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GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. If your pet is unfortunate enough to have an encounter with a snake you can help by being aware of the signs and symptoms of snake bite, and getting the affected animal to the hospital as quickly as possible. The first clue that a pet has been bitten may just be a small amount of blood on the coat, face or limb with a some soft tissue swelling around a small puncture wound(s). Most snake bites in humans occur when people try to kill snakes, often after seeing them bite a pet. Calling ahead gives us critical extra time to make necessary preparations to ensure prompt and effective treatment.
When you call, listen very carefully to the announcements, and then call the emergency mobile number on the message (Mark sometimes has a night off with the after hours phone going to another vet). If your pet has stopped breathing, attempt mouth to nose resuscitation and if possible continue this during transport of your pet to the hospital. These days the treatment of snake bite has a good success rate, and with appropriate and timely medical therapy many patients recover completely.
The unfortunate animal will require constant monitoring, day and night, every one or two hours for the first 24 hours then every three hours for the next two days, with high rate intravenous infusions, blood clotting products and regular blood tests. If a snake needs removal from the property, contact WIRES to ask for theie recommended local snake handler. Hyperthyroidism in Cats: Great News!This is a very interesting disease of cats which we see in nearly any age group. Hyper-active thyroids (hyperthyroidism) make cats act like a car all revved up- ravenous appetite, hyper-active (just like my kids), under weight, often difficult to handle (again like my kids!) and may suffer from heart failure- rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, panting. By performing a simple blood test, we can diagnose affected cats and institute therapy to knock-out the thyroid hormones causing all the problems.
Left un-treated, hyperthyroid cats run the major risk of high blood pressure and heart failure.
The ventricles become smaller and smaller and as a result, can’t fill up with the same volume of blood.
Treated cases usually see an improvement in heart function and the removal of heart drugs from the treatment regime at this stage i.e.
Blood test are performed before and 24-36 hours after starting therapy to ensure the kidneys can handle having the blood pressure dropped.
Kidney DiseaseDogs and cats can suffer from either acute or chronic renal failure caused by many different types of illnesses. Kidneys have powerful protective mechanisms in place which kick into action if problems arise. Kidneys are also responsible for sending messages to the bone marrow telling it to make more red blood cells (RBC's) to replace the old ones which are "gobbled up" by the spleen and liver when they are worn out.
As with most diseases, early detection and treatment is much more preferable especially for a vitally important organ like the kidneys.
For all our renal failure cases, we use a Doppler machine to record elevations in blood pressure and measure response to blood pressure lowering medications. Force feeding using a stomach tube through which fluids and liquidised renal support diets can be administered. For cases with elevated Phosphorous in their body, we can use drugs called phosphate binders.
For young cats in Australia with kidney failure, there is the possibility of kidney transplantation in Brisbane, but it is quite involved and the donor cat has to be taken on as a new family pet. Parvovirus- the Ebola equivalentWe all know about Ebola- one of the nastiest and most contagious viral diseases for man. Parvovirus has to be one of the nastiest and most infectious diseases of dogs causing severe suffering with a very high fatality rate despite all the best intensive care. Surprisingly, because Parvovirus has been around for so long, some pet owners have either forgotten what it does to dogs, or they were not yet born when it first arrived on the scene in a world wide epidmiec in the 1980's.
Parvovirus is a virus that attacks the lining of a dog’s stomach and intestines and literally strips it out. If pet owners are struggling financially, vets often have to euthanise infected dogs before starting any therapy. Camden vets had 10 Parvovirus cases in just one day, not to mention how many cases they had for a whole year! In a recent national study, there were 1,200 cases reported - and that was from only a small number of vet practices taking part in the survey. When Parvovirus first occurred in the 1980’s, people were not aware of just how tough and contagious it was. Well, the very fact that Parvovirus managed to spread across the world in just 2 years puts a few holes in this statement. A dog either brewing or in the recovery stage of a Parvovirus infection, sheds millions of the viruses into the environment. It does not take long for an epidemic of Parvovirus to occur if the general dog population has a low vaccination percentage. Parvovirus can affect dogs of all ages; however dogs less than one year of age are particularly susceptible. Treatment is difficult because there is no way to kill the virus once it has infected the dog.
