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Sam half sings, half speaks in a gently sand-blasted drawl, and it took until 2006 for people to start taking notice. In 1986, a friend asked Sam, then 32, if he wanted to join him on a trip to the mountains of Peru.
Part of Sama€™s ability to focus on the drama within the lives of ordinary people is his small-town upbringing.
During that time, Sam played guitar (right-handed, then) in bars for fun and to meet people, particularly pretty girls.
Still in a panic mode, he felt driven, in a nebulous way, needing to recover what he had lost. He suffered phobias, always seeking to keep objects between himself and large store windows, fearing shards of glass that might be hurled by an explosion. Looking back, he realizes that he was suffering from a form of post-traumatic stress disorder. In 1998, his sister, musician Chris Baker-Davies, made a record, Southern Wind, and included some of Sama€™s early songs. As one reviewer put it so aptly: a€?Therea€™s a conspiracy between Sam Baker and his studio production team to break your heart. If those of us living in the New York metropolitan area are lucky, more venue operators here will put this brilliant songwriter to work and wea€™ll see a lot more of him. Sam Bakera€™s awareness and appreciation of the beauty and detail in lifea€™s moments extend to his photography skills. Clad in a black turtleneck, Sam Baker peers out from the cover of his debut album Mercy, released in 2004. Somewhere in the almost three decades since his near-destruction, in order to move forward, he managed to find some forgiveness for the Shining Path. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands.
I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position.
Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin.
They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men.
The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them. The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well.
There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century.
We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America.
As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement.
In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value. Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location.
On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth.
Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death.
Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all.
During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem.
Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English.
After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English.
Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth.
Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war.
The American and French political wars of the late 18th century, while on the surface appearing to be very similar, were, in fact, quite opposite in their foundations, processes used to achieve freedoms, and in their ultimate consequences. The French saw the Americans as being willing to put the dreams of the philosophes into practice and gave them hope to do the same in France.
The French Revolution (1789-1815) looked to the secular theories of the Enlightenment for its guidance and legitimacy. France suffered through a century of turmoil, revolutions, and political upheaval, in contrast to the stable government and society that was established in the United States.
The absolutism of the kings Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, the central figures of the French monarchy leading up to the French Revolution, led to the events that precipitated the Revolution that began in 1789.
The numerous and extensive wars conducted under Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1715) in the previous century had weakened the economy of the nation. In similar fashion, Louis XV took the throne when he was five years old (ruled 1714-1774), succeeding in 1715 his great-grandfather, Louis XIV. Increasingly the nationa€™s economy was built upon borrowed money obtained from loans granted by private financiers.
From the reign of Louis XIII and his primary counselor, Cardinal Richelieu, continuing through the reign of Louis XIV and his finance minister, Colbert, a severe absolutism controlled the nation. In addition, the growing merchant and middle classes resented being excluded from participation in government, and during the reign of Louis XVI (picture right) there was no apparent change in sight.
Increasingly the monarchy lost its charm, sense of loyalty, and honor among the French people.
As an indication of how little Louis XVI understood his nation and how unaware he was of the dynamics sweeping France, in 1788, when members of Parliament complained of his dictatorial ways, he issued the Lamoignon Edict, abolishing the power of parliament. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the i??French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
Essays and books by Descartes, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire and others were more widely read in France than in any other place in Europe (see Unit 20). The philosophesa€™ general disdain for the Roman Catholic Church resulted in a widespread suspicion of the clergy.


This led to a requirement that all Catholic clergy sign an oath of loyalty to France (Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790) or be expelled from the country.
The peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society.
The third estate was comprised of the middle class (Bourgeoisie): merchants, lawyers, physicians, government workers, and everyone else in society, including the peasants. The social and economic gap between the peasants the land owning nobility, including the monarchy, grew greater.
In lean years 90% of the peasants lived below subsistence levels and were hardly able to survive. 10,000 female market workers (a€?the Paris fish market womena€?) marched the thirty-five miles from Paris to Versailles in 1788 to protest the high cost of bread. Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the north of Paris.
Eventually Louis XIV built a huge palace at Versailles and transferred the seat of government from Paris to Versailles. The French nobility resided in and around Versailles in order to be found daily in the French court. Riots had broken out in Paris over economic failures, the escalating price of bread, and the fear and frustration resulting from the two-year famine in many areas of France. The Bastille, an ancient prison now turned into a military armory, in 1789 was stormed by Parisians seeking guns and ammunition for their protests. To appease the growing unrest and to convince them, however, that new and higher taxes were necessary to address the nationa€™s problems, Louis XVI, called into session the Assembly of the Notables.This was a weak ruse by the king to gain their support for higher taxes. The weak king, counseled by strong-willed Maria who held to a strict absolutism for the monarchy, refused to share government with the nobles.
