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I first saw them perform at the 2009 Tribes Hill Annual Meeting and Hootenanny at the historic Hammond House headquarters in Valhalla, NY.
Much of their work carries the style and emotional power of musical theater, something Ia€™m very fond of. After they found out that they were all into music, they'd go over to Paul's house and play just for fun doing covers of Sheryl Crow, Bonnie Raitt and others. Outside of her positive chorus experiences, there were two stumbling blocks, one of them having a lasting negative effect.
The next step she took was to enroll as a Theater major at SUNY (State University of New York), Fredonia, near Buffalo NY. Around 1996, the three had been getting together to play at Paul's house for some time, eventually playing a few shows as The YaYas, but never took any of it too seriously. In 2003, they self-produced their first 10-song CD, Everything, co-produced and mixed by Ben Wisch whoa€™d produced the Grammy-winning album Walking in Memphis by Mark Cohn and additionally, other notable performers (Patty Larkin, Lucy Kaplansky, Jonatha Brooke, Red Molly). While Catherine is the lyricist for the band, she readily acknowledges the integral part that Jay and Paul play, sometimes helping her complete the songs, pushing her past hurdles in the narratives. Paper Boats was just completed in September, and I was able to listen to the album before its release. The band moved to Mohegan Lake, near Peekskill, NY in 2005, and has become a part of the Tribes Hill community. The YaYas will appear in Acoustic Live showcases at NERFA and wea€™ll be at the Postcrypt Coffeehouse for their October 1st show. I thought Jay, wry humorist, was the joker in the 3-card hand until Paul started to tell his story. There was once a little Kid whose growing horns made him think he was a grown-up Billy Goat and able to take care of himself.
The Wolf liked the idea of a little music before eating, so he struck up a merry tune and the Kid leaped and frisked gaily. But as he opened his mouth to say these foolish words he lost his hold on the stick, and down he fell to the ground, where he was dashed to pieces on a rock.
A Dog and a Cock, who were the best of friends, wished very much to see something of the world. At nightfall the Cock, looking for a place to roost, as was his custom, spied nearby a hollow tree that he thought would do very nicely for a night's lodging. The hungry but unsuspecting Fox, went around the tree as he was told, and in a twinkling the Dog had seized him.
The Mice once called a meeting to decide on a plan to free themselves of their enemy, the Cat.
An Eagle, swooping down on powerful wings, seized a lamb in her talons and made off with it to her nest.
The farmer climbed down from his seat and stood beside the wagon looking at it but without making the least effort to get it out of the rut. And when the farmer put his shoulder to the wheel and urged on the horses, the wagon moved very readily, and soon the Farmer was riding along in great content and with a good lesson learned. A frisky young Kid had been left by the herdsman on the thatched roof of a sheep shelter to keep him out of harm's way. After the meal the friends had a long talk, or rather the Town Mouse talked about her life in the city while the Country Mouse listened. When they reached the mansion in which the Town Mouse lived, they found on the table in the dining room the leavings of a very fine banquet.
The Country Mouse stopped in the Town Mouse's den only long enough to pick up her carpet bag and umbrella. A Fox one day spied a beautiful bunch of ripe grapes hanging from a vine trained along the branches of a tree. One day when the quarreling had been much more violent than usual and each of the Sons was moping in a surly manner, he asked one of them to bring him a bundle of sticks. Caucassian dances group is one of the most spectacular dances of Anatolia.A As many ethnic group, Caucasian people live and keep their original culture in harmony with all Anatolia.
Anatolia is just like a marbling trough.A  Through thousands of years, hundreds of different civilization with many different colors, sound, rhythm has been composed in this area. Since then, dance and people's approach to dance have changed very much in turkey like many other things. It is a dance characterized by smooth, flowing, complex, and sensual movements of the torso, alternated with shaking and shimmy type moves.
The dancers often use some type of rhythm instrument to aid the musicians, or as the sole accompaniment to their dance. Belly dance is very popular in Turkey, You can see on TV, in wedding parties and there are many course and dance schools where belly dance can be learned. There are so many kids of folk dance in Turkey that we cana€™t name just one of them as the Turkish folk dance.
Caucassian dances group is one of the most spectacular dances of Anatolia.A  As many ethnic group, Caucasian people live and keep their original culture in harmony with all Anatolia. DESCRIPTION: This 'atlas' was the work of a family of Catalonian Jews who worked in Majorca at the end of the 14th century and was commissioned by Charles V of France at a time when the reputation of the Catalan chart makers was at its peak. The title of the Atlas shows clearly the spirit in which it was executed and its content: Mappamundi, that is to say, image of the world and of the regions which are on the earth and of the various kinds of peoples which inhabit it.
Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.a€?The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth. The Catalan Atlas is actually a world map built up around a portolan chart, thus combining aspects of the nautical chart by employing loxodromes and coastal detail with the medieval mappaemundi exemplified by its legends and illustrations.