Treatment is intensive and involves hospitalisation in an isolation ward (sometimes for many days), aggressive fluid therapy, antibiotics, pain relief and anti-vomiting drugs. Despite all of these treatments, a high percentage of dogs die a few days later leaving the owner with no dog and a very large vet bill. Malignant tumour of the adrenal glands- tumours made up of the cortisone producing cells of the adrenal glands make excessive cortisone. Dogs with pituitary gland tumours can go on to live comfortably for some time until the tumour gets too big and starts to place pressure on adjacent parts of the brain.At this stage, we might see symptoms such as blindness and other hormone imbalances. Unfortunately, adrenal gland tumours are often malignant and can spread to other parts of the body. Suspected cases have blood tests done to try and find out where the excess cortisone is coming from. Until recently, most cases were treated with a drug called Lysodren which destroys the parts of the adrenal glands that make cortisone. Many cases on Trilostane can have the dose lowered after a few months, which helps with the budget. Diabetes is commonly seen in Cushing's cases, probably as a result of cortisone interfering with the action of insulin.
Before embarking on treatment, owners need to be very aware of the expensive nature of treament. In human medicine, pituitary gland tumous can be removed by specialist surgeons operating through the nose or roof of the mouth. Increased Thirst (Polydypsia)There are a large number of causes of increased thirst (polydypsia) in pets. Blood tests (biochemistry and full blood count) give an overall picture of a pet's health. Pets and humans can donate a kidney (and therefore be down to 50% total kidney function) and still lead a healthy life with no elevation of kidney blood tests or polydypsia.
If their remaining kidney becomes diseased, and loses over half of its ability to function, kidney blood test start to rise i.e. When there is 25-50% of healthy kidney function, kidney blood tests are often normal, but the urine may be dilute (low specific gravity).
Between 50-100%, the urine will still be concentrated (high specific gravity), and bloods normal.
It is important to check a urine sample as it can detect kidney failure long before a blood test. These chemicals travel down a special tube from the pancreas into the first part of the small intestines (the Duodenum). Sometimes as pets get older and fatter, the pancreas gets inflamed or worn out from too much of a workload e.g. Traveling through the pancreas is the bile duct- a tube connecting the gall bladder in the liver to the duodenum.
We normally see pancreatitis in older overweight dogs or dogs being fed too many fatty meals e.g.
From the history, breed, sex, age, symptoms and clinical examination, a vet usually has a pretty good idea the pet is suffering from pancreatitis. A special in-house blood test ( Idexx SNAP CPL) gives an accurate positive result in pancreatitis cases (blue dot on the right is the same or darker than the dot on the left- see picture). Other blood tests may show elevated white blood cells combating inflammation and infection and elevated liver enzymes if the bile duct becomes blocked. As mentioned above, the inflamed pancreas can block the bile duct, so jaundice is a common symptom, sometimes seen 1-2 days after the start of the condition.
Cases failing to respond to therapy may require surgery to rule out pancreatic cancer or to gently flush the affected area to try and settle the inflammation. Repeated episodes of pancreatitis can destroy the ability of the pancreas to produce food digesting acids and alkalis, resulting in chronic diarrhoea.
In humans, there is an overall 20% fatality rate, usually due to a secondary infection developing in the affected areas of the abdomen. Dogs with pancreatitis and diabetic keto-acidosis have a poor prognosis and despite the best of efforts, may die from complications. Treatment can be very costly due to the length of stay in hospital with intensive care, drugs, repeat blood tests and fluid therapy. Boxer CardiomyopathyThis condition is characterised by feinting (syncope) and sudden death in Boxer dogs. The problem is due to a run of extra heartbeats interrupting the normal flow of oxygen rich blood to the brain.
These extra heartbeats originate in damaged heart muscle in the right ventricle (ventricular premature contractions -VPC's). A run of several or more VPC's can cause sudden death which is a common consequence of the condition. By listening to the heart for several minutes with a stethoscope, a vet may detect a skip in the normal heart rhythm although this is not a sure fire way of detecting a problem as affected dogs can go for several hours without as much as one skipped VPC. Similarly, connecting a dog to an ECG machine to record the heartbeat for a few minutes may miss a run of VPC's. Listening to the heart or recording an ECG while the dog has a syncopal episode would be ideal way to diagnose the problem, but these events tend to happen away for vet surgeries and owners can be too stressed to  think about recording the heartbeat while their unconscious dog lies at their feet. Specialist cardiologists can loan out 24hr ECG recording machines (Halters) which attach to the trunk of the body in special leather harnesses. Quite often it is astounding to see how many runs of VPC's occur while the dog is asleep.