The Assembly then demanded that Louis call into Session the Paris Parlement, which had not met since 1614!
In desperation, Louis then called into session the Estates General, composed of representatives from each of the Three Estates. In frustration and anger, the Third Estate walked out of the meetings and refused to reassemble with the other two estates. When the third estates walked out, the king arranged to have the meeting place conveniently shut down a€?for repairs.a€? The third estate then took over the kinga€™s indoor tennis courts and held their own assembly, which became known as the Tennis Court Assembly. The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch.
Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings. It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. Thomas Paine, author of the pro-independence piece, Common Sense, during the American War for Independence, had left America for France. The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people. The king and queen were brought to Paris and placed under palace arrest so that the French people could a€?keep their eye on them.a€? In 1791 Marie had attempted a secret flight from the country with her husband and children through a secret plan arranged with her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austrian. By Spring 1792 three things were evident: (1) attempts to fashion a constitutional monarchy under Louis had failed, (2) civil unrest was everywhere in France, and (3) the Revolution was going badly. Counter-revolutionaries in France in Austria were at work to restore an absolute monarchy under Louis and had the financial and military support of Leopold II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna. Furthermore, there was wide-spread speculation that the king, himself, was on the side of the Austrian and Prussian armies that were driving from the north towards Paris. The National Convention, now controlled by the more radical members, viewed King Louis XVI as an enemy of the state, who would be, if he continued to live, even abroad, as a catalyst for enemies of the revolution. On January 20, 1793 the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was i??executed the next day. His wife, Marie Antoinette, during a purge of other suspicioned enemies of the revolution, was executed in October 1793, nine months after the execution of her husband. Marie Antoinette gave birth to four children.A daughter died in infancy, a son died at age seven of tuberculosis, a daughter survived and was sent to Austria in a prisoner exchange, and the heir to the throne, Louis-Charles, suffered a horrible death. After his fathera€™s execution, Louis-Charles, born in 1785, stayed with his mother in prison. By June 1793 the crowds in the street, impatient with what they perceived to be the slow progress of the National Convention in pushing forward a radical reform, rioted. In September 1773 the street crowds again rioted and demanded that even terror be used to bring about the social, political, and economic revolution that the street crowds envisioned.
Maximillien Robespierre had long argued for the abolishment of the monarchy, promoted the ideas of an assembly directly accountable to the people, promoted the end to the death penalty, and opposed war with Austria. Although initially an idealist committed to the rights of man as elaborated in the writings of the philosophes in the Enlightenment, Robespierre resorted to terror to maintain the course and direction of the revolution.
In May 1794 Robespierre supported a decree that established a new national religion in France, the Cult of the Supreme Being. The French calendar was changed to include a new ten-day week in order to abolish from the minds of the nation a€?Sundaya€? or the Christian a€?first day of the weeka€? in order to eliminate all references to Christ and the Resurrection. The French also devised a new clock which measured not a 24-hour day but a 10-hour day, each hour divided into 100 minutes and each minute containing 100 seconds, with exactly 100,000 seconds per day. By 1794 most French churches were closed, 30,000 priests were either deported, killed, or shipped as prisoners to French Guiana, and no priests remained to conduct the sacraments.
Finally, the treachery and evident emotional and mental imbalance of Robespierre was so apparent and the Reign of Terror so horrendous, that Robespierre himself was condemned to death. With the death of Robespierre, the nation was governed by a new team of leaders, The Directory.
Napoleon ordered his cannons to fire into the protesters and quickly brought order to the streets of Paris.
Considered to be one of the great generals and military strategists in history, Napoleon Napoleon defeated the army of Austria and proceeded to conquer Italy.
Napoleon secretly had the desire to become the next Alexander the Great and saw Egypt as the first step towards establishing a new empire. Within a few short years the goal for a free France ruled by a representative government would again slip into absolutism.
A French hegemony existed in Europe almost to the very eve of 1789.A  A hegemony is the strong influence of a people, culture, or nation over others. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
TheA  peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society. Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the northA  of Paris.
1.The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch.
1.Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings. 1.It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. 1.The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people.