We know in unusual detail the circumstances in which the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (the date of the calendar which accompanies it) was produced and the career of the cartographer who compiled it. The patrons of Cresques, King Peter III of Aragon and his son, in addition to their scientific interests, were keenly interested in reports of Eastern lands, in relation to their forward economic policy, and were at special pains to secure manuscript copies of Marco Polo's Description of the World, the travels of Odoric of Pordenone Description of Eastern Regions and, what may surprise the modern reader, the Voiage of Sir John Mandeville. In the interior the position, extent, chief divisions, towns and rivers of China and the Mongol Empire are approximately represented.
On the southern portion of the Cathay coast, the general uniformity of the coast is broken by three bays, and it is significant that these are associated with three great ports, Zayton [near Changchow], Cansay [Hangchow, better known in medieval records as Quinsay ] and Cincolam [Canton]. Quite a number of harbors are indicated on the eastern coast of India, a few of them still identifiable, while a sailing junk testifies to trading activity, especially with the island of Iana (?), which is here associated with the legendary isle of the Amazons (regio femarum [sic]) and symbolized by its queen. In mainland India, King Stephen has been represented: the text beside him indicates that this Christian ruler is a€?looking towards the town of Butifilis,a€? Marco Polo's kingdom of Mutifilis. The people of Gog and Magog following their monarch, bearing banners with the emblem of the devil, detail of the map of Asia.
Sources other than those embodied in Polo have also been used for the portion of the Indian Ocean included in the map. If the map is stripped of its legends and drawings of the older tradition, it is apparent that the main interest of the compiler is concentrated in a central strip across Asia. In the west is the Organci [Oxus] river shown, as on most contemporary maps, flowing into the Caspian, and alongside it the early stages of the traditionally used overland route, from Urganj [the medieval Khiva] through Bokhara and Samarcand to the sources of the river in the mountains of Amol, on the eastern limits of Persia. This description, with several omissions, was in outline the route followed by Maffeo and Nicolo Polo (Marco Polo's father and uncle) on their journey to the Great Khan's court.
Scarcely less valuable, and certainly of special interest for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth. Hardly any place on the west coast of Africa is identified only one name, perhaps a mythical spot, is found south of Cape Bojador in the former Spanish Sahara, but we are told that Africa, land of ivory, starts at this point and that by traveling due south one reaches Ethiopia.
East of the Sultan of Mali appears the King of Organa, in turban and blue dress, holding an oriental sword and a shield.
In northeast Africa, a knowledge of the Nile valley as far south as Dongala, where there was a Catholic mission early in the 14th century, is apparent. On one matter, however, the mapmaker Cresques could hardly refrain from speculating, for the following reason: land exploration had, for a long time now, outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe area in the same latitudes. In Asia the Red Sea stands out, being shown as red, a characteristic that derives, we are told less from the color of the water than from that of the sea bed. Moslem traders from cities along the Barbary Coast of North Africa began to cross the Sahara in the Middle Ages in an effort to bring back gold, rumored to be in great supply in the Sudan.
Within the means of cartographic representations on this Atlas there appears to be no specialities, those symbols and other graphics used by Cresques correspond to those commonly used in the Middle Ages. The compiler of the prototype used by Cresques for the Catalan Atlas had recourse to different, sometimes even contradictory sources.
In summary, the merit of the Catalan Atlas lay in the skill with which Cresques employed the best available contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, never proceeding further than the evidence warranted. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth. As a response to this interest, Cresques extended his chart to include all that was then known of Asia, notably from Marco Polo's narrative.
This town [Beijing] has an extent of 24 miles, is surrounded by a very thick outer wall and has a square ground plan. The description emphasizes the richness and urbanity of the Chinese capital at the edge of the civilized world. To the north is Catayo, the Great Khan and his capital of Chanbaleth; to the south Manji, with its great cities of Zayton and Cansay.
The band in which she sings lead vocals, The YaYas, has just released a new album, Paper Boats.
With her husband, Jay Mafale on guitar and old friend Paul Silverman on piano, she forms the point at which the lineup, in tandem, pushes its way into the listenera€™s heart. Neither of his parents had musical ability, but his father played Sinatra records all the time.
Her teachers were serious about teaching everything from folk singing, to sight reading and ear training. The company would rearrange the space differently, according to need, sometimes in-the-round, often with the audience in close proximity to the actors. He didn't pursue any type of musical performance during his 4 years at college, but his drive to play was persistent.
He did some acting for fun and enjoyed the camaraderie of the other actors, continuing with the theater group after graduation. During this period, Jay and Catherine fell in love and in October of 1997, they got married.
On their honeymoon, Catherine was thrown from a horse and two of her vertebrae were crushed.
Reaching back to their first CD, Everything, it was evident that they had something special.