Atrial FibrillationSome dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy and left A-V valve disease get a life threatening arrhythmia called atrial fibrillation.
Each time the damaged atrium contracts, it tries to sends an electrical signal to the ventricles below telling it to contract as "its their turn now". The refractory period may only be a split part of a second, and follows a normal ventricle contraction. In effect, the atria are doing their own rapid irregular heart beat and 8 times out of 10 their extra contractions cause the ventricles to contract.
As a result, we see the ventricles pumping at a much faster and irregular rate than in a dog with no atrial fibrillation.
If a dog has either A-V valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy, the ventricles are already having a hard time. Cardiac output is reduced in A-V valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy, so oxygen rich blood does not reach vital organs e.g.
But don't forget the heart which is the most dynamic oxygen hungry organ (next to the brain). The last thing the diseased ventricles want is atrial fibrillation causing them to contract even faster.


Atrial fibrillation can very quickly cause the ventricles to fail and lead to sudden heart failure and death.
On exmination, the heart rate is very rapid and irregular- often over 200 beats a minute (nearly 3-4 beats a second).
A normal ECG has one P wave (atrial contraction) followed by one QRS wave (ventricle contraction) and a normal heart rate of approx 100-140. Atrial fibrillation shows rapid irregular spaced ventricle heartbeats (QRS waves) and no regular P waves. If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate.
Dogs, cats and horses are all at risk, although curious dogs are the most frequently affected.
Tiger and Brown snakes are also prevalent, especially on Coolangatta Mountain and adjacent flat lands.
But don't waste time trying to find it as we stock a multi-snake anti-venom that covers Black, Tiger and Brown snake bites. If we are at home, have the after hours going to another vet, or are out on a house call, you will be using up what might be precious time - always call first! But treating snake bite is always arduous for the affected pet, as well as for the vet and the nurses. Consequently, it can be expensive, although it may be covered by pet health insurance if you have it.
With the rapid heart rate, the heart muscles get thicker and thicker- its a bit like a weight lifter doing extra work. Less blood in means less blood out of the heart, and reduced blood supply to the body and its vital organs eg kidneys, liver, heart.
In some cats, the high blood pressure from hyperthyroidism is keeping their poorly functioning kidneys going.
Should your remaining kidney lose up to 50% of its ability to concentrate urine, you can still appear normal although you may be drinking a bit more and making dilute urine. A Senior Pet Health Check urine examination looks at the concentrating ability of the kidneys to detect early reduction in kidney function. In other words, the pet makes more urine than normal because the kidneys can't re-absorb the water out of the urine like they did when healthy. We would rather diagnose renal failure before clinical signs or blood tests indicate its presence. It is very accurate at detecting early kidney problems long before blood tests start to indicate a problem.
It can survive up to 18 months in soil or concrete and needs strong disinfectants to kill it. International travellers and infected or recovering dogs being flown to other countries would infect healthy dogs upon their arrival- either by direct contact with another dog or with their clothing, bedding and foot wear. It is vital all puppies and adult dogs are vaccinated against parvovirus and your vet will advise on the appropriate vaccination schedule. Referral to a specialist may be an option if the tumour is in just one adrenal galnd and not adhered to any vital structures e.g. They must be fully committed and prepared to put up with regular blood tests and expensive drug bills.
Besides the expected increase in thirst with hot days, exercise or change to a drier food,  any pet showing polydypsia over 2-3 days should be examined by a vet. The pancreas is a special organ that makes many different chemicals such as insulin, acids and alkalis which help digest and process foods. Repeating these tests during the dog's stay in hospital gives the vet an good idea on how the dog is going.
Diabetes and all of its associated complications (keto-acidosis) can be a life threatening presenting sign.
It is unlike the traditional form of cardiomyopathy we see in large dog breeds (most of the time).
By the time they do have a feel of the heartbeat or pulse, the rhythm may be back to normal as it may have just been a run of several VPC's taking up less than 1-2 seconds of time. A computer runs through the 24hrs of recording in seconds and prints out a report highlighting all the abnormal heartbeats.
The damaged area fires off its own electrical current causing the atrium to contract very rapidly (sometimes as much as 200-300 times a minute). Not every electrical impulse gets through to the ventricle as a number of these extra charges arrive at the ventricle when it is in a "none-responsive" state (refractory period).
