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Most of the machines that have been developed for industrial purposes, for high-speed transportation, or to make life more enjoyable, by furnishing additional comfort, reducing the drudgery of everyday living, and speeding up our daily routines to provide additional leisure hours, are accompanied by noise. Noise levels in most residential areas in metropolitan cities are hovering around the border line due to increased vehicular noise pollution.
Physically, sound is a mechanical disturbance propagated as a wave motion in air and other elastic or mechanical media .such as water or steel.
The physical properties and perception of sound or noise are expressed and measured in different concepts and units.
Physical Properties and MeasurementSound waves involve a succession of compressions and rarefactions of an elastic medium such as air.
Sound pressure is used as the fundamental measure of sound (amplitude) as it is measurable directly by instruments. Sound is measured with a sound level meter which is usually a portable, self- contained instrument incorporating a microphone, amplifier, a voltmeter and attenuators, the whole of which is calibrated to read sound pressure levels directly.
To obtain levels which bear a closer relationship to loutiness judgements than sound pressure levels, so called frequency weighting networks, are incorporated in sound level meters. Most Sound Level Meters integrate instantaneous sound pressures over some time constant viz. Equivalent Continuous Sound Pressure Level, Leq is the level of that steady sound which over the same interval of time, contains the same total energy (or dose) as the fluctuating sound. Equivalent continuous sound level has gained widespread acceptance as a scale for the measurement of long-term noise exposure.
Problems caused by noise pollution include stress related illnesses, speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption, and lost productivity. Health Hazard: Constant exposure to sound greater than 80 dB causes temporary hearing loss and if they are not treated immediately, causes permanent impairment.
Health Hazard: Constant exposure causes temporary hearing loss and if they are not treated immediately, causes permanent impairment.
Health Hazard: Higher noise level of 160 dB cause total deafness, rupturing eardrums, damaging inner ear.
Health Hazard: It is dangerously causing total deafness by rupturing the eardrums and damaging the inner ear. This includes source modification such as acoustic treatment to machine surface, design changes, limiting operational timings, etc. The domestic noise generated from radio, tape recorders, television sets, mixers, washing machines, cooking operations etc. The vibrations of materials may be controlled using proper foundations, rubber padding etc.
Increased distance between source and receiver by zoning of noisy industrial areas, bus terminals and railway stations, aerodromes etc. This includes containing the source of noise inside a sound insulating enclosure, constructing a noise barrier or provision of sound absorbing materials along the path. This includes protection of the receiver by altering the work schedule or provision of personal protection devices such as ear plugs for operating noisy machinery.
An acoustic camera is an imaging device used to locate sound sources and to characterize them.
It consists of a group of microphones, also called as microphone array, that are simultaneously acquired to form a representation of the location of the sound sources. This year I wrote a blog called Unexplained Noise about the noises that render us unable to work or function. The human brain is generally surrounded by ongoing external noise carefully selecting that which aligns with ones activities at a given time - quickly determining whether nor not the person should address the noise or chatter. Behavioral reaction, and reaction time, are determine by many factors that affect each person based on the electrochemical processing in their brains, and external stimuli. Did you ever stop to consider that when someone tells you their problems over and over - just the sound of your phone ringing and seeing their name pop up - is, in a manner of speaking, noise pollution for you, as it drives you crazy.
No matter where you live, no matter what experiences your programming takes you on, noise - noise pollution - will find you, hopefully for a quick moment in your day, and nothing that drives you crazy. Here in Brooklyn, back in 2006, many people experienced something they named the Bay Ridge Hum which was determined to be some sort of mechanical noise that drove people crazy.
Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms, emergency service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks, compressed air horns, groundskeeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, electric megaphones, and loud people. The air into which second-hand noise is emitted and on which it travels is a "commons," a public good.
People, businesses, and organizations that disregard the obligation to not interfere with others' use and enjoyment of the commons by producing noise pollution are, in many ways, acting like a bully in a school yard.
We have organized to raise awareness of noise pollution and help communities take back the commons from those acting like bullies.