Catherine continues to do what she does best, writing songs that touch upon her personal experiences, but contain universal appeal, then express them with refined, passionate vocals.
Reaching back to their first CD, Everything, it was evident thatA  they had something special. So one evening when the flock started home from the pasture and his mother called, the Kid paid no heed and kept right on nibbling the tender grass.
When he saw how gaily the birds flew about and how the Hare and the Chipmunk and all the other animals ran nimbly by, always eager to see everything there was to be seen, the Tortoise felt very sad and discontented. He seized the stick firmly with his teeth, the two Ducks took hold of it one at each end, and away they sailed up toward the clouds.
But the little Frogs all declared that the monster was much, much bigger and the old Frog kept puffing herself out more and more until, all at once, she burst. So they decided to leave the farmyard and to set out into the world along the road that led to the woods. At least they wished to find some way of knowing when she was coming, so they might have time to run away. A Jackdaw saw the deed, and his silly head was filled with the idea that he was big and strong enough to do as the Eagle had done. The horses could hardly drag the load through the deep mud, and at last came to a standstill when one of the wheels sank to the hub in a rut. The Kid was browsing near the edge of the roof, when he spied a Wolf and began to jeer at him, making faces and abusing him to his heart's content.
For lunch the Country Mouse served wheat stalks, roots, and acorns, with a dash of cold water for drink.
They then went to bed in a cozy nest in the hedgerow and slept in quiet and comfort until morning. There were sweetmeats and jellies, pastries, delicious cheeses, indeed, the most tempting foods that a Mouse can imagine.
The grapes seemed ready to burst with juice, and the Fox's mouth watered as he gazed longingly at them.
No words he could say did the least good, so he cast about in his mind for some very striking example that should make them see that discord would lead them to misfortune.
He was sure that she, with her long neck and bill, would easily be able to reach the bone and pull it out. They are blended, they get various shapes, but if you look and listen closely you can see the signs of all that great civilizations living in this picture.A  Turkish dance is one of the most lively and colorful themes of this picture.
So the geographic isolation diversity of racial and ethnic influences and cultural traditions has produced rich folklore both in towns and in the rural area. Various other items used during dance such as snakes, swords, veils, and candles have magical, protective functions for primitive peoples that can still be found in the folk dances of these countries. King Charles requested this map from Peter of Aragon, patron of the best Majorcan mapmaker of the time: Abraham Cresques. Originally the Catalan Atlas consisted of six large wooden panels that were covered with parchment on one side. To the right, from top to bottom, is a diagram of the tides; another lists the movable feasts, and a third drawing represents a blood-letting figure. The result is that the Atlas represents a transitionary step towards the world maps developed later during the Renaissance, especially by its extensive application of contemporary geographical knowledge and ambitious scope.
Although the sailors were used to plainer charts whose importance lay principally in their utility and accuracy, even ordinary marine charts begin to follow the Catalan tradition with regards to their use of standardized color patterns. When in 1381 the envoy of the French king asked King Peter of Aragon for a copy of the latest world map (proof in itself that the reputation of the Catalan school had been widely recognized) he was given this example, which has been preserved in Paris ever since. For the first time in medieval cartography this continent assumed a recognizable form, with one or two notable exceptions.
From west to east, the main divisions of the Mongol territory include the Empire of Sarra [the Kipchak Khanate], the Empire of Medeia [the Chagtai Khanate of the middle], and the suzerain empire of the Great Khan, Catayo [China]. Each side has a length of six miles, the wall is 20 paces high and lo paces thick, has 12 gateways and a large tower, in which hangs a great bell, which rings at the hour of first sleep or earlier. The vertical waterway is the Grand Canal built by Kublai from Manji to Cambulac; below are the 7548 islands, rich in all manner of spicery, placed by Marco in the Sea of Chin. Of these, Canton is not mentioned by Marco Polo; it was, however, much frequented by Arab navigators and traders, upon whose reports the compiler was probably drawing. Yule points out that Kao-li was the name given for Korea, and he therefore considers that the island Cresques depicts here represents confused notions about both the Korean peninsula and Japan; otherwise there is no obvious graphic reference or hint of Zipangu [Japan]. The first is difficult to explain; to make up for it the cartographer has inserted a great island of Jana [Java], which however was probably intended for Sumatra.
The notion that there were Christian rulers east of the Islamic world stems largely from the legend of Prester John; also important, however, were the real Christian minorities in India and the fact that the tomb of Saint Thomas was thought to be in Mailapore, a suburb of Madras, the Mirapore of the map. And it sometimes happens though rarely, that the widow of the dead man throws herself into the flames,a€? a practice that recalls widow-burning (sutti) of India. There we are told that Satan came to his aid and helped him to imprison the Tartars Gog and Magog.
