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Medecins Francais A Londres…Qu’offre Le Secteur Prive De Plus Que Le NHS (National Health Service) ? This noise may be heard in one of your ears, in both of them or in the middle of your head or it may be difficult to pinpoint its exact location. Dr Alam Hussain has specialised in treating tinnitus and has developed a multisystem treatment involving lifestyle, diet, homeopathy, acupuncture and sound enrichment, coupled with currently available devices, with great success. Blockages in your ear due to a build-up of wax, an ear infection or rarely, a tumour affecting the auditory nerve.
A noise in your ears such as ringing, roaring, buzzing, hissing or whistling - the noise can be intermittent or continuous. Tinnitus sometimes gets worse if you drink alcohol or caffeinated drinks, smoke cigarettes, or eat certain foods. Caffeine is one of the most common tinnitus aggravators and you should reduce it or stop completely. A low-salt diet can help, so avoid adding salt to your food and watch the sodium content of the foods you eat.
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Reducing stress on livestock during handling will help reduce sickness and enable cattle to go back on feed more quickly.
Reducing stress during handling will provide advantages of increasing productivity and maintaining meat quality.
Anecdotal reports from commercial feedlots indicate that quiet handling methods help improve productivity. Short-term stressors that occur during handling and transport have been shown to interfere with the biological mechanisms of both reproduction and immune function.
Paul Hemsworth and his colleagues in Australia have done numerous studies that show that fearful pigs that have been treated aversively by humans have fewer piglets born, lower weight gains, and a chronic stress response (47, 48, 49). Quiet handling of market weight pigs at the slaughter plant will help maintain pork quality. Many detrimental effects of handling stressors on animal performance and health are likely due to fear.
In sheep, fear stress can elevate cortisol levels higher than handling procedures such as shearing. Non painful handling or restraint can induce very high cortisol levels in both sheep and cattle. Research at the Denver Zoo indicates that training an animal to cooperate during minor husbandry procedures such as injections and blood tests reduced cortisol levels almost to a (resting) baseline (39). The training methods used for Bongo antelope at the Denver Zoo would not be practical for use with farm animals. Practical experience on ranches and feedlots shows that making cattle accustomed to both people on foot and on horseback will produce calmer and easier to handle cattle at the slaughter plant.
Some of the lean hybrid pig strains are more excitable and difficult to handle (32), and are more likely to panic and pile up when driven through a high speed slaughter plant.
An animal's temperament is one determinant of how it will react during handling, and this is determined by an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. A major component of temperament is fearfulness, which is defined as "a basic psychological characteristic of the individual predisposing it to perceive and react in a similar manner to a wide variety of potentially frightening events" (10, 11). Animals with a genetically flighty temperament, such as the bongo and nyala antelope, ultra lean hybrid pigs, and excitable breeds of cattle, can be trained to a handling procedure and may appear behaviorally calm. Cattle temperament can be rated on a numerical rating scale, measured while they are held in a squeeze chute, or by flight zone testing in a pen (22, 30, 44, 45).
The author speculates that purebred Brahman cattle may have more of the social reinstatement trait than the British or European breeds. A review of many studies and practical experience has shown that animals with a more placid temperament will habituate more easily to a forced, non painful handling procedure than animals with a flighty temperament. Extremely flighty excitable animals, such as elk, bison, and antelope, are less likely to habituate to a forced handling procedure. Extensive research with rats shows clearly that if an animal's first experience with a new arm in a maze is aversive or very frightening, the rat would never enter that arm of the maze again (70). On farms, ranches, and feedlots, observations by the author indicate that an animal's first experience with a handling facility, a new corral, a person, or pieces of equipment should be made as positive as possible. Basic principles of livestock handling have been covered in detail elsewhere (19, 27, 29, 31, 57). Eliminate Visual Distractions.Distractions and lighting problems may ruin the performance of a well designed facility and should be removed (34). During restraint, cattle will remain calmer if the squeeze chute is closed with steady strong pressure instead of suddenly bumping the animal (33). Quieter livestock handling techniques for loading and unloading trucks and handling animals in alleyways and chutes may take up to 2 weeks for handlers to fully learn.