Once it has passed, the extra electrical signals from the damaged atrium above can trigger off a ventricle contraction.
Any reduction in output means less oxygen for the heart muscles, so they can't pump as well as they would like.
There is often evidence of left sided heart failure - coughing, weakness, pale gums, weak thready rapid pulse. But it’s always better to keep your pets out of likely snake habitat and avoid the risk.
This thickening happens at the expense of the chamber (ventricle) sizes, and is called Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). Dialysis is performed in people with renal failure to filter out the waste products that the kidney normally places in the urine.
When we run blood tests on renal failure cases, we see elevated levels of urea (Blood Urea Nitrogen- BUN), Creatinine and Phosphate. More urine going out of the body automatically triggers a chemical release in the brain which makes the pet thirsty. If the kidneys are not working properly, chemicals are released which elevate the blood pressure in an attempt to improve the flow of blood through the kidney and remove waste products that are building up in the body.
Because RBC's are responsible for carrying oxygen around the whole body, the pet is quite weak and easily fatigued. Treatment involves intensive care, fluid therapy, pain relief, blood transfusions and no guarantee of success. In a very old patient, no treatment may be a more preferable propositon especially if the owners are on a budget. When making the appointment, try to bring along a fresh urine sample as a lot of information can be found by examining it. In other words, we don't normally see elevated kidney tests in chronic renal failure until there is only 25% of healthy tissue left.
The kidneys aren't doing their job of "recycling water" by sucking water out of the urine before it goes to the bladder to be voided. This small amount of inflammation results in leakage of acids and alkalis both inside and adjacent to the pancreas.
Some older dogs can develop pancreatic cancer which looks just the same as normal pancreatitis. Dogs must go onto an IV drip to correct dehydration and reverse shock and damage to the kidneys.
This is important to provide fluid and nutrition to the cells lining the stomach and intestines. It is vital that repeat episodes are avoided as too much damage to the pancreas can result in lack of insulin (diabetes) or the inability to digest and absorb foods (pancreatic exocrine insufficiency). Boxer cardiomyopathy is also known as "Boxer arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy". If they are inactive (hypo-thyroidism), pets are lazy, over weight, have skin problems and greasy coats.
In fact, many dogs only survive 2-3 days with this intensive care before dying, leaving pet owners with huge vet bills and no dog. It did not take long before surrounding parks and streets were covered in millions of viruses.
This means a dog may appear healthy, but can be excreting virus particles in its faeces and so become a source of infection to other dogs while the disease is brewing in its intestines. As a result, bile "backs up" in the liver and can cause a yellow staining of the blood, skin and gums (jaundice).
Dehydration and shock quickly follow, making the dog thirsty, however each time it drinks, more leakage of the acids and alkalis occurs.
If they are very rapid, the ventricle does not have time to fill up to the top befoire it is "told" to contract. The brain realises it is losing more "water" than it should be from the body, so it activates the "thirst centre" in the brain which makes the pet look for water. Acute secondary kidney failure can occur due to the large amount of fluid loss causing thickening of the blood and decreased blood flow to vital organs. More damage to the pancreas means more leakage and it does not take long for massive inflammation and tissue destruction to occur.
If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads.
If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control. The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments. This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur.
Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below.
Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11).
It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge. They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult.
When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes.
Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan.
Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14). Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem. If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad. Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor.
They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one. The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment. You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment.
Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws. This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer. Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis. If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it. There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment.


These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19). Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern. Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator. Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem. If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem. The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized.
Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time. Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal. It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions. Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under. Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights.
For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes. Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion. The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2.
The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end.
The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself. If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much. If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater. The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature. In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer. The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad.
If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat. Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils. Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings.
If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further.
If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems. The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work. If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity. Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees. With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself.
It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice.
In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens.
If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord. Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers.
If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat. Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater. If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes. Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater. Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work. The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4. Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head.
Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head. The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head.
Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head.
Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal.
When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY.
If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat.
Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully. If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism. However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear.
If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly.
Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow.
Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate.
Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book.
If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer.
Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat. The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater. These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer.
Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps. Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad. Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad.
Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system. Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point. UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch. If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem.
The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor.
This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out. Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis.
Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which.
These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty. COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective. To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures.
The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb. The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other.
By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.



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