The Persian Gulf, extending almost due west, has an outline similar to that on the Dulcert map, but is otherwise superior to any earlier map. Herein lies a succession of physical features: mountains, rivers, lakes and towns with corrupt but recognizable forms of their medieval names as given in the narratives of the great travelers of the 13th century.
It is also possible to discern traces of their second journey, accompanied by Marco, in which they employed the 'south road' of the silk route, and, except for a detour through Ormis at the bottom of the Persian Gulf, ran from Trebizond through Eri [Herat], Badakshan, and along the southern edge of the Tarim basin from Khotan to the city of Lop. Unlike many classical and fellow medieval scholars, the draftsman of Majorca showed praiseworthy restraint in this respect.
For here, as is often the case in other maps of the period, the cartographer compensated for the dearth of known geographical points by including historical facts.
The delineation of the Nile river system is vitiated, however, by the conception that it flowed from a great lake in the Guinea region, Lacus Nili. As previously mentioned, the early draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador.
It is cut in two by a land passage, a conventional allusion to Moses' miraculous crossing (Exodus, 14:2122). Between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea appears the King of Tauris [Tabriz] and north of him Jani-Beg, ruler of the kingdom of the Golden Horde, who died in 1357.


Stories reached 14th century Europe of the splendor of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali and lord of Guinea, one of the reputed richest of the 'Negro Kingdoms' of the Sudan, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324. However, there are great differences to be observed between what is labeled by some the a€?portolano sectiona€? (sheets 3 and 4, Europe and North Africa) and the rest of the map sheets. The legendary Insula de Brazil, for example, which is found on various medieval maps of the North Atlantic and later gave its name to Brazil, is shown here twice, once west of Ireland and a second time farther south. Elsewhere, however, the weight of received opinion is still felt, as, for example, in the various islands with fabulous names; they cannot represent the Madeiran group, as these islands were discovered only in 1418-1419. In the same spirit he removed from the map many of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa blank rather than fill it with the anthropagi and other monsters which adorn the bulk of medieval maps. This contrasts strongly with the people of the islands farther east who are described as savages living naked, eating raw fish, and drinking sea water.
The song, a€?All these Gifts,a€? is from that album, and epitomizes her command of the songwriting craft and her vocal abilities.
Once they found out about their mutual interest in making music, in small increments, their path revealed itself.
When she was around 14 years old, as a Christmas gift, her mother purchased private lessons for her with a voice teacher. Finding that she liked it, she performed through the rest of high school in some dramas and a couple of musicals. It gave Catherine a new, heightened confidence, having the audience right next to her at times. She'd lost the grandmother she sang with at age 14 and her maternal grandmother the year before her mom died. I got my hands on Everything at the 2009 Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) Conference. Although no one else in her family had musical talent, her grandmother, who loved to sing, lived next door. I got my hands on EverythingA  at the 2009 Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) Conference. I know it is, because I have been nauseated since listening to the president's summit last Thursday.If nothing else in this never-ending suffocation of American health care has been clear, the sham was transparent enough. They say that Jupiter punished him so, because he was such a lazy stay-at-home that he would not go to Jupiter's wedding, even when especially invited.
He wanted to see the world too, and there he was with a house on his back and little short legs that could hardly drag him along. The old Frog soon missed the little one and asked his brothers and sisters what had become of him.
The two comrades traveled along in the very best of spirits and without meeting any adventure to speak of. He thought he was still in the farmyard where it had been his duty to arouse the household at daybreak.
Indeed, something had to be done, for they lived in such constant fear of her claws that they hardly dared stir from their dens by night or day. So with much rustling of feathers and a fierce air, he came down swiftly on the back of a large Ram. There he stood, unwilling to give up a single filbert and yet unable to get them all out at once.
The Town Mouse ate very sparingly, nibbling a little of this and a little of that, and by her manner making it very plain that she ate the simple food only to be polite. In her sleep the Country Mouse dreamed she was a Town Mouse with all the luxuries and delights of city life that her friend had described for her.
But just as the Country Mouse was about to nibble a dainty bit of pastry, she heard a Cat mew loudly and scratch at the door.
So he walked off a short distance and took a running leap at it, only to fall short once more. They dance as a group, in couples or solo, As he offers you a seat, a tea, a warm and friendly welcome, NurdoAYan AzengA?ler turns his gaze from the walls of his studio to the dome of Hagia Sophia, to the Sea of Marmara.Light pours into the room, dances across the walls and reveals a large-framed picture of Hagia Sophia under the snow. Its unique rhetoric tells us the stories of central Asian shamans, ancient Anatolian heroes, Islamic traditions and westernization.A  It tells us the story of people in east-west tensions, humorous coexistence of Islamic tradition and modernity, and peoples from different ethnicities living together in harmony, in its homogenous, coherent and distinctive language. Whichever the real source of it, belly dance is taken in as a unique dance style, In every step, every movement you can see the hints of its originality and its rich heritage and traditional associations with both religious and erotic elements; because of this mystery, maybe, belly dance is loved by many people all around the world. This form later was transformed into a block-book, in which each sheet formed a double page, the parchment itself serving as a hinge between each of the two wooden panels.
