How to cope with ringing in your ears normal,can you have permanent hearing loss from an ear infection treatment,temporary hearing loss due to ear infection - For Begninners

With Burning Man just around the corner, many people have been inquiring about the responsible use of various drugs, including psychedelics and MDMA. Everyone’s favorite party girl will want at least one playa date this year, so here’s how to hang with Molly.
Setting intention and having ritual before dosing with psychedelics can really make a difference! It’s a good idea to have someone in the group who is not on psychedelics so they can step in if someone starts to have a bad trip.
Last, but certainly not least, I present you with this amazing chart on drug combinations created by tripsit.me.
Disclaimer: Always consult with a medical professional before taking drugs, especially if you are on medication or have a physical or mental illness.
For some, the added stress of the holidays or painful memories about family can trigger compulsive drinking.
If you think you have a drinking problem or are struggling with moderation, there are many ways to get help.
The holidays may be a stressful time, but they are also a wonderful time to share with the people you love—including yourself. This is the last installment of a five part series on the neurobiology of addiction by Jennifer Fernandez, PhD. Alcohol is often sought out by those who have a hard time expressing themselves, especially if coupled with social anxiety. Amphetamines give you a rush of pleasure and boost energy and focus by altering norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
Opiates may help someone who is feeling irritable, stressed, or moody by blocking endorphin receptor sites in the brain and increasing feelings of euphoria. Hallucinogens and ecstasy create a sense of connection and feelings of warmth and empathy by altering serotonin and norepinephrine receptor sites. This entry was posted in addiction, Addiction Facts, dopamine, drugs, mental illness, self-medication hypothesis, substance abuse, substance abuse treatment on August 21, 2013 by Dr. This is the fourth installment of a five part series on the neurobiology of addiction by Jennifer Fernandez, PhD. In the previous installment of this series, we learned that dopamine is responsible for feelings of pleasure and euphoria, but it has other functions as well.
Drugs act on these messenger chemicals to increase, decrease, or alter their release or reuptake.
The next, and final, installment of this series will explain why some people turn to recreational drugs in an attempt to balance the chemical messengers of the brain.
This entry was posted in addiction, addiction and the brain, Addiction Facts, cocaine, dopamine, neurotran, psychology, substance abuse on August 8, 2013 by Dr.
This is the third installment of a five part series on the neurobiology of addiction by Jennifer Fernandez, PhD.
Above we have a close up of the synapse, the gap between neurons, and what happens when cocaine is present in the brain. This entry was posted in addiction, Addiction Facts, brain on drugs, cocaine, dopamine, drugs, neuron, neurotransmission, neurotransmitters, reuptake, substance abuse on August 1, 2013 by Dr. This is the second installment of a five part series on the neurobiology of addiction by Jennifer Fernandez, PhD. Addiction causes changes to brain structures that regulate pleasure, motivation, and decision making.
In the next installment, we’ll dive even deeper into the brain to look at the role drugs have in neurotransmission. This is the first installment of a five part series on the neurobiology of addiction by Jennifer Fernandez, PhD. Addiction is a biopsychosocial phenomenon that affects over 20 million people in the United States. But we can identify some predictors for addiction and we do understand the impact it has on the brain. This five part series will primarily focus on current understanding about the brain structures and neurotransmitters involved in addiction. Although we don’t fully understand addiction, there are lots of theories that attempt to explain it. You may have also heard addiction described as a hijacker of the reward center of the brain. This entry was posted in addiction, Addiction Facts, Addiction Research, biopsychosocial, disease model, self-medication hypothesis, theories of addiction on July 3, 2013 by Dr. Studies with human subjects are already being designed ,according to Billy Chen, the lead researcher. This entry was posted in addiction, Addiction Research, addiction treatment, cocaine, cocaine addiction, prefrontal cortex, TMS on April 4, 2013 by Dr. We all deal with stress and have to learn methods to reduce and manage the stressors that life throws at us. Past research has focused on the psychological and emotional mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse and there has been some speculation about the brain structures and neurotransmitters involved, but now researchers from Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania have found that by blocking kappa opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), rats under stress do not relapse on cocaine. The VTA is the brain structure responsible for rewarding the fulfillment of basic needs, like hunger, sleep, and love. Kappa opioid receptors are released in the VTA during stress and interrupt GABA’s process.
This is exciting news in the field of addiction as we are learning more and more about the neurobiological underpinnings of this devastating disorder.
The post Researchers stop stress-related relapse in rats appeared first on Power Over Addiction.
This entry was posted in addiction, Addiction Research, dopamine, GABA, nucleus accumbens, prescription drugs, recovery, relapse, stress, ventral tegmental area on April 2, 2013 by Dr.
If internet use interferes with one’s life and ability to function, internet addiction or compulsive internet use may be a concern.
