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The requirement of high power density for today’s power converters is continuously pushing the Si devices to their limits, in both the operating temperature and switching frequency. In this work, commercial SiC MOSFETs are used to build a 1200 V, 60 A phase-leg module for high-temperature operation. Simple installationSensor and device names can be customized to make the text messages clear. The mass adoption of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) depends on achieving cost, size and weight reduction and increased reliability of electric power train systems. Further progress towards achieving the performance and cost goals of (H)EV traction converters is not possible by making incremental improvements to existing technologies.
Typical automotive traction inverter continuous operation currents are in the 100 Arms to 450 Arms range.
Very high switch currents are associated with high power losses that create another difficulty – heat removal from the semiconductor die and the module.
The requirements for increased power density and very high, short time overload currents demand semiconductor switches capable of operating reliably at junction temperatures exceeding the industrial standard of 150°C.
In order to minimize the conduction losses the voltage drop across the switch during its on-state must be reduced. Low parasitic inductance of the interconnections is critical to enable fast switching while keeping the voltage overshoots in a safe range.
The requirement to increase the overall power density of power converters demands very effective thermal management.
The conventional packaging and interconnection methods have reached their reliability limits and are incapable of handling the stresses created by modern semiconductor devices operating at temperatures higher than the traditional maximum junction temperature (Tj) of 150°C.
Low conduction losses have been achieved by combination of low Vceon of the IGBT and low interconnection resistance.
Large trench IGBT dice of 12 mm x 12 mm with solderable metal on both front and back sides (SFM) of the 70 μm thin wafers were successfully developed with a current carrying capability of 300A and a blocking voltage above 700V. Another challenge posed by automotive power converters is the increasing demand for higher breakdown voltages of the semiconductor power switches beyond the industrial standard of 600V.
The turn-on power dissipation of IGBTs and Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) noise are strongly dependent upon the reverse recovery characteristics of the FWD’s. Traditional semiconductor packaging concepts are based on three packaging levels: bare die, discrete package or power module. COOLiR2DIE™ is a basic power switch that can be used in many different configurations of power modules including inverter halfbridges, three-phase bridges, buck, boost and H-bridges for DC-DC converter applications.
COOLiR2DIE™ eliminates the need to handle ultra-thin die during module manufacturing and eliminates the wirebonding process thus greatly reducing cost and simplifying the manufacturing process.


A reduction of 390 mV in Vceon at Ice=300A was achieved by IR with the Cu-clip IGBTs as compared with the IGBTs packaged with wirebonds, as shown in Figure 11. Similar improvement is achieved in the COOLiR2DIETM package where the interconnections are implemented with the copper layer on the DBC.
The inductance of wirebonds is a significant contributor to the overall stray inductance of a power module. Wirebonds are the primary cause of power module failures due to high temperature swings and constant thermal expansion and contraction of the wirebonds during operation. The thin IGBTs with dual solderable metal on top and bottom of the die enable double-sided cooling packages. In many applications, the newly commercialized SiC devices have become the ideal choice for substitute.
Three 1200 V, 20 A SiC MOSFETs and three 1200 V, 10 A SiC Schottky diodes are paralleled in each switch position to reach the rated current.
Compact solution for monitoring food or pharmaceuticals storages, refrigeration boxes or refrigerated vehicles. It is only possible by breaking with tradition and taking an innovative, comprehensive approach including development of dedicated semiconductor devices and packaging concepts.
In order to enable full utilization of these devices, IR is also developing complementary, innovative high power packaging platform including half-bridge modules (COOLiR2Bridge™) with dual-sided cooling capability. The short time (5 to 30 seconds) operation may demand as much as two to three times higher currents. Consequently, the interconnection resistance contribution to the power losses becomes more significant and needs to be addressed on the device as well as the package levels. Power switch packages must shrink in size and at the same time be capable of removing increased amounts of heat. The need is partially dictated by the increasing battery voltages in order to satisfy higher power demands and also by the wide battery voltage variations between fully charged and discharged state.
The traction inverter type IGBT’s dynamic switching was measured at Vcc=400V and Ic=300A. In this article, we report 300A, 700V diodes with solderable metals on both front and back sides of the 70 μm thin wafers. IR has successfully developed soft recovery diodes which exhibit oscillation-free feature while maintaining the low turn-on power dissipation for IGBTs. Both the IGBT and the Diode are SFM type (solderable on both sides) that eliminate the need for wirebonding and allows the COOLiR2DIE™ to be used as a surface mounted component. The additional metallization on die used in the COOLiR2DIETM reduces the resistance further.


Due to the mutual coupling effect, multiple wirebonds reduce the inductance less than proportionally to the number of wires.
The bond wire cracking and lift-off is the most critical factor limiting the life of power modules. The challenge is to achieve low switching losses without generating excessive voltage overshoots, ringing and exceeding the EMI limits. Table 2 summarizes the average switching characteristics of IGBTs and diodes in the COOLiR2BRIDGE™ module.
A top view of the diode chip and its static characteristics are shown in Figure 6a and 6b, respectively. Figure 7 compares the turn-on waveforms of IGBTs using previous generation fast recovery diodes and the newly developed diodes without oscillation.
As can be seen in Table 4, the inductance of copper plane is approximately two times lower than that of six bond wires. This helps to reduce the number of dice per switch that need to be paralleled and minimizes the packaging complexity. The temperature coefficient of COOLiRIGBTTM is positive – the Vceon increases with temperature. The switching performance is further improved by embedding DC decoupling capacitors inside the module, which helps to decouple the parasitics from the module’s busbar (Fig. The fall-time (tfall) does not vary much with temperature because no electron irradiation is used for lifetime control.
This makes the COOLiRIGBTTM ideal for paralleling to meet various output power requirements in HEV and EV systems.
The improvements are often insufficient to meet the reliability requirements of demanding automotive applications.
International Rectifier’s newly developed IGBTs exhibit breakdown voltages far above the rated 680V. The leakage current of the thin IGBTs remains low even at elevated temperatures enabling the operation at Tjmax of 175°C. With this design, the SiC power module can achieve much faster switching speed than conventional Si IGBT modules without suffering from serious parasitic ringing. Continuous test successfully verifies the high-temperature and high-frequency operation of the module by running the devices at 200°C and 100 kHz (Fig.



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