The latter is accompanied by a long text describing the world; it deals with its creation, the four elements of which it is composed, its shape, dimensions, and divisions. Though the Catalan Atlas is the earliest complete example of its kind which has survived, it was undoubtedly preceded by other similar attempts at extending the range of the portolan chart.
Thus, pilots knew at a glance, for instance, that any port lettered in red offered revictualing and a safe harbor; dots and crosses, on the other hand, indicated underwater hazards. Continental interiors are filled with detail, compass lines drawn, and decorative items are added to enhance the nearly up-to-date picture. Its capital at Cambalucr or Chanbaleth [Beijing], the city of the Great Khan which so intrigued the chroniclers of the 14th century, receives due prominence, with a long legend describing its magnitude and grandeurs. When it has finished ringing, no one may pass through the town, and at each gate a thousand men are on guard, not out of fear but in honor of the sovereign. The attempt at representing the configuration of the coast suggests at least that his informants were interested from a maritime point of view. Altogether, as mentioned above, we are told there are 7,548 islands in the Indian Ocean; they are rich in gold, silver, spices, and precious stones, so much so that a€?great ships of many different nationsa€? trade in their waters. Farther north is the realm of Kebek Khan, a historical figure who reigned from 1309 to 1326: a€?Here reigns King Chabeh, ruler of the Kingdom of the Middle Horde. Here the text contains information from Marco Polo's account of how in the province of Malabar the death of criminals, who are compelled to commit suicide, is celebrated by their relatives with his observation on the custom of widows immolating themselves on the pyres of their dead husbands, mentioned a few lines later.
In the Gulf, the island of Ormis [Hormuz] is shown, opposite the former settlement of the same name on the mainland.
These are jumbled together in a manner sometimes difficult to understand, but with the help of Marco Polo's narrative, it is possible to disentangle the itineraries which the map was evidently intended to set out.
East of this lies the lake, Yssikol [Issik Kul], and Emalech the seat of the Khan, the Armalec of other travelers, in the Kuldja region. The compiler, however, perhaps because he confused this desert area with the Gobi, has transferred this stretch to the north of the Issik Kul. In addition to Asia, the narratives of contemporary travelers were also extensively used by Cresques in Africa. We are told, for example, that merchants bound for Guinea pass the Atlas mountain range, shown here in its typical form of a bird's leg with three claws at its eastern end, at Val de Durcha. This rare speculation on the part of Cresques contained at least some partial truth because the Lacus Nili, the Pactolus of Strabo, and the Palolus of later maps, which in the Catalan Atlas and subsequent works is located in the neighborhood of Timbuktu, may reasonably be identified with the flood region of the Niger. By so doing, however, they found themselves reducing the vast extent of the Sahara almost to a vanishing point.
The port of Quseir is clearly marked, and the accompanying text specifies that it is here that spices are taken on land and sent to Cairo and Alexandria. The importance of Baghdad as a center of the spice trade is emphasized; from there, precious wares from India are sent throughout the Syrian land and especially to Damascus.
This African prince appears in the Catalan Atlas in a stately fashion with crown, orb, and scepter, with the inscription: The richest and noblest King in the world. In this section the coastlines are greatly differentiated and the abundance of names is in great contrast with the quantity of information, literally and graphically, supplied in sheets 5 and 6 (Asia).
Nor can they be the Azores, which are first mentioned in 1427, or the Cape Verde Islands discovered only in 1455-1456.
They are obviously to be identified with the Ichthyophagi, one of the fabulous races traditionally placed in Asia or in Africa. The lead singer begins, her voice with that little catch in it which always works its way past my defenses.
During a 90-minute conference-call interview, amidst many laughter-filled moments, we learned about each membera€™s individual path and what brought them together. Given that there wasn't much money available for such things, it was for just one lesson per month and, to her, it was a special gift. However, during her senior year, her English teacher told her that the subject matter in her poems was immature and not worth writing about.
Rehearsals were held mostly on Long Island and toward the end also in Manhattan, where Jay was living. She was confined, with a brace, to bed rest for three months, allowed to take a few steps once a day. In my December NERFA CD reviews, I wrote: a€?While Jay on guitar and Paul on keyboard are terrific, Catherinea€™s voice is the jewel in the setting. In addition to co-bills with Freda€™s band, Hope Machine and the YaYas, Fred and Catherine will be touring together this fall.