In feedlots and slaughter plants, quiet handling has a tendency to become rough unless management maintains constant vigilance. The author has observed that when cattle are handled quietly in a squeeze chute for vaccinations and implanting, less than 3% of the animals will vocalize during handling in the lead up chute, catching in the squeeze chute, or during vaccinations. Through the use of special software, it would be possible to use the system for both temperament scoring and for assessing how employees are handling the animals. Observations of thousands of cattle and pigs in large slaughter plants indicate that some animals that have been bred for extreme leanness are very excitable and difficult to handle when they are brought to a new place. To reduce stress and to improve both productivity and welfare, it is important to breed animals with a calm temperament.
Click here to return to the Homepage for more information on animal behavior, welfare, and care. Mostly aspirin, several types of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, sedatives and antidepressants as well as quinine medications. Make Some Noise is a Punjabi-Hindi-English song that is rendered by the luminous high pitched vocalist KK, who croons it in a unique catchy style. Irshad Kamil’s poetic lines and Pritam’s composition on them – both generate the melodies, which make the song saccharine.
Amitabh Bhattacharya pens the lyrics to create the soothing ambience for the composer to arrange tunes on. Recent work in our laboratory has indicated that cattle that become agitated and excited in the squeeze chute have significantly lower weight gains, tougher meat, and more borderline dark cutters (87, 88).
Deaths due to respiratory sickness were greatly reduced in a Texas feedlot when quiet handling procedures were implemented. Electric prods, restraint and other handling stressors will lower female reproductive function (50, 85, 86). His research group found that pigs that had been slapped or shocked by their regular caretakers had lower weight gains (49).
Rough handling, pile-ups, and excessive use of electric prods prior to stunning will increase pale, soft, exudative pork (PSE) (4).
The fear center of the brain is located in the limbic system in a nucleus of cells called the amygdala. Fear caused by exposure to novelty can elevate levels of cortisol higher than many husbandry procedures. The amount of stress caused by a handling procedure such as restraint in a squeeze chute is determined by how the animal perceives it. Bongo antelope were trained to enter a box and were fed treats during husbandry procedures. An animal's previous experiences with handling will affect its reaction to future handling (12, 52).
Observations by the author also indicate that pigs will balk less and drive more easily at the slaughter plant if the producer walks through the pens every day during finishing. Although temperament has a strong genetic component, it is also influenced by previous experiences and handling.
They can learn to behave calmly when they are with familiar people, or in a familiar handling facility, but they can suddenly panic when left alone in a strange place, or exposed to the novelty of a noisy auction or a new farm. To rate cattle temperament in a squeeze chute, the most common rating system is a four-digit scale.
In Japanese quail, the traits of fearfulness and social reinstatement are governed by different genetic systems (20).
Research at Texas A&M University indicated that some pigs habituated when they were forced to swim.
Because it is more difficult for flighty excitable animals to habituate, the author hypothesizes that these animals must have novelty introduced slowly and gently to avoid triggering a dangerous flight reaction. If a rat entered a new arm of a maze to receive a food reward and it was given a severe shock, the rat would never enter that arm again. Farm animals can be very frightened in these novel situations and if a painful or very aversive procedure is done the first time, it may become difficult to persuade the animal to re-enter the facility. They form a subcortical circuit in the brain that allows an animal to quickly flee if it sees or hears the same frightening stimulus.
In this section, some of the most important livestock handling principles will be reviewed, and some new information will be presented.
Use other driving aids, such as plastic paddles or sticks with plastic streamers or flags tied on them. Many chute facilities have too many anti-back gates and movement will often improve if most are tied open.
To locate distractions that impede animal movement, handlers should get in the chute and crouch down to look at them from the animal's eye level. Cattle, sheep, or pigs moved calmly through a handling facility will look directly at visual distractions, which should be removed.
When handling cattle and pigs, do not fill the crowd pen until the single file chute is partially empty, because when there is space in the chute, a group of animals in the crowd pen will follow the leader into the chute.
A lone animal left by itself will become stressed (58, 90), and can also be dangerous to people.
They may have to spend several days to learn the most efficient handler movement patterns and to make minor changes in the facility to improve livestock movement. In both cattle and pigs, vocalizations are correlated with physiological stress measurements (18, 89).
Handling the ears and head for implanting and ear tagging will cause some animals to vocalize.


The author has observed that hitting the headgate too hard can result in injuries that can be avoided by quiet handling so that cattle walk calmly into the squeeze chute. They become highly agitated when they are subjected to the noise and novelty of a large slaughter plant. In long-term selection experiments, Russian scientists selected foxes for temperament (6, 7). Quiet, calm handling at an early age will help produce calmer, easier-to-handle adult animals.
