Incidence of hearing loss in elderly individuals,gold earrings heart design free,18k earrings sold at garage sale uk,tenis nike para correr hombre 2014 zara - 2016 Feature

Introduction: Aging process is associated with degeneration in different part of the body There is scarcity of literature on the otological diseases in the elderly black African especially Nigerian which is the largest African nation. INTRODUCTION The aging process in human affects all the organs of the body, including the ear (the external, the middle and the inner ear). Thus this study is done with the aim of highlighting the pattern of otological diseases in elderly for careful cost-effective health care plans and to make the aging period more fulfilling and tolerable to the elderly. For this reason the various parts are usually diseased should the individual live long enough. An earlier study carried out at University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) in 2000 implicated chloramphenicol as the commonest ototoxic drug, followed by antimalarials (Quinine). Prevalence of ototoxicity in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin city: A 5-year review.
High dose cis-platum diammine dichloride: amelioration of renal toxicity by mannitol diuresis.
Levels of antibody to conserved parts of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in Ghanaian children are not associated with protection from clinical malaria. A high malaria reinfection rate in children and young adults living under a low entomological inoculation rate in aperiurban area of bamako, mali. It is therefore hope that the information will go a long way to assist other African countries as well. As most of these diseases are usually not life threatening, little or no attention is paid to them and hence, there is scarcity of information about the pattern of otological diseases in elderly Nigerians.We live in an aging world with the population of older people rising steadily.
Aim: To identify the commonly implicated drugs in patients diagnosed with ototoxicity in Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Clinic of UBTH. It is different from neurotoxicity where the site of action of the drug is on the central nervous system (i.e. Report of the ninth meeting of the WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma. Method: The study is a ten year hospital-based retrospective study between January, 1999 and December, 2008 at the ENT Department of Unilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin. While the impact of the increase in numbers has been well appreciated in the developed countries for a long time, it is only recently that geriatric population has been fully acknowledged as category of people that need special attention in Nigeria.The ear which is the sense organ of hearing consists of the outer, middle and inner part. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and three patients' case notes, diagnosed as having ototoxicity, between June 2005 and July 2010 at the ENT Clinic of UBTH were reviewed. All patients aged 65 years and above with otological complaints were included in the study.
Ototoxicity came to forefront in 1944 when streptomycin was discovered to have caused hearing and vestibular disequilibrium in patients where it was used to treat tuberculosis (Kahlmet 1984).
Auditory Ototoxicity in Tuberculosis Patients Treated with Dihydrostreptomycin A Report of the Incidence of Hearing Loss in a Series of 1,150 Cases.
With increasing age, there is degeneration of the tissues which makes the individual more prone to diseases of the ear such as presbyacusis, impacted wax, chronic suppurative otitis media etc (1,2,3).There is also the relation between the hearing of an individual with diseases of other systems (4,5,6,7,8).
The age of 65 years, according to WHO, is regarded as the margin between the older people and middle age and in Nigeria about 5% (12.3 million) of the population falls in this category (9).
Conclusion: Aural wax impaction was the commonest disease found, thus it is important to always do full audiologic evaluation after aural syringing to rule out other conditions such as presbyacusis and aural tumours in elderly. His interest, however, involved determining the highest frequency heard at various ages rather than acuity at a given frequency (3,11). Continuing medical education is recommended for the general practitioners for early recognition and referral. BUNCH (12) in 1929 documented not only the aging pattern - Presbycusis - but also the fact that females tend to retain hearing acuity more than their age-matched males.