Although there is debate in the academic world about the authenticity of internet addiction there is no dispute that, for some people, excessive internet use can cause distress, strife, and disruption in their ability to function. Regardless of the biological underpinnings of excessive internet use, it is clear that people experience distress and disruption to their lives when they compulsively turn to the internet for relief.


This entry was posted in addiction, Addiction Facts, Addiction Research, IAD, internet, Internet Addiction, internet addiction disorder on March 11, 2013 by Dr. So, here are some tips on maximizing the *awesome* in your psychonauting adventure while minimizing the *bleh*. 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine metabolizes into free radical compounds which may cause neurotoxicity.
The thing is, our guts break it down to 5HT which can’t cross the blood brain barrier so taking a supplement is moot. Melatonin can help and if you have access to lorazepam it can come in handy in multiple scenarios (keep reading!). There isn’t much to do in terms of pre- and post- dosing, however there is a lot that can impact the quality of your experience. Consider the effects of the drug you are taking, the chaotic, dusty, bug-infested environment you will be inhabiting, and your current state of mind.
Check out tripsafe.org for info on tripping responsibly and tips on how to help when someone is not having a good time. Remember the possession of drugs is illegal and by no means does this site recommend that you engage in the activities described here. For those who already engage in problematic drinking, the stress can worsen drinking behaviors. But for those who don’t want to abstain or who simply want to be mindful of how much alcohol they consume, moderation is key. Think about how many hours you will be partying and set a limit for how many drinks you’d like to consume. If you’re drinking beer, keep the bottle caps in your pocket or purse to help you keep count. It is estimated that 1,200 people will die this holiday season due to drunk or buzzed driving.
The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism offers information and resources on their website. It makes you feel loose and carefree by releasing GABA and suppressing glutamate in the brain. They may be sought out by someone who is depressed and has been unable to feel pleasure for some time. People who have experienced trauma or are in significant emotional pain may also turn to opiates to help soothe and forget their painful memories. So if your drug use is an attempt to self-medicate an underlying problem, speaking to a trained professional can help you find healthier alternatives to cope. It is the most well known chemical messenger and is responsible for feelings of pleasure, coordination of movement, and logical thinking.
It is responsible for increased alertness and focus and is involved with learning and memory processes.
It relaxes the brain by suppressing overexcitement or hyperactivity, while allowing us to remain alert and focused. It has caused pain in many people’s lives and has cost families and governments trillions of dollars to treat and prevent. Depending on the type of drug abused and the length of the abuse, these changes can be permanent. It is involved in cognition, motivation, intense feelings of love, addiction, and psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and ADHD.
It sends the chemical messenger of pleasure, dopamine, to various areas of the brain, depending on the message.
It is involved in executive functioning, complex brain functions that  include differentiating from good and bad or same and different, future consequences, predicting expectations based on actions, working towards a goal, and suppressing urges that might be deemed socially unacceptable. The factors that cause addiction are not yet well understood, with some arguing that it is a disease and others suggesting it’s more complicated than that.
We’ll also look at the interaction specific drugs have with neurotransmitters in the brain and how this accounts for preferences in drug selection. Brain imaging studies show that overuse of drugs or compulsive behaviors “hijack” the reward system and can lead to changes in the brain that make it difficult to experience pleasure as one did before. People don’t become addicted to a drug because of their neuroanatomy and neurochemical environment. It contains dopamine releasing neurons that communicate with other brain structures, like the nucleus accumbens and the pre-frontal cortex when a basic need is met.
By blocking those receptors in rats, researchers found they were able to resist relapsing on cocaine after five minutes of stressful exercise. “If we understand how kappa opioid receptor antagonists are interfering with the reinstatement of drug seeking we can target that process,” Kauer said. Researchers are especially excited about the potential to develop prescription drugs to help prevent relapse, and although this prospect may help people overcome their addiction, it is important to remember that addiction is more than just neurobiological processes. Internet addiction is somewhat of a misnomer and compulsive internet use seems to capture the nature of the disorder more accurately.
If you think your internet usage is compulsive, contact a mental health professional for an evaluation. A psychiatric nurse practitioner friend recommends the following: 500mg of Vit C and 600-1200mg of NAC an hour before, an hour or two into the experience, and in the hour or so afterwards. If you are feeling funky or freaked out by the environment consider taking a different substance (perhaps a dissociative?) or skipping mind alteration altogether. The information provided here is for educational purposes only and it is your responsibility to decide whether or not to assume the risks associated with consuming drugs. Keep pennies in your left pocket and move one over to your right pocket each time you have a cocktail. Always designate a sober driver or make other arrangements to get home after a night of drinking.