They recognized the song the Wolf sings before a feast, and in a moment they were racing back to the pasture. But when he tried to rise again he found that he could not get away, for his claws were tangled in the wool. So the next day when the Town Mouse asked the Country Mouse to go home with her to the city, she gladly said yes. In great fear the Mice scurried to a hiding place, where they lay quite still for a long time, hardly daring to breathe. AzengA?ler talks about a child walking hand in hand with his father to the YenikapA± Mevlevihanesi (dervish lodge), listening to the women's prayers at the nearby Merkez Efendi Camii (mosque) -- a curious, talkative child whose gaze has wrinkled over the years but whose eyes sparkle with the same intensity.
Oriental dance is uniquely designed for the female body, with an emphasis on abdominal muscles, hip moves, and chest moves. The snake is a complex symbol which represented both male and female principles, and also immortality in the form of the snake eating its tail. This arrangement led to the folds of the precious sheets becoming worn through with use, so that these sheets were divided into 12 half-sheets, mounted on boards to fold like a screen. Then come geographical accounts of countries, continents, oceans, and tides, as well as astronomical and meteorological information.
Abraham Cresques, a Jew of Palma on the island of Majorca, for many years was 'master of mappaemundi and compasses', i.e. From the Mar del Sarra [Caspian Sea] in the west, with a fairly accurate outline in the style of the portolan charts, the Mongol domains stretch away eastwards to the coasts of Catayo [China].
Some of the islands off Quinsay may stand for the Chusan archipelago, and further to the south is the large island of Caynam, [Hainan]. The kingdoms of India as enumerated by Polo are absent from the map, and there are significant differences in the towns appearing in the two documents. The reference is to the gate that Alexander is supposed to have built in the Caspian Mountains to exclude Gog and Magog, who are here equated with various Central Asian tribes. The Southern Arabian coast has names differing from those given by Polo, and in one of them, Adramant, we may recognize the modern Hadhramaut. The delineation is then confused by the repetition of the Badakshan uplands, the mountains of Baldassia, a mistake that probably arose from confusion over the river system of southern Asia. In fact the section illustrated by #235B is thought to represent Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, with their Mongol envoys, crossing the Tien Shan mountains on their way through what is now China's Sinkiang Province, to Beijing (south is at the top). Here the special feature of interest on the Catalan Atlas is the inscription and picture of the vessel recording the departure of the Catalan, Jacome Ferrer, on a voyage to the 'river of gold' southwest of the new Finisterre of Bojador in 1346. More geographical information is given on the Maghreb, which, after all, is part of the Mediterranean. Thanks to their notorious capacity to travel long distances without water, they completely transformed African trade, opening sub-Saharan areas to Islam.
In Arabia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, is located the kingdom of Sheba; the queen, who came to visit King Solomon, is shown crowned and holding a golden disk as symbol of her wealth.
Navigational information is also recorded: a€?From the mouth of the river of Baghdad, the Indian and Persian Oceans open out. The mountains in the European and African section are arranged in chains or chain-like symbols, in Asia they appear as regular humped garlands of rocks.
The Catalan Atlas, in fact, marks the progress in the gradual discovery of the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa with an illustration of Jaime Ferrera€™s ship, which, we are told, set sail on lo August 1346 bound for the fabulous Rio de Oro [River of Gold] in Africa.
In this spirit of critical realism, Cresques and his fellow Catalan cartographers of the 14th century, threw off the bonds of tradition and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance. The city stands near the apex of a triangle formed by two rivers and the ocean; each of the two rivers divides into three before reaching the sea, a representation embodying a somewhat confused notion of the inter-linked natural and artificial waterways of China. Hearing them again, on a number of occasions, their brilliance reinforced my initial impression.
When he was 12, his parents took him to a Sinatra concert and he was thrilled to watch Buddy Rich drumming. During the third lesson, Catherine asked the teacher if she had a chance to become a singer. We heard them mock their own bill by referring to it as a "prop." We watched as those who opposed the bill were insulted and shut off from discussion, and the end result was an immediate threat to "go along" with the 2,400 pages of lower- quality, higher-cost, more restrictive medical treatment or take it up at the polls in November.Do the progressives have no intellectual honesty left in them?
The Wolf's song ended suddenly, and as he ran, with the Dogs at his heels, he called himself a fool for turning piper to please a Kid, when he should have stuck to his butcher's trade. When at last they ventured back to the feast, the door opened suddenly and in came the servants to clear the table, followed by the House Dog.
AzengA?ler speaks about himself, his love for his country, his culture and his art gallery, Les Arts Turcs. Four half-sheets are occupied by cosmographical and navigational data, they describe the whole concept of the world, show astronomical and astrological representations, and provide information about the calendar, the sun, moon, planets, the signs of the zodiac and the tides. The second sheet presents a spectacular diagram of a large astronomical and astrological wheel. This country makes a sweep from east to south with an approach to its actual form, and along it's coast appear several of the great medieval ports and trading centers frequented by Arab merchants. There Cresques placed some of the fabulous and monstrous races legendary in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages: a€?On this island are people who are very different from the rest of mankind.