On January 20, 1793A  the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was executed the next day. Increasingly he became more radical, sought to eliminate all opposition to his leadership and ideas.
Sam, an outdoor-loving, whitewater river guide, said a€?Sure.a€? After hiking ice-capped peaks for six days, they wanted to see Machu Picchu, so they went to Cuzco and got on the tourist train to get there.
In the wake of the explosion, he couldna€™t walk, and the back of his left hand had a channel-like hollow blown out of it. Hearing his songs played by others made him want to push further, to really learn the craft of songwriting. Wilkins told Sam he knew how he should sound and arranged for Sam to visit Nashville, his recording base. I saw him perform the song a€?Mennonitea€? from that album in 2013 at a house concert at Kathryn_space in Manhattana€™s East Village. In a€?Ditch,a€? wea€™re treated to a peek inside the mind of a man who lays pipe and is grateful for the work. He felt driven (and still does) to make sense of why his life was spared and why the boy he was talking with died in the blast.
At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.
Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point, the Goddess of Reason as its central cult.
The persecution of French Protestants forced most of their capable leaders to flee France, to the benefit of Holland, England, and the United States where they found new homes. French nobles had revolted against the Bourbon royal family and the early childhood of Louis was spent with his mother in hiding.
And the French military effort under Louis XVI to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France. Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies ini?? Europe in order to stamp out dissent.
He dealt with dissenters harshly by means of lettres de caches (indefinite imprisonment without benefit of official charges, trial, or jury -- or the total absence of the English habeas corpus). She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette married Louis at age 15 and by the age of 20 was queen of France.
Their works championed social justice and participatory government and their ideas stirred up the middle and merchant classes to an intoxicating quest for some form of democracy.
The big question asked whether the Roman clergy was loyal to France and the French Church or were they loyal to the pope in Rome? 50% of the clergy refused to sign the oath of loyalty, including the majority of the local, village priests.
They owned 20% of the land, were 2-3% of the population, had access to the kinga€™s court, participated in government, and paid no taxes. They made up 96-97% or the population, but owned only 40% of the land, AND PAID ALL OF THE TAXES! But a severe drought in the spring of 1788 and a devastating hail storm in July ruined the wheat harvest.
The march turned into an ugly protest and the women armed with knives, shovels, and rakes, stormed Versailles seeking the hated queen.
It was soon discovered, however, that his trips to Versailles were not for the purpose primarily of hunting but for secret rendezvous with his mistress.
It was considered an architectural masterpiece and during the period of the French hegemony was copied in many European capitols.
One of the great honors of a nobleman during the reign of Louis XIV was to assist him to dress and to empty his chamber pot (the kinga€™s a€?toileta€?). The French lost their reverence for the monarchy, gained new understandings of the worth and the basic rights of the individual in a more just society. Hearing of the success of the Parisians in this takeover, the peasants revolted against the land owning nobility, destroyed fences, records of land ownership, seized manors, and killed many of the nobility.
It did not work, however, because his new proposal included the taxation of the nobility, something from which they had traditionally been exempted! Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the Paris Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces.
The Estates General was in actuality the Parlement which had not been assembled since 1614.
Their appeal for a€?one person one votea€? was rejected by the first and second estates because the representatives of the third estate represented 94% of the people, and the first and second estates were not about to give up their traditional power. The Communes invited representatives from the First and Second Estates to join them and to boycott the Estates General. They were captured at the border by French soldiers and taken back to Paris as virtual prisoners. The National Assembly abolished the monarchy, the French Republic was proclaimed, Increased in-fighting, civil war, regional disputes, and the eventual lack of an emerging strong leadership, opened the door for a small group of representatives, the Committee of Public Safety, to take control of the Assembly.
In response, Revolutionary leaders on the other side declared war in April 1792 against the Holy Roman Empire with the hope that war against Austria and the Empire would unite France in a new national spirit. In August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown.
He was tried for crimes against the people and the National Convention declared France a Republic. The Committee of Public Safety passed the Law of Suspects, giving it broad freedom to seize and arrest anyone suspected to be an anti-revolutionary.


In the 1793-1796 civil war in western France between conservatives opposed to the excesses of the revolution and revolutionaries, it is estimated that up to 450,000 combatants from both sides died. He lead one of two major political factions in the National Assembly, the Mountain (so-called because they sat to the rear of the Assembly in rows higher up from the floor level), which was the more radical of the two. He purged the Committee of all opposition and conducted the execution of hundreds of remaining noble families. The house arrest of the king was the final sign on the wall of their own future if they stayed in France.
