm machinery manufacturers have designed cabs that reduce noise level exposure to safe limits. Additional noise engineering must be done on grain dryers, combines, pickers, elevators, chain saws, shellers, grinders, mixers, pulverizers, snow blowers, conveyors and grain roller mills, to name just a few. When practical, arrange work schedules so that farm workers do not exceed the allowable exposure limit to a high noise source. Try to arrange work schedules to let farm workers exchange work activities so that no one person is exposed to the noise for more than four hours. The attenuation (noise reduction) provided by earmuffs varies widely because of differences in size, shape, seal material, shell mass and type of suspension. For agricultural use, wax and Swedish Wool have little value from a sanitation standpoint because they must be changed daily and must be shaped by hand before inserting and because of their lower attenuation level. Cotton cannot block out high-frequency sound and will provide no protection from high sound levels. In these cases, it may be necessary for the operator to remove the ear protection to check for these sounds. You can make the difference between a life with all the joys of sound or a life of silence by following the safe work procedures outlined in this guide. More commonly it is manifested as a difficulty with word understanding, particularly in the presence of background noise.
This can lead to conversations being difficult to follow - particularly in noisy environments where competing background noise 'scrambles' speech and conversations. Nevertheless, every day millions of Australians are exposing themselves to noise levels that will surely lead to long-term damage to their hearing, including the use of personal stereo systems.
Commonly, over time the high frequency hair cell receptors receive more movement by the incoming pressure waves of the fluid inside the cochlea - so are more prone to long term damage than the low frequency hair cell receptors, which are more protected further up the cochlea. Hurd Pit Tools and Equipment: Supporting NASCAR and Ingersoll Rand for 53 Years and Counting! To help reduce some of that noise, Ingersoll Rand engineers their products to have low noise and vibration levels to create a more ergonomically correct experience for the tool users. The action of the air turning the rotary vane motor is the primary cause for the exhaust noise.
To reduce vibration noise, special care is taken by the engineers at Ingersoll Rand to design parts that are precisely balanced and the motion of these parts is designed to minimize the amount of vibration through the use of counterweights and other engineering techniques. This is logical for young children, who are more likely to develop low-frequency hearing loss due to fluid in the ear after a bad cold or an ear infection. The screening for noise-related hearing loss tests the ability to hear higher pitches, up to twice the frequency of the Pennsylvania school screen. Of the 282 participants, five failed the Pennsylvania school test and 85 failed the noise-related test. Prolonged exposure to excessive noise can cause permanent hearing losses unless noise control measures are taken. The ossicles function as a mechanical lever system that delivers sound from the ear canal to the inner ear. The vibrating motion of the ossicle produces a wave motion in a membrane that runs the full length of the cochlea. Hair cells near the base transmit information about high-frequency, or high-pitched, sound, while those at the apex provide information about low-pitched sound. Typically, a person begins to identify sounds when a level of 10 to 15 dB is reached; this is the threshold of hearing. Then hearing loss proceeds until the ear cannot hear frequencies between 500 and 3,000 Hz, a range crucial to understanding conversation. These figures have been determined after years of research on noise-induced hearing loss and are accepted as the standard for allowable noise level exposures. If the tractor had a 90 dBA rating, you could use the tractor for eight hours before reaching the same risk level.
Unfortunately, normal-hearing people expect that if speech can be detected, it can be understood. Social functions and group meetings become a chore, and the individual begins to avoid them. Early awareness and corrective action are essential to eliminating noise as a hearing hazard. Many of the new tractor cabs may reduce an operator's noise exposure by at least 10 to 15 dB. Manufacturers supply attenuation data for their product, so you can evaluate their effectiveness. When purchasing earplugs, follow the directions closely so that a snug, tight fit is obtained in the ear canal when the plug is inserted. Machinery sounds different when you are wearing ear protection, but with continuous use, you can learn the new sounds and still be able to determine whether the machinery is operating properly.
But remember to properly replace the ear protection to protect against further hearing loss. If hearing loss is noted, take the necessary steps to reduce exposure and eliminate further damage to your hearing.
Not unsurprisingly, being able to follow conversations is the single biggest reason that people seek our help.
To overcome the problems of exhaust noise, pneumatic tools often have a muffler that is located inside the tool. It’s extremely important to not only avoid excessively high noises in general, but also to wear the appropriate hearing protection whenever possible.
Adolescents, however, are more susceptible to high-frequency hearing loss, usually brought on by exposure to loud noises, but the same tests are used on adolescents and young children.
Of the group of 48 students returned for testing by an audiologist in a soundproof booth, nine were diagnosed with hearing loss. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also identified NIHL in developing countries as an increasing risk factor for hearing impairment.