Conspicuous on the map is the Christian Kingdom and city of Columbo, placed on the east coast.
And know that these people marry at the age of about twelve years and generally live to be 40 years old. The island of Scotra, an important stage on the trade route from Aden to India, is misplaced to the east, and appears to occupy the approximate position of the Kuria Muria Islands. The legend above them reads, in translation: This caravan left the Empire of Sarra to go to Catayo, across a Great Desert (Sarai, on the Edil [Volga], was the capital of the Kipchak Tartars, from which the Polos had set out about 1262. This refers to the northwest coast of Africa which extends beyond Cape Bojador to a point just north of the Rio d'Oro.
Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the west African coast, south of Bojador. Here they fish for pearls, which are supplied to the town of Baghdad.a€? We learn that a€?before they dive to the bottom of the sea, pearl fishers recite magic spells with which they frighten away the fisha€? a piece of information that comes straight from Marco Polo, who mentions that the pearl fishers on the Malabar coast are protected by the magic and spells of the Brahmins. The heathens believe that Paradise is situated there, because the islands have such a temperate climate and such a great fertility of the soil.
For this reason the heathens of India believe that their souls are transported to these islands after death, where they live for ever on the scent of these fruits. During her recuperation period, she had time to reflect, and she realized that singing was the most important thing in her life and she wanted to make a serious attempt to work at it full-time. They know, as every American instinctively knows, this bill is not affordable to the citizens of this country, and they also know that it will reduce the availability and quality of health care for the majority of citizens. An even earlier chart (probably covering the whole 'world' originally), that by Angelino Dulcert, of Majorca, dated 1339, also has points of resemblance to the Catalan Atlas. There are several references to world maps executed by him, though this is the only one now known. There is a further allusion to Alexander having erected two trumpet-blowing figures in bronze; these, according to various medieval legends, resounded with the wind and frightened the Tartars until the instruments were blocked up by various nesting birds and animals. For India and the ocean to the west, therefore, we may conclude that charts were used which differed in detail from Polo's account, though similar in general features. Here unfortunately the map ends; unlike the Medici Atlas, or some others, it makes no attempt at a representation, conjecture or otherwise, of the southern portion of this continent. The text beside a Touareg riding on a camel and also a group of tents informs us that this land is inhabited by veiled people living in tents and riding camels.
Various trading stations are indicated on the shore of the Indian Ocean from Hormus, a€?where India begins,a€? to Quilon in Kerala. With meticulous care the islands in the region of the portolan chart section are displayed, they are painted in color, some of them like Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are shown in gold. She worked 30 hours a week her first two years and didn't audition for anything the first year.


She spoke to Jay and Paul about pushing for more gigs, so in 1998, they surveyed the musical landscape and began their serious run as a band. It appears that, like spoiled children, these '60s leftovers care not about anything except their own power. The room is lined with shelves; the shelves are loaded with books, crafts, clothes, jewelry and CDs.
The other elements (fire, air, water) are incorporated into the next three concentric circles; then come the seven planets, the band of the zodiac, and the various stations and phases of the moon. In view of the possible identity of Dulcert, and the Ligurian origin of the Medici Atlas, we may conclude that this type of world map, though developed by Catalans, originated early in the 14th century in northern Italy, where the narrative of Marco Polo, which, as will be seen, supplied many of the details embodied in the map, would be most readily available. After his death in 1387, his work was carried on by his son, Jafuda, who eventually instructed the Portuguese under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator. This form of the name (it is rendered Coilum by Polo), and other details, suggest that the compiler drew upon the writings of Friar Jordanus, who was a missionary in this area, and whose Book of Marvels was completed and in circulation by 1340.
It is marked by a line of towns up the valley of the Edil from Agitarchan [Astrakhan] through Sarra [Sarai], Borgar, and thence eastward through Pascherit [probably representing the territory of the Bashkirs east of the middle Volga], and Sebur, or Sibir, a medieval settlement whose site is unknown, but thought to be on the upper Irtish.
The crowned black man holding a golden disk is identified as Musse Melly, a€?lord of the negroes of Guineaa€? - in fact, Mansa Musa, of fabulous wealth.
Speculation of this sort did at least have the merit of enabling the mapmaker to draw the Sahara with greater accuracy. After re-acclimating herself as a student, in her sophomore year, she started performing in plays again. He worked with rehearsals for shows, so there wasn't time to practice the material a€” he just had to pick it up quickly. If we allow one-sixth of our economy to be taken over by what has essentially become a handful of "government gangsters" (Michael Barrone's term, not mine) we are in serious trouble. These proportions are of some significance, for they have undoubtedly restricted the cartographer in his portrayal of the extreme northern and southern regions. The next six rings are devoted to the lunar calendar and to an account of the effect of the moon when it is found in the different signs of the zodiac. The Catalan Atlas says: The circumference of the earth is 180,000 stadia, that is to say 20,052 miles (this is the same calculation as Ptolemy's, yet it was given a full thirty years prior to the first known Latin translation of his Geographia, #119 ). But the day of the Jewish school of cartography at Majorca was already drawing to a close, owing to the wave of persecution which swept through the Aragon kingdom in the latter years of the century.