In fact, each of the new months did not contain actual a€?weeksa€? but three decades of ten days each.The names of the months were also changed. A grateful Directory rewarded Napoleon and approved his plan to build a stong military with the goal of invading Italy and Austria, Francea€™s two hated enemies--Austria because of its constant threats of invasion and Italy because of the Popea€™s constant attempts to interfere in Francea€™s politics. Instead, he convinced the Directory to allow him to invade Egypt as a first step to conquering India, as an attempt to break the financial and political empire of England which occupied both India and Egypt in its vast British Empire.
The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point,A  the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. Styles of dress, architecture, literature, music, theater, vocabulary, technology are all avenues through which a hegemony develops.
And the French military effort under Louis XVIA  to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France.
Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies in Europe in order to stamp out dissent.
Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the ParisA  Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. InA  August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. The event itself was turned into a major display and triumph for the Revolution.A  1,200 armed horsemen accompanied him from the prison to the place of execution, two hours away, with crowds lining the route. Sitting in a small compartment, two abreast, a German couple opposite him and their teenaged son next to him, Sam took no notice of the red rucksack on the shelf above the head of the boya€™s mother seated diagonally across from him. A pilot rest stop was scheduled on the way, but a young girla€™s mortal injuries caused the flight to proceed directly to San Antonio so her family could see her and she could have her last rites. He also wrote a few love songs, but, as with many a budding songwriter, these were mundane, a€?I love you, you love me, you dona€™t love mea€? affairs. He told one interviewer: a€?The big things in my life have encouraged me to look at the small things. It was real loud a€” there were trucks going by, people were eating and they were dropping plates and stuff. Wilkins and co-producer Tim Lorsch recorded Sama€™s voice, guitar and harmonica on a dozen originals, then layered background instruments and vocals to create Sama€™s brilliant 2004 debut, Mercy. However, the most affecting of these, from Pretty World, may be a€?Broken Fingers,a€? which he performed live on Harrisa€™s show, a song in memory of that German boy: Forget his face? His cracked, raspy vocal rides the scalpel-sharp quicksilver combination of pedal steel and fiddle.
Larger, more viewable versions of these photographs (and many more, plus his paintings) can be found on the blog page of his website.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself.
And it produced a weakened Catholic Church which rapidly lost the allegiance of the masses to the spirit of humanism and secularism. France was at war three of every five years during his reign and participated in four major European wars.
Defeat at the hands of Great Britain in the Seven Years War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Paris (1763) was blamed by the nation on Louis XV. The French hatred for the Austrians (resulting in wars under Louis XIV) and the British (Louis XV) drove France to the brink of national bankruptcy. The situation was so dire that lenders were no longer willing to loan the French monarchy money.
But by the time of the reigns of Louis XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses. Flour for bread, the sustenance of the French diet, became very scarce and drove the price of bread extremely high. It began to dawn on the more educated of the third estate that they could agitate for greater access to the government and that perhaps they could, in an organized effort, bring reforms to France. The nobility refused to consider any new taxes unless the king gave them a major share of the government.
He gave them the same sales pitch for higher taxes and got from them the same negative response.
This was then reformed to become the National Constituent Assembly and existed from July 1789 to September 1791. A new government, the National Convention was declared in September which immediately declared that France was no longer a monarchy but a republic.
Marie was tried by the Committee for Public Safety and accused of holding orgies at Versailles, sending funds secretly to her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austria, and even committing incest with her son, so intent was the Committee on establishing guilt worthy of execution. But after his mothera€™s execution, Louis-Charles was given to a shoemaker and his wife to oversee him in a small prison cell. This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria and Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris.
Armed militia from Paris spread out into the other provinces to root out whomever they determined to be an enemy of the revolution.
The instrument of death was an invention created just for this period in the Revolution, the guillotine.
Earlier the Paris Cathedral had been stripped of all Christian symbols and in November 1793 a large statute of the Goddess of Reason was erected in the cathedral. It was not a popular move, however, because under the new calendar there were nine days of work separating each day of rest which occurred at the end of each decade, rather than after six days under the Christian calendar. The Rulera€™s Law of the Corsican general would merely replace the Rulera€™s Law of the Bourbon kings. It eventually reverted back to a dictatorship under Napoleon, not very different from the a€?rule from the top downa€? of the French monarchy against which they had revolted. But by the time of the reigns of LouisA  XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses.