In fact, tinnitus is cited as a potential side effect for about 200 prescription and non-prescription medicines. Exercising regularly can also help by improving blood flow to your ear structures, while vitamin B-12 can help your body make the material that protects the inner ear's nerves.
The movie stars the likes of Akshay Kumar, John Abraham, Chitrangda Singh and Deepika Padukone in the main leads. Practical experience on ranches and feedlots shows that making cattle accustomed to people both on foot and on horseback will produce calmer and easier to handle cattle. Agitation and excitement in the squeeze chute are influenced by both genetic factors and the animal's previous handling experiences.
They also found that the attitude of handlers and caretakers affected productivity on commercial hog farms (49), and this is also found in dairy cows (82).
Resting of pigs 2 to 4 h prior to stunning at the packing plant will also significantly reduce PSE (67, 71). Center in Thiex, France was one of the first to fully recognize the importance of fear in determining both an animal's behavior and its physiological reactions to fear-eliciting stimuli (10, 11). Sheep inverted in a sheep handling machine were more reluctant to re-enter the corrals the following year (52). Nyala antelope at the Denver Zoo were trained to enter a restraint crate and they were easy to handle, but when they were exposed to the novelty of people fixing the barn roof they panicked and crashed into a fence (38). Cattle are scored as follows: 1) they stand calmly in the squeeze chute, 2) they are restless, 3) they vigorously shake the chute, and 4) they violently shake the chute and try to escape (berserk). In both birds and mammals, social reinstatement is the behavioral tendency of a lone animal to attempt to get reunited with its mates. The author has observed that this trait can be so strong that purebred Brahmans may be difficult to drive.
Examples of sudden novel stimulus would be a stamping foot, a train passing a pen where newly arrived calves are received, or an auction ring. The epinephrine (adrenalin) levels in the pig's blood declined over a series of swims to near baseline levels (60).Other pigs remained fearful and never habituated during a series of swims.
Some animals will not habituate to forced handling procedures, even when the procedures are done gently.
However, if the rat received a mild shock, it would proceed to enter the alley to receive a food reward, and, by gradually increasing the shock, rats can be trained to tolerate increasing discomfort to obtain food. These memories can be suppressed by learning, but never completely erased from the brain's subcortical circuits (65). Handlers need to learn basic principles of handling such as the animal's flight zone, and using the animal's point of balance to induce it to move forward or backward.
These are: blocking vision, slow steady movements of the restraint apparatus, optimum pressure, and providing secure footing so that animals do not lose their balance and struggle due to slipping.
In a large commercial feedlot, the author observed that use of these movement patterns enabled handlers to eliminate electric prods in the processing area.
The author has observed that many handling accidents are caused by a panicked lone animal attempting to rejoin its herdmates. Management has to be fully committed to permanently change handling procedures on a farm, feedlot, or ranch. In a slaughter plant survey, the percentage of bellowing cattle was significantly higher where a high percentage of cattle were prodded with an electric prod (35). Handling of the head appears to be more aversive than carefully applied body restraint and driving cattle without electric prods.
On some squeeze chutes, the hydraulic pressure is set too high, which can result in internal injuries (33). The author has observed that the most excitable pigs and cattle have long slender smooth bodies and fine bones (38).
Excessive selection for calmness may result in some other problems such as lack of mothering ability. Influence of Halothane genotype on meat quality in pigs subjected to various preslaughter treatments. The feasibility of using vocalization scoring as an indicator of poor welfare during slaughter. An animal's first experience with a new corral, a person, or pieces of equipment should be made as positive as possible. The author has observed that cattle with previous experience with quiet handling will be calmer and easier to handle in the future. In cattle, the stress imposed by transit has a greater detrimental effect on the animal's physiology than the stress of feed and water deprivation for the same length of time (8, 55). The intensity of pig squeals at a slaughter plant indicated that squealing was associated with lower pork quality and elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels (89). Over 20 different animal studies show that electrical stimulation of the amygdala will trigger both behavioral and autonomic responses that resemble fear in humans (15). An extensively raised animal that has had little contact with people is more likely to have more fear stress when it is restrained than an animal that is reared in close contact with people and trained to handling procedures. It took a total of 3 months to train the antelope to enter the restraint crate and accept handling by people reaching through holes cut in the sides (39). Researchers in both Australia and Brazil have found that training young calves by walking quietly among them or putting them in a chute and petting them produced calmer adult animals with smaller flight zones (5, 21). Hand-reared goats reacted less strongly to changes in their environment than dam-reared goats. When the flight zone test is used, a person stands in a pen and measures how closely either individuals or groups of cattle will approach them. In a series of experiments, a treadmill test was used to measure the distance run by an individual bird in an attempt to rejoin its flockmates. Several researchers report that novelty is a very strong stressor of farm animals (14, 72, 84). In one group of cattle, some individuals violently shook the squeeze chute and never habituated to being restrained when they were handled every 30 days (30).