Possibly additions were also made so that the map might serve as an illustration to his narrative.
In this quarter, the information upon which the map is based was not drawn from Marco Polo.
Also its treatment of the Atlantic islands: the Azores, Canary, and Madeira groups, is more complete than any representation of earlier times.
The gap in the snake-like Atlas Mountain chain of North Africa is meant to illustrate a pass that these Arab merchants commonly used (#235A).
In addition, she took a writing course, and in Carolyn Sobel, her professor, found a believer. This was perhaps to some extent deliberate, for two years before the composition of this map, we hear of the Infant John (son of Peter of Aragon) demanding a map 'well executed and drawn with its East and West' and figuring 'all that could be shown of the West and of the Strait [of Gibraltar] leading to the West'. Three more rings show, respectively, the division of the circle into degrees, while the last gives an account of the Golden Number.
There are still other names which are not found in Jordanus either; but the commercial importance of Cambay (Canbetum, on the map) would account for the relatively detailed information about this region. To the south is a long east-west range, called the Mountains of Sebur, representing the northwestern face of the Tien Shan and Altai.
His pilgrimage to Mecca, including a visit to Cairo, was famous for the enormous amount of gold he spent on that occasion. Ita€™s dreamlike, with Paula€™s keyboard ringing like chimes and Jaya€™s solemn guitar strum conducting a stately march. The Infant, in other words, was interested, not in northern Europe and Asia or in southern Africa, but in the Orient and the Western Ocean.
They eat white men and strangers, if they can catch them.a€? The reference is to giants familiar from the medieval Alexander legend, specifically defined here as Anthropophagi. There is, surprisingly, no indication of the river Indus, a striking omission also from Polo's narrative. In the late 13th and early 14th centuries there were Franciscan mission stations at these localities, and the details no doubt came originally from the friars. This is plausible enough, for he controlled a large part of Africa, from Gambia and Senegal to Gao on the Niger, and had access to some of its richest gold deposits. Catherinea€™s voice floats, ethereally high over them: Please let him keep looking toward this horizona€¦When Ia€™m thinking of him, ita€™s twilight. Move on to the important stuff.It's like a group who claims the sky is falling, using doctored data to "prove" it.
The cartographer satisfied him by cutting out, as it were, an east-west rectangle from a circular world map which would cover the desired area. George Grosjean, in his commentary on the 1977 facsimile edition of the Atlas, stresses that the orientation of this map must be understood from its essential part.
To these far distant waters are also relegated mermaids, some of them probably the traditional half-woman and half-fish, the others more siren-like half-birds. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.a€?The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian.
Reports of the fabulous wealth of this African ruler did much to encourage an interest in the exploration of Africa. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. The map was constructed in the portolano style, a type of medieval navigation chart which was intended to lie on the chart-table of a ship and always was oriented to the necessities of navigation, thus there is no 'orientation of priority' of such maps. The one illustrated has two fishtails, in accordance with one of the most common medieval conventions. Farther north appear the Three Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem and at the top (or bottom) of the map a caravan; all of the latter figures are drawn upside down, as the map was probably meant to be laid horizontally and viewed from both sides. Or in the case of global warming, government will force you to give it money, burden and tax industry with green regulation, and enjoy telling the rest of us what to do in perpetuity.As you read this, Democrats in Washington are planning a huge energy tax called cap-and-trade to "fight" climate change. Armenian music meets Gypsy music, Jewish music and folk music from the four corners of Turkey. The shape of the Catalan Atlas, therefore, must not be taken as evidence on questions such as the extent, form or knowledge of the African continent; nor does the change from a circular to a rectangular frame indicate specifically any change in ideas relating to the shape of the earth. Since the Atlas was not intended as a portolano for daily use but instead was a luxury edition for a princely library, it is useless to ask for correct orientation of the map-sheets.
Camels laden with goods are followed by their drivers; behind them various people, one of them asleep, are riding horses. The first of many, I'm sure, it will burden every citizen and business with higher costs of, literally, everything.Questions for the Tallahassee Democrat: Is what George Will says true? This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.a€?A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano.
Did Phil Jones of the Climatic Research Unit admit there's been no warming in 15 years or that the earth was warmer during the Medieval Warm Period? Designed to assist mariners find their way at sea, it served a practical purpose akin to that of the future road map, but it answered this purpose by depicting not the route itself, but detailed coastlines and hazards to shipping. Mariners previously had to rely on written itineraries which can be traced back to the peripli or coastal pilots of the classical world.
Did the IPCC retract its assertion that Himalayan