This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria andA  Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris.
I felt every room I walked in, every car I rode in, every plane I flew in, was going to blow up. The biggest push came from Morlixa€™s leverage with influential British disc jockey Bob Harris, who played it on his national radio show.
Over 30,000 priests and nuns were eventually either killed, exiled, or sent to prison in French Guiana. Those early experiences embittered him against the nobles and resulted in his building an absolute monarchy.
She had a distain for French culture, refused to learn or use the French language, was highly materialistic, vain, and considered by the nobility to be a snob. Crowds in Paris stormed the prisons and executed 2,000 prisoners, including many priests, nuns, and nobility. War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government in Paris.
Even former close friends and colleagues of the Committeea€™s leader, Maximillien Robespierre, were executed by the guillotine. When 32 of the Girondist leaders were imprisoned, supposedly due to fear that they would work to reinstate the monarchy, Robespierre became the undisputed leader and virtual dictator.
Louis requested and was accompanied by an English priest living in France, Henry Edgeworth, who Louis requested be with him prior to his death. War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government inA  Paris. Suddenly, a bomb planted in the rucksack by Shining Path guerrillas went off with the train still in the station, sending shrapnel outward, killing the German family and four others immediately. There was time to travel in those days, so when his friend suggested that fateful trip, Sam eagerly agreed.
When his survival was assured, they finally did tendon implants and Sam began rehabilitation. I would write long pieces, word after word after word.a€? His writing kept improving, but it just wasna€™t good enough. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement.
Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. A disease created by abuses of power and neglect of the peasants class was eating away at the inner core of the the nation. However, he was also a man of the arts and culture, and during his reign French culture blossomed and became a hegemony throughout Europe.
Furthermore, to strengthen his position militarily he had aligned France with its hated neighbor, Austria, and lost the economic benefits of a valuable alliance with Frederick the Great of Prussia.
She hosted lavish parties at the palace, promoted gambling, and filled her closets with expensive clothing. The first and second estates traditionally voted in tandem, and usually against the third estate. By 1794 The Committee went so far as to deprive those accused of being not supportive of the revolution from legal counsel and the requirement that witnesses be present to give testimony against them. While several factors led to the escalating price of bread, the government received the blame. Sam was still alive, but the explosion severed the main artery and vein in his left thigh and he almost bled to death.
For this he was also called a€?the Sun Kinga€? because French language and culture dominated Europe. I pardon the authors of my death, and pray God that the blood you are about to shed will never fall upon France.a€™ The executioners seized him, the knife struck him, his head fell at fifteen minutes after ten. Government buildings generally sought to copy the architecture of Versailles (pictured below). It would take 17 reconstructive surgeries and a long time for the gestation to finish and fully emerge, but it did, from a life totally redirected. His left hand was still a mess and there was a cut tendon and a knuckle blown off the right.
However, she was the strength in the royal marriage and was a major source of energy and direction for Louis.
The Committee of Public Safety had hoped to use him as a pawn to trade to the Austrians in a prisoner exchange, as they had done earlier, with his older sister.
An operation in a local hospital saved his life, but he developed gangrene and was dying from the damage to his brain and kidneys.
When Sam toured Britain in support of Pretty World, he did a live slot on Harrisa€™ radio show, and told Harris how grateful he was for sending his career to a brand new level. While I was doing that, melodies would come and they would be like a cardinal, a very bright red bird that flies against the window, saying, a€?Pay attention to me. He said: a€?I dona€™t know that you know how instrumental you are in my being here, not just in London, but wherever I am as a writer or a player.
He laughed and said, a€?That hand just went up all by itself, didna€™t it?a€? Sama€™s warmth and humor made it a special night. All of the problems that developed within France over the previous 100 years became his when he took the throne. Higgins, editor, The French Revolution as Told by Contemporaries, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966, pp. It would be left-handed picking this time, since those fingers would never again finger frets.
By the late a€™80s he had gotten a guitar, strung it upside down and learned to fret with his right hand.
He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. Sam added, a€?Not only that, ita€™s killing your favorite children.a€? Knowing what to take out is important. I was shocked.a€? Harris acknowledged how eager he was to hear someone Morlix had rhapsodized over, and subsequently, how much he loved Sama€™s work. The power of a€?noa€? when I leave stuff out makes the power of a€?yesa€? much more compelling.



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06.05.2014 admin



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