The staging alley leading to the truck loading ramp or processing area should only be filled half full. These devices work better than plain sorting sticks, because the animals can see them easily. On squeeze chutes, cover the open barred sides or install angled rubber conveyor belt strips on the side bars to prevent cattle entering the squeeze chute from seeing the operator.
It is important to remember that if an animal is squeezed too tightly, the pressure should be backed off slowly. Animals will move forward in a chute when a handler walks past them in the opposite direction of desired movement. They are most sensitive at 8000 Hz (2, 46), and more sensitive to sound than humans ears at 7000 to 8000 Hz.
Top management has to implement the changes and impress upon employees how serious they are about stopping rough handling. The author has observed that trained handlers working in well-designed facilities can move large numbers of cattle without an electric prod.
Bellowing was associated with electric prodding, slipping and losing footing, and excessive pressure applied by a restraint device. Preliminary research in our laboratory by Jennifer Lanier indicates that blocking an animal's vision may reduce animal resistance to having its head manipulated. Selection for the single trait of calm temperament resulted in a fox that looked and behaved like a Border collie dog. To prevent handling and stress problems, it would be advisable to cull the most flighty animals that became extremely frenzied and agitated when they are restrained, but it would probably be a bad idea to select only for the very calmest animals.
Environmental and genetic factors which contribute to handling problems at pork slaughter plants.
If a painful or very aversive procedure is done the first time, it may be difficult to persuade the animal to re-enter the facility. Transport stress can also lower rumen function compared to controls subjected to feed withdrawal (24). In cats and rats, stimulation of the amygdala will increase plasma corticosterone levels (68, 78, 83). In dairy cows accustomed to handling, cortisol levels were significantly higher in branded cows than in restrained cows (62). Fawns and calves that are raised with close human contact have lower cortisol levels during restraint than animals that receive less contact with humans (9, 43).
Only one afternoon was required to train placid Suffolk sheep to voluntarily accept restraint on a tilt table (28). Several studies have shown that cattle with brahman genetics (Bos indicus) are more excitable than Bos taurus breeds when evaluated by observing their behavior in a squeeze chute (22, 30, 44). Compared to chute scoring of temperament, the author hypothesizes that learning plays a larger role than genetics in determining an animal's flight zone.
A sudden novel event, such as a person stamping his foot in a pen of commercial pigs, is one of the best tests for determining genetic differences in the reactivity of pigs reared under identical conditions (61).
Even though the cattle were handled quietly, they still struggled violently and became behaviorally agitated every time they were put in the squeeze chute. Bison ranchers are concerned because it is difficult to handle their mature animals safely. Some ranchers report success in training cattle by walking them through the squeeze chute a few times and giving them a feed reward, which made future handling in the squeeze chute easier. On a round crowd pen, the crowd gate should be closed and set on the first notch and left there. The anti-back gate at the single file chute entrance can be equipped with a remote control rope so it can be held open by a person standing by the crowd pen.
On one feedlot, the author found it was impossible to eliminate electric prods in the crowd pen until more light was admitted to the processing building by opening a garage door. Cattle often balk at the entrance to a squeeze chute because they see the operator deep in their flight zone. The handler must pass the point of balance at the shoulder to induce the animal to move away in the opposite direction.
Clanging noises on steel should be silenced, and hydraulic systems should be quiet and designed to avoid the sound frequencies for which cattle have maximum sensitivity. Cattle and pigs should be moved in small separate bunches, but sheep can be moved in a large bunch. In large beef slaughter plants with line speeds of over 250 animals per hour, it is possible to move 95% of the cattle from the truck unloading all the way through the stunning chute and restrainer without the use of electric prods (35). At one feedlot, the author observed that the percentage of cattle that vocalized in the squeeze chute dropped from over 50% to approximately 20% when electric prod usage was reduced. For example, in the Charolais breed, the author observed that heavy-boned muscular Charolais were calmer than Charolais with a more slender body shape.