Noise does not affect the middle ear unless there is an impact sound or pressure so great that it dislodges or fractures the ossicles. If the vibrations are fast (high-frequency sound), the membrane has its greatest motion at the base of the cochlea near the vibrating ossicle.
Only a few hair cells may be lost at a time, but with repeated exposure over days, months and years, the cumulative effect can be substantial. Your ears should not be directly exposed for any length of time to sounds greater than 115 dBA. This recovery period varies, depending on the individual, the severity and length of exposure. Since some people are more susceptible to noise damage than others, one person may experience more tinnitus or damage than another with exposure to the same noise.
Frederick International Journal of Audiology.
If the vibrations are slow (low-frequency sound), the maximum membrane motion occurs at the tip, or apex, of the cochlea. Subconscious frustrations can result when noise is endured, but the body system cannot adjust to it. For example, the muffler must be very compact in size, have an extremely low pressure drop, and be capable of lessening noise over a wide range of frequencies. The biggest contributor to noise levels during matches is the vuvuzela, a trumpet-like instrument that is usually blown by South African soccer fanatics at matches. Ingersoll Rand has patented designs to reduce the noise without penalizing the performance of the tool. International Organization for Standardization, ISO, South African National Standards, SANS) specify a Criterion Level, which is the maximum permissible exposure to accumulated noise, to be an 8-h equivalent continuous noise level of 85 dBA.
Therefore, any workplace that exposes employees to noise levels ≥85 dBA for 8 h risks harm to their hearing. While there are currently no such standards developed specifically for non-occupational noise exposure, criterion levels currently used in occupational settings can also be utilized for social noise exposure. This media coverage was mainly directed at the vuvuzela and its noise's potential to among other things, cause hearing loss. Therefore, while it can be argued that most of the media coverage before and during the tournament was about the vuvuzela as an instrument, and not necessarily about NIHL per se, the fact remains that most of the objections towards the vuvuzela expressed in all media outlets were about its 'annoying noise' and the potential of the vuvuzela noise in causing NIHL.With respect to specific media coverage, at the start of the world cup tournament, there was a series of newspaper articles in all major South African newspapers calling for the ban of the vuvuzela.
For instance, in the period June 11-13, 2010, Times Live, the online-based publication to one of the major South African newspapers The Times, published at least thirteen (13) articles expressing an 'anti-vuvuzela' sentiment. The Mail and Guardian and City Press also carried four and three articles, respectively, conveying the same message during the first few days of the opening of the tournament. In addition to these newspaper articles, a number of high profile sports personalities added their voice to the 'anti-vuvuzela' movement, requesting FIFA to ban the use of the vuvuzela during the 2010 soccer world cup tournament. During the tournament, images of some spectators wearing hearing protection devices were often flashed across TV screens during televised matches to highlight the vuvuzela noise problem. The South African Association of Audiologists (SAAA) also launched a campaign dubbed 'Operation Jumbo Ears' in which it was reported that over 14 000 pairs of earplugs were distributed at no cost to spectators during the month-long tournament.

Further, it would also be useful to find out whether this media coverage had any influence on soccer spectators' behavior with respect to exposing themselves to vuvuzela noise during matches.This study therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of mass media coverage on vuvuzela noise during the 2010 soccer world cup on raising awareness about NIHL among South African soccer spectators. Specific objectives included determining before and after the 2010 FIFA soccer world cup tournament: i) the level of awareness about NIHL due to exposure to vuvuzela noise, ii) attitudes towards vuvuzela noise exposure during soccer matches, iii) attitudes towards the use of hearing protection during soccer matches, as well as, iv) strategies that can be used to encourage hearing protection use.
The questionnaire used in this study was developed at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard School of Public Health, and Congent Research, Inc.
The first section of the questionnaire contained questions about participants' demographic information.
The second section contained five questions about views towards general health issues or concerns (including NIHL) that were thought to be relevant to the South African soccer spectators.
The remaining three sections dealt with hearing loss, personal exposure to vuvuzela noise, and hearing protection.
The type of the questions in this questionnaire were multi-dichotomous, multiple choice, and open-ended questions.
The questionnaire also contained two questions with multiple sub-questions that required respondents to rate the importance of answers about health problems in question on a Likert scale.
Context and study participants Data collection for this study for both pre- and post-tournament phases took place at a 96 000 seat-capacity stadium that was a flagship venue for the 2010 FIFA soccer world cup tournament held in South Africa. Participants were soccer spectators attending a PSL cup final match on May 22, 2010 (pre-tournament - a month before the start of the tournament), and soccer spectators attending a PSL cup competition match on September 10, 2010, (post-tournament-two months after the tournament) at this venue. To take part in this study, participants had to be at least 18 years old (legal age to give consent in South Africa). Furthermore, since this was a self-administered questionnaire in English language, a minimum of secondary level of education was required to participate in this study (i.e.