Find a therapist who specializes in evaluating and treating substance abuse to understand your best treatment option. The soothing and disinhibiting effects are also helpful to people in emotional pain, such as someone suffering from grief.
Traumatized people may also turn to dissociatives for their ability to induce out of body experiences. In addition to pain relief, they are responsible for feelings of well-being, happiness, and euphoria.


The difference is that drugs relay the message better, faster, and in a much more intense way. It’s no surprise that social service agencies want to educate the general population about the harms of addiction. The neurotransmitter dopamine has been released into the synapse to send a message to the neighboring cell. Other factors, such as pre-existing abnormalities in brain structure (like depression, schizophrenia, or ADHD) can also make the effects of drug misuse irreversible.
In the brain of addicted individuals, the PFC is thought to be involved in anticipation of the drug, motivation to seek out the drug, craving, automatic responses to emotions, and reduced self-control.
We’ll start with an overview of addiction theories then dive into the neurocircuitry and neurobiology of addiction.
It helps explain why people turn to specific drugs or compulsive behaviors to help them deal with things like depression, chronic pain, trauma, or grief.
Your parents, family, friends, or lovers may have modeled addictive behaviors or inability to cope with emotions in a healthy manner. Prefrontal cortex stimulation would be achieved through the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which is currently being used as a treatment for depression.
Stress can trigger relapse, especially early in the recovery phase of addiction when new coping skills are being introduced and a person experiments with various strategies to find those best suited to their lifestyle needs.
People overcoming addiction also need to learn emotional regulation and healthy alternatives to fulfill unmet needs in their lifestyles. It’s compulsive because use of the internet acts as a substitute for an unmet lifestyle need. Vegetarian-friendly food options include chia seeds and pepitas (pumpkin seeds) and omnivores can load up on turkey sandwiches. Will it get in the way of any plans you’ve made for the rest of the evening or tomorrow? You can also find support at Alcoholics Anonymous and Moderation Management meetings in your area. Addiction can occur when drugs or compulsive behaviors are relied upon for alleviation from multiple or serious problems. Anti-psychotic medication can have dulling and flattening side effects and sometimes people with schizophrenia seek out the alertness and energy of stimulants. Nicotine is used by 95% of people with schizophrenia because of its ability to increase concentration and focus.
It is released when we do things that are important for survival, like sleeping, eating, and having sex. It signals the release of adrenaline in your body to prepare you for survival in the face of imminent danger.
Research shows us that life experiences affect the development of the brain, including how neurotransmitters work. You may have seen this public service announcement comparing the addicted brain to fried eggs. Once dopamine has completed its task, it attempts to go back home, but cocaine is blocking the way.
The primary brain structures affected by drug use and compulsive behaviors are the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex.
These changes explain drug tolerance (needing to take more drugs to feel high) and drug withdrawal (physical and psychological discomfort when drug use stops abruptly). We’ll conclude by looking at the effect of drugs on neurotransmitters in the brain and discuss why one develops a drug of choice. We also know there is a psychological component: an inability to cope with distressing emotions. It should be noted that the jury is still out on the efficacy of TMS to treat depression, as reported in the journals Current Pharmaceutical Design and Pharmacology and Therapeutics. It seems unclear to me what exactly changes in the prefrontal cortex due to this stimulation.
GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that slows down the release of dopamine in the VTA of a healthy brain.
For example, someone who suffers from depression or anxiety may turn to the fantasy world of the internet to escape those uncomfortable emotions.
In fact, according to the Distilled Spirits Council, the distilled spirits industry makes more than 25% of its profits between Thanksgiving and New Years. For example, someone who has experienced trauma may find it difficult to feel pleasure or regulate their mood due to low levels of dopamine and serotonin.
Neurons generate messenger chemicals, or neurotransmitters, to transmit information from cell to cell.
Studies of twins who have been separated at birth show that they are likely to develop addictions, despite growing up in different home environments. The social component of addiction is related to peer culture, as they influence what you use, how you use it, or how (not) to deal with your emotions.
Obviously this is also true of drug addictions, and although a recent study shows differences in the brain anatomy of excessive internet users, the results are inconclusive. This may cause them to turn to externally supplied chemicals to balance the levels of neurotransmitters in their brain. The electrical charge travels through the dendrites, cell body (or soma), axon, and terminal bud down to the synapse, the gap between neurons where the magic happens. Dopamine’s loitering, so to speak, is what causes feelings of intense pleasure and euphoria. The chemicals then float across the synapse and attach to the neighboring cell for a short amount of time in a process called neurotransmission. At the same time, the message from your burning hand also alerts your brain to release endorphins, the brain’s natural pain reliever. The endorphins do their job and relieve the pain long enough so you can think to run cold water over your hand. Once the message has been communicated, the endorphins return to their home cell until the next electrical charge commands them to be released.



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