Effects of various veterinary procedures on plasma concentrations of cortisol, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin E2 metabolite in the cow.
Learning resistance to pain and fear effects of over-learning, exposure, and reward exposure in context. The following tips will improve handling: move small numbers of animals at a time, do not overload the crowd pen, eliminate electric prods, open anti-back gates, eliminate visual distractions that make animals balk, use flight zone and point of balance principles, and reduce noise. In sheep, chasing by dogs, handling, and sorting 2 to 3 wk after mating caused early embryonic losses (17). In two pork plants, the author worked with handlers to reduce electric prods in the stunning chute, resulting in calmer pigs, less squealing, and fewer pile ups. Lesions in the amygdala will block both conditioned and unconditioned fear responses (15), giving further evidence of the role of the amygdala as the fear center of the brain. Antelopes of many different species that were captured in the wild and physically restrained had cortisol levels that were five to seven times higher (73). Training a group of cattle, which are somewhat more excitable than sheep, may take about 10 days. If the handler stands still and allows the pigs to approach him and chew on his coveralls, they may become more difficult to drive at the slaughter plant because they tend to follow the handler instead allowing themselves to be driven (27). Chute scoring may be more likely to assess the animal's genetic reactivity because restraint in a squeeze chute is a sudden aversive event, and the animal is forced to enter the squeeze chute. A lone bird was placed on the treadmill and its flockmates were placed in a cage at the far end of the enclosure.
This test was superior to other tests such as willingness to leave a pen or movement ease through a hallway. It is the author's opinion that these animals may be so excitable that the only way to handle them in a low stress manner is to train them to voluntarily cooperate from an early age.
When new feedlot processing areas are built, skylights are recommended to provide diffuse, shadow-free light, because shadows that fall across a chute can make animals balk (26).
When sheep are handled, the crowd pen should be continuously full so that sheep will follow each other in a continuous flow. However, there are a few people that have been rough for so many years that they may not be able to change their ways and they may need to be reassigned to jobs away from animals. Only 5% of the cattle had to be prodded once with an electric prod at the restrainer entrance in order to keep up with the line. In another feedlot with calm, careful handling and no electric prod usage, vocalization was further reduced to about 10% of the cattle. The squeeze chute must be tight enough so that the animal feels held but not so tight that it causes pain (26).
However, both types of lean animals are probably more excitable than animals with more body fat.
However, continued selection for the very calmest fox-dogs resulted in bitches that ate their puppies and in neurological problems such as epilepsy.
Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of the International Society of Applied Animal Ethology. Plant management reported that an additional 10% of their daily pork production was suitable for export to Japan because the incidence of PSE was reduced (Grandin, unpublished data). Large lesions in the amygdala have a taming effect on rats and reduce the size of the flight zone (56). We were able to show how training Bongo antelope reduced stress by comparing CPK and glucose levels obtained in trained animals to values obtained from their medical records when they were immobilized with ketamine and xylazine.
With cattle, the author has observed that training sessions should be spaced 24 hours apart to give the animals an opportunity to calm down. When an animal's flight zone is tested, it is allowed to voluntarily approach a human standing in a pen. The paradox of novelty is that it will cause an intense behavioral and physiological reaction when suddenly introduced to an animal with a flighty excitable temperament, but the same flighty animal may be the most attracted to a novel object when allowed to approach it voluntarily.
Cattle and pigs need room to turn and should be handled in small discrete bunches, with space in between the bunches. However, animals will not approach blinding light, and will not walk directly into the sun.
The most important part of the squeeze chute to cover is the back half closest to the tailgate.
Animals speed up and move faster when a handler inside their flight zone walks in the direction opposite to the desired movement.
The author has observed that reducing a high pitched whine in a hydraulic system resulted in calmer cattle (31).
In a large commercial feedlot, the processing crew handled over 300 animals and only used an electric prod on 1% of them. Squeeze chutes can be instrumented with load cells and strain gauges to measure the force exerted on them by the cattle (81). Pattern of cortisol release in sheep following administration of synthetic ACTH or imposition of various stress agents.
The role of the amygdala in the expression of psychic phenomenon in temporal lobe seizures. The effects of aversively handled pigs either individually or in groups on their behavior, growth and corticosteroids. Reproductive hormone secretions and first service conception rate subsequent to ovulation control with Synchromate B.