Finally, participants were required to have attended at least one match prior to taking part in this study.Pre-tournament matchEighty-two participants (47 males and 35 females) completed the questionnaire for the study.
Nine of the completed questionnaires had to be discarded because they were missing key information required for this study. Two of the completed questionnaires had to be discarded because they had missing or incomplete information required for the study The remaining questionnaires (N2 =74): 52 males and 22 females, age range 20-62 years old (median age 28 years old) were analyzed.
Data collection for both matches took place for three hours on match dates and stopped at least one hour before commencement of the match.
Two research assistants waited at two specified stadium entrances and approached participants as they entered the stadium. Participants were approached as they went into the stadium to avoid surveying the same individuals multiple times. Every fifth spectator entering the stadium was approached, informed about the study, and invited to complete the self-administered questionnaire.
Participants were further informed that their participation in this study was voluntary and that they had the right to withdraw from this study without any negative consequence to them. They were also informed that there were no risks or harm associated with taking part in the study as well as the fact that there were no immediate benefits to them for taking part in this study.
Finally, participants were assured that their responses will be kept confidential and none of their identifying information was required for this study.
Participants who consented to take part in this study were given an informed consent form to sign, and then a self-administered questionnaire to complete. The researcher was available to answer any questions about the study or the questionnaire that the respondent may have.
Validity and reliability When planning a research study, interpreting the findings or determination of the value of the findings of a study, it is important to be mindful of two important concepts: Validity and reliability. Validity is concerned with the question "does the study's measurement process or assessment actually measure what was intended to be measured or assessed?" Reliability addresses whether repeated measurements or assessments provide a consistent result given the same initial circumstances. Participants in the pilot study reported that the questionnaire was acceptable therefore no further adaptations were made to it.ReliabilityThreats to reliability related to the administration of the questionnaire were addressed by training two research assistants who were part of this study on the questionnaire administration protocol prior to the commencement of the study. The questionnaire was self-administered, and research assistants were required to be available at all time to answer questions from the participants related to the completion of the questionnaire.
To minimize variability that may be introduced by use of multiple languages, English language was selected as the language of this study and only participants who could communicate in English (i.e. Data analysis Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the results of the study.
Bar charts were also used to present a graphical display of patterns of responses from the participants.
The Mann Whitney U-test (inferential statistics), a non-parametric statistical test was used to analyze the difference between the medians of the two data sets. The results indicate that slightly more participants (26%) reported having seen, read or heard something about NIHL post-tournament than pre-tournament (16%). They were asked to rate how each one of the four options is likely to influence their likelihood of using hearing protection devices during football matches.
Their responses indicated that doctor or a nurse is more likely to influence respondents' likelihood of using hearing protection (43% pre-tournament and 44% post-tournament). Participants also reported that they were more likely to use hearing protection if they found out that even limited exposure to loud sounds can permanently damage their hearing (40% pre-tournament and 42% post-tournament). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this extensive media coverage on raising awareness about NIHL due to exposure to vuvuzela noise during PSL soccer matches.
The study also investigated behavior changes with respect to noise exposure during soccer matches.
Changes in attitudes towards the use of hearing protection during soccer matches brought about by this media coverage as well as strategies that can be used to encourage hearing protection use during matches were also investigated. The sections that follow will present a discussion of the findings of this study in line with these broad study aim and objectives.The proportion of participants in this study who reported having seen, heard of read something about hearing loss was low, especially for pre-tournament participants. It was expected that given the widespread media coverage about the vuvuzela noise and its potential to cause hearing loss, most participants in this study will be aware of this issue.
Slightly more respondents (but not statistically significant) surveyed during the post-tournament match reported having read, heard or seen something on the issue of hearing loss during the past 6-12 months before this study. Further, almost half of the respondents (52% pre-tournament and 49% post-tournament) in this study reported that they were unaware of the risk posed by too much noise during soccer matches on their hearing.
These findings were consistent with the results of similar studies, [1],[9] in which it was found that despite widely available information about the issue of NIHL, few participants reported awareness about this issue. It was expected in this study that given the media coverage of this issue before and during the tournament, an overwhelming majority of the participants will report some level of awareness about NIHL risk from too much noise exposure at soccer matches. Therefore, this limited awareness of the risk of NIHL from vuvuzela noise at matches amongst participants, despite widespread media coverage on this issue, seems to suggest the ineffectiveness of untargeted and opportunistic awareness campaigns as it was the case here.