Therefore, emphasis on public health, which is currently on maternal and child health, is likely to extend to the health problems of old people (13).The aging process and the last stage of life is satisfying for some and disappointing for others (10).
Unfortunately little information is available in Nigeria and in many developing countries about ear disease pattern in the older population.
Prolonged administration of high-dose quinine in many patients led to loss of outer hair cells. There is need, therefore, to study the pattern of ear diseases among older people in developing countries so as to be able to plan a cost-effective program for the control and prevention of such diseases, which can have significant adverse effects on quality of life (14). As the Life expectancy in Nigeria was 36 years in 1960, but now it is 51 years for males and 53 years for females (15,16).METHODThis hospital-based retrospective study was carried out between January, 1999 and December, 2008 at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital which is located in Ilorin, the Kwara state capital in the middle belt zone of Nigeria.
The incidence of clinical and functional hearing loss due to aminoglycosides has been significantly diminished because some of the newer derivatives have lower ototoxic potential and, perhaps, efficient monitoring of serum levels of drugs has allowed for better dosing schedules.
The hospital sub-serves about eight states namely Kwara, Kogi, Niger, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Lagos and part of Kebbi states. However, the problem is a significant one as they are still widely used in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections as pointed out by Schacht. Department of Ear, Nose and Throat is one of the hospital departments that have services covering the above mentioned zones in terms of patient coverage.The case notes of patients aged 65 years and above who presented with otological diseases to the ENT surgeons were enrolled into the study. The age of 65 years was selected as the dividing line between middle and elderly age according to the WHO current age classification. RESULTSA total of 760 patients aged 65 years and above presented during this study period with otological complaints.
Ogisi in a prospective study of 49 patients with ototoxicity at ENT Clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) reported that chloramphenicol was the commonest ototoxic drug, incriminated in 43% of their patients. The patient's type and degree of hearing loss were obtained where possible because infants less than 4 years could not give a reliable PTA (pure tone audiometry) response.
Out of 6420 patients seen in ENT Clinic of UBTH between June 2005 and July 2010, 103 patients were diagnosed as having ototoxicity. Out of the 103 patients diagnosed as having ototoxicity, only 79 of them met the criteria for this study. Inclusion criteria for this study include patients who presented with sudden or progressive hearing loss of less than 3 weeks' duration following drug intake for any illness and patients who did pure tone audiometry following the hearing loss. However, children below 5 years of age were assessed using distraction test because most of them could not give a reliable pure tone audiometric response.
Patients with previous history of hearing impairment from any other cause and patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study.
There are a number of patho-physiological processes underlying age-related changes to functional components in the inner ear (17).Aging in US this is the commonest cause of hearing impairment among the older people (17) compared to our environment where aural wax impaction was the commonest problem encountered among the elderly. Impacted cerumen can cause a variety of symptoms (23) including itching, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness and increased infection risk (18).Furthermore, untreated impacted wax can lead to hearing loss, social withdrawal, poor work function and even mild paranoia (12,14,27).
Some patients with impacted wax present with perforated eardrums (24) which is usually self-induced. The commonest implicated drug was quinine (19%) followed by native herbal medicine drugs (13.9%). It is a reversible, frequently overlooked cause of conductive hearing loss in older people (25-28). Risk factors for cerumen impaction include anatomical nature of ear canal, ear canal hair, self repeated ear cleaning, hearing aids, and bony growths such as osteoma (28).
This is unlike some studies in which CSOM was the second most common otological disease in elderly.Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that threshold of hearing and the prevalence of hearing disability increase markedly with age (29,30).
However, most of the diagnoses and treatment were made in peripheral hospitals and by non-experts.


This was closely followed by Otitis media, but most had developed CSOM (4.6%) at presentation. Poor socioeconomic circumstances, obvious in our study population lead to increased prevalence of CSOM compared to that in more affluent population groups (28).
Most of them presented late because they have ardent belief in home remedies, traditional medicine, and spiritual cures (11,28). Older people feel too frail to use available public transportation, and find it difficult to stand in line for long periods to see a doctor in a busy hospital (33).
Most showed no specific symptoms and such presented late with treatment results being disappointing.CONCLUSIONAural wax impaction was the commonest disease found, thus it is important to always do full audiologic evaluation after aural syringing to rule out other conditions such as presbyacusis and aural tumours.
Age-adjusted policies and Programmes that encourage workplace flexibility, lifelong learning and healthy lifestyles, especially during transitional periods should be put in place.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES1.
Tinnitus is one of the commonest side effects of quinine, which is the most common drug used in treatment of drug-resistant malaria. In a study in two developing countries for instance, of 96 samples of chloroquine collected from Nigeria and Thailand for analysis, the results indicated that 36.5% were sub-standard. The 53% who had no idea of the drugs given to them and could not fix their hearing loss to any cause may be due to the problems of a developing country [Table 5].
This problem includes low or no education, which denies an individual the power to know, lack of funds or facility to diagnose or seek medical attention, and patients having little or no knowledge of the drugs given to him.
Cross-cultural adaptation of the Hearing Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE-S) for use with Spanish speaking Mexican Americans. It started when the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital (RLHH), founded in 1849, joined the National Health Service (NHS) at its inception in 1948 and became part of University College Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH), one of the UK's leading academic medical centers, in 2003. Despite its title, it offers a range of complementary medicine (CM) services, not only homeopathy. Until around 1980, it was a small general hospital with a specialist homeopathic department. The surgical and other facilities were replaced by a range of CM services including the NHS's first complementary cancer (1960), acupuncture (1977), autogenic training (1986), musculoskeletal (1993), herbal medicine services (2008), and others.
The relation of hearing in the elderly to the presence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factor.
The severe-to-profound hearing loss seen in all the patients could also be attributed to the problems of the developing world where medical attention is not sort on time because of lack of funds and unavailability of specialists in many places.
As part of a health campaign to prevent quinine ototoxicity, quinine should be prescribed with caution, and if possible, with audiometric and quinine serum level monitoring. There should be an unrelenting effort to get the best alternative to drugs with unavoidable severe side effects and a health policy that can give everybody the opportunity of receiving good health care, irrespective of the patients' financial status. Also, a massive health campaign on side effects of drugs and herbal medicine should be made to all primary healthcare providers, patent medicine dealers, herbalists, homeopaths, and pharmacists.
Bunnag C, Prasansuk S, Nakorn AN et al Ear diseases and hearing in the thai elderly population.
A randomised controlled trial of screening for adult hearing loss during preventive health checks.
Lasisi OA, Sulaiman OA and Afolabi OA Socio-economic status and hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media in Nigeria.



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