Effect of differential rearing on the behavioral and andrenocorticol response of lambs to a novel environment.
A comparison of pituitary adrenal activity elicited by electrical stimulation of preoptic amygdaloid and hypothalamic sites in the rat brain.
Relationships between subjective and objective assessments of stress at slaughter and meat quality in pigs. Bud Williams, a cattle handling expert in Alberta, Canada, stated that lowering stress during receiving at the feedlot reduces medicine costs (Bud Williams, Box 2220, Lloydminster, AB, T9V 1R6, Canada).
Walking in the pens with the pigs, or walking pigs in the aisles during finishing helps produce calmer animals (39). Lines of birds with high and low levels of fear were also developed by measuring the duration of the tonic immobility reaction (54). The most reactive and excitable pigs with the greatest startle reactions were also the most likely to voluntarily approach a novel bucket placed in their pen (61). For sheep, the crowd pen may be filled completely, as long as the sheep are not too tightly packed. In a pork slaughter plant, engineering conveyor equipment for reduced noise combined with quiet handling resulted in reduced squealing and pig pile-ups.
An instrumented squeeze chute can be connected directly to the feedlot computer system and used to monitor handling. In dogs bred for military use in Russia, the individuals with slender narrow bodies were more excitable than athletic, wide-bodied dogs (59). Shipping suppresses lymphocyte blastogenic responses in Angus and Brahman x Angus feeder calves.
Whole blood leukocytes vs separated mononuclear cell blastogenis in calves, time dependent changes after shipping.
Behavior of cattle during hot-iron and freeze branding and the effects of subsequent handling ease.
Increase in plasma 17-hydroxcortico-steroids by cerebral corticol and amygdaloid stimulation in the cat. At another feedlot, toe abscesses were reduced by half when quieter handling methods were used. In cattle, breeds with the largest flight zone had the greatest tendency to approach novel objects or a person laying on the ground (74, 75).The author has observed cattle that will approach and manipulate a piece of paper lying on the ground when allowed to voluntarily approach it, but they will balk and jump away if someone attempts to drive them over it.
Sheep should be moved in one continuous stream, never breaking the flow, to maintain following behavior. For example, at one plant 64% of the cattle had to be prodded because they could see a man's hand under a gate.
In a feedlot in which cattle are individually identified, the computer could correlate the squeeze chute force scores to weight gains and sickness, and could measure how hard the animal hits the headgate and the intensity of struggling.
Effect of handling, administration of a local anesthetic and electrical dehorning on plasma cortisol in Holstein calves. Influence of breed and early management on ease of handling and open-field behaviour of cattle. 1989 A study of the relationships between the attitudinal and behavioral profiles of stockpersons and the level of fear of humans and reproductive performance of commercial pigs.
Individual differences in behavioural responses of pigs exposed to nonsocial and social challenges. Approachability of bovine cattle in pastures: Breed comparisons and a breed treatment analysis Behav. Responses of cattle to humans in open spaces: breed comparisons and approach-avoidance relationships.
Heritabilities of some type appraisal traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlation with production. One cause of toe abscesses is scuffing of the toes when agitated cattle are waiting in line in the chute.
Creatine phosphokinase averaged 71 UI in trained animals and 288 IU in immobilized animals. To induce a cow to walk into a squeeze chute, the handler should stand back out of her flight zone. However, in most other plants, a single 15 minute lesson in animal handling made it possible to greatly reduce electric prod usage.
Influence of repeated restraint and isolation stress and electrolyte administration on pituitary-adrenal secretions, electrolytes, and other blood constituents of sheep.
They were selected for 1) high social reinstatement, 2) low social reinstatement, 3) long tonic immobility-high fear, and 4) short tonic immobility-low fear (20). The cow will usually move forward into the squeeze when the handler steps toward her and walks back past the point of balance at the shoulder (Figure 1). The handlers were instructed to fill the crowd pen only half full and to tap an animal on the rear before resorting to an electric prod. Conditioning of Nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) to blood sampling in a crate with positive reinforcement. After a 15 minute handling lesson, average electric prod scores in four pork and beef plants were reduced from 63% of the animals prodded to 16% (35).
Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily weight gains than cattle with excitable temperaments. Bos indicus cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters. A comparative physiological and behavioral study of freeze and hot iron branding using dairy cows. Resting pigs and hot fat trimming and accelerated chilling of carcasses to improve pork quality.



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