That is, this media coverage could possibly have been utilized more effectively if there was a targeted awareness campaign towards this issue. A possible strategy for increasing awareness about NIHL includes involvement of the population for which the awareness campaign is meant for. This was revealed in their consistent low ranking of hearing loss as a concern in comparison to other concerns (e.g. However, low ranking of hearing loss in comparison to other concerns was expected because unlike other concerns such as violent acts during matches that are dramatic and therefore could be perceived as potentially deadly, [1] hearing loss due to excessive noise during matches is less likely to be of sudden onset, hence its low ranking. This however, does not mean that the risk of NIHL as a result of noise exposure during matches is not an important concern for this population. It is likely that there is currently low level of awareness about this issue among participants, hence the reason why they do not consider it a serious concern.An unexpected finding in this study was the reluctance of most participants to modify their patterns of self-exposure to vuvuzela noise during matches even though they were aware of its potential risk to damage their hearing. That is, 48 and 51% of the participants during pre- and post-tournament, respectively, reported being aware of the risk of vuvuzela noise to their hearing and yet did not intend on stop blowing the vuvuzela during matches.
Even after being told about the potential danger of vuvuzela noise to their hearing, 76% of the participants (pre-tournament) and 69% of the participants (post-tournament) reported that they did not plan on discontinuing vuvuzela use during matches. A gap between what individuals know and how they use the knowledge they have has been reported previously.
For instance, in one study it was found that participants reported never using hearing protection when in noise despite being aware of the risks associated with excessive noise exposure.
Finally, an overwhelming majority of participants in this study (88% pre-tournament and 78% post-tournament) were opposed to the banning of vuvuzela use during PSL soccer matches.Participants in this study reported low level use of hearing protection during football matches.
However, a slight increase was noted in the number of participants who reported having seen someone using hearing protection post-tournament in comparison to pre-tournament. It was also encouraging to observe an increase, albeit statistically insignificant, the number of participants who reported the likelihood of using hearing protection during matches should hearing protection devices be made available at no charge post-tournament in comparison to pre-tournament.
The number of participants who reported intention to use hearing protection devices during their next match attendance also increased slightly post-tournament in comparison to pre-tournament. This is somewhat a promising finding in this study because intentions are known to determine behavior, [19] therefore, the more an individual intends to perform an action, the more likely the action.
The fact that slightly more participants in this study intended on using hearing protection in future match attendance holds promise that they can be persuaded through properly targeted campaigns to use these devices, especially if these campaigns are led by health professionals.A major concern in this study was the finding that majority of the participants (similar proportions for both pre and post-tournament) did not know where they could obtain hearing protection devices. Lack of knowledge about where to get these devices could potentially have a negative impact on participants' self-efficacy with respect to minimizing their exposure to noise during PSL matches which in turn could discourage them from using these devices. Bandura defines self-efficacy as 'the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required managing prospective situations' [20] and self-efficacy is highly dependent on knowledge related to a specific course of action. A possible solution will be to make these available at place where match tickets are sold or at match venues. These could either be included in the price of a match ticket to make them more affordable (i.e. The findings of this study showed that this extended media coverage did not appear to have significantly raised awareness about the hearing loss or NIHL. Further, the media coverage during the tournament failed to elevate the status of the risk of hearing loss from excessive noise exposure during matches to be considered a serious health concern among the participants who took part in this study. However, willingness to use hearing protection was reported by participants in this study especially if it was provided at no cost.
Even more encouraging was the identification of possible strategies that could be used to increase the likelihood of hearing protection use by the participants in this study. Despite its limitations, the findings of this study seem to suggest that the efforts to curb the problem of excessive noise exposure at PSL matches, and hence reduction of the risk of potential NIHL for spectators at these matches is less likely going to succeed through restrictions and or prohibitions on vuvuzela use alone. The findings of this study also raised doubts about the likelihood of succeeding in raising awareness about NIHL through opportunistic ad hoc campaigns such as untargeted media coverage during major events such as the soccer world cup. The findings of this study therefore seem to suggest that traditional public health approaches (i.e. Finally, since majority of the respondents indicated willingness to follow the recommendation to use hearing protection, if that recommendation was given by health professionals, it is recommended that doctors, nurses, and audiologists and their respective associations should be actively involved in NIHL awareness campaign. The South African Football Association should also consider providing hearing protection at minimum or no cost to spectators during soccer matches to encourage wide use of these devices. It is also recommended that future studies include more participants as well as investigate the prevalence of hearing loss in this population.

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