When checked, Shutterstock's safe search screens restricted content and excludes it from your search results. Karen Stuebing18-Feb-2006 11:56It's a funny photo although I'm sure it's not fun when you have to listen to it when you want to be sleeping. Sound which pleases the listeners is music and that which causes pain and annoyance is noise. Noise prevention and control is important as noise affects us in hearing, ability to communicate and behavior. The number of automobiles on roads like motors, scooters, cars, motor cycles, buses, trucks and diesel engine vehicles has increased enormously, leading to noise pollution.
In general, on urban roads there are distinct traffic peaks in the morning and evening as people travel to and from work. Some recreational activities are also dangerously loud and cause permanent damage to hearing. These waves are characterised by the amplitude of pressurechanges, their frequency, and the velocity of propagation. I shows a set of equal loudness curves for an average young person with good hearing, listening to pure tones. The adverse reactions are coupled with a change in hormone content of blood, which in-turn increases heartbeat, constriction of blood vessels, digestive spasms, and dilation of the pupil of the eye. The most immediate and acute effect of noise is impairment of hearing that diminishes some part of the auditory system.
Ultrasonic sound can affect the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular system, and semi-circular canals of the internal ear.
It also causes high blood pressure, ulcer in stomach, palpitation, nervous problems, irritation, anger, and affects pregnant womena€™s embryo.
Fixing of silencers to automobiles, two wheelers etc., will help to reduce the noise levels. Now-a-days, the Urban Administration of the metro cities in India is becoming stringent on usage of loudspeakers. For reducing noise, this space (jamb frame gap) should be packed with sound absorbing material. It clearly shows the surrounding noise levels, allowing one to make decisions based on facts rather than just perception. This falls under the heading Noise Pollution - the displeasing human, animal or machine-created sounds that disrupt activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail noise. Problems related to noise include hearing loss, stress, high blood pressure, sleep loss, distraction and lost productivity, and a general reduction in the quality of life and opportunities for tranquillity. On some occasions, we can be both the cause and the victim of noise, such as when we are operating noisy appliances or equipment. Although perhaps unknowingly, they nevertheless disregard the rights of others and claim for themselves rights that are not theirs. Our efforts include building a library of resources and tools concerning noise pollution, establishing links to other groups that have similar collections, establishing networks among local noise activists, assisting communities and activists who are working to reduce noise pollution, and monitoring and advocating for stronger noise controls.
Mostly man-made, it bears potential health and environmental hazards in much the same way that physical pollutants do. Let me just say, when this thing is right outside your window during an important call or maybe when you are trying to get a little needed sleep, it IS a big deal. I once retaliated against a neighbor who partied outside my window til 2 am while camping out in a tent on the property line by getting up at 5 am and mowing the grass. Undoubtedly, lesser noise can make the environment more friendly and life becomes pleasant. Noise from mechanical saws and pneumatic drills is unbearable and a nuisance to the public. Common sources include musical instruments, TV, VCR, radios, transistors, telephones, music in public functions, and loudspeakers etc. Additionally, many recreational activities create loud noises which interfere with the peace and quiet of the community.
Human hearing is sensitive to frequencies in the range of about 20-20,000 Hz (the audio frequency range). Because of such a wide range, the use of a linear pressure scale has been found to be impractical. For this reason, even though, the sound pressure levels of two different noises may be same, the first may be judged to be louder than the second if the sound energy of the first is concentrated in a frequency region where the ear is more sensitive. Generally, three types of filters having frequency response curves A, B & C, as shown in figure 2, are employed to match the ear response at low, medium and high loudness, respectively.

Fast-response corresponds to a time constant of 0.125 s and is intended to approximate the time constant of human hearing system.
Noise pollution may cause damage to the heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and may produce emotional disturbance. Eosinophilia, hyperglycaemia, hypokalaemia, and hypoglycaemia are caused by alteration in the blood due to noise.
By usage of carpets or any absorbing material, the noise generated from felling of items in house can be minimised.
For example, it is a common experience that, many parts of a vehicle will become loose while on a rugged path of journey. There should be silence zones near the residential areas, educational institutions, and above all, near hospitals. For people working in noisy installations, ear-protection aids like ear-plugs, ear-muffs, noise helmets, headphones etc. According to this phenomenon, when waves are travelling into the space and they are hit with the similar waves of the same volume and the same frequency, but shifted by 180A°; then waves will interfere with each other and cancel each other. The same levels of reduction are achieved when using an industrial vacuum cleaner, kitchen hoods, and ventilating systems. By taking real time measurements and displaying 3D acoustic fields, the instrument can be used for sound source localization on targets that are stationary, outdoors, moving, or in wind tunnels. The instrument shows the noise level in dB on its digital display and also shows it as a bar, giving an instant indication of whether the levels are low or high, and which way they are changing.
It all began with a tone (harmonics, horns and cones, Big BangTheory) - and so it shall end as the wormhole between this reality and all others collide and implode. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. Noise from road traffic, jet planes, jet skis, garbage trucks, construction equipment, manufacturing processes, lawn mowers, leaf blowers, and boom boxes, to name a few, are among the audible litter that are routinely broadcast into the air. There are also instances when we experience noise generated by others just as people experience second-hand smoke. People, businesses, and organizations, therefore, do not have unlimited rights to broadcast noise as they please, as if the effects of noise were limited only to their private property.
These activities may include sound at music concerts, firecrackers, sound at aerobic studios, personal stereo systems, childrena€™s toys, hunting, target shooting, motorboating, waterskiing, snowmobiling, woodworking, listening music, motorcycle riding etc. It has been found convenient to employ sound pressure level, a quantity, which is proportional to the logarithm of sound pressure.
However, extensive experience has shown that A-filter usually provides the highest correlation between physical measurements and, subjective evaluations of loudness of noise. Thus, all measurements of sound pressure levels and their variation over time should be made using the Fast response time, except where it is not possible. The technology can either be embedded on the source of the noise or can create a a€?bubblea€? in open spaces.
While in both instances, noises are equally damaging, second-hand noise is more troubling because it has negative impacts on us but is put into the environment by others, without our consent. On the contrary, they have an obligation to use the commons in ways that are compatible with or do not detract from other uses.
Movie theatres, home entertainment centres, car stereo systems, health clubs, dance clubs, bars, and amusement centres also pose serious risk to hearing.
By this, the sound pressure range of interest is compressed between 0 to 130, a range convenicnt to use.
Sound Pressure Meters include a Slow-response time with a time constant or I s, which may be used, for convenience, in non-recording Meters.
Prolonged exposure to noise of certain frequency pattern leads to chronic damage to the inner ear and leads to hearing loss.
Over the past decade or two, the evidence of how noise can harm health - and how many people are affected - has mounted. Sound Pressure Meters also include Impulse- response time with a time constant of 0.035 s, for measurement of impulse noise, such as noise from firecrackers, gun-shot etc. Proper handling and regular maintenance is essential not only for noise control but also to improve the life of machine.

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10.09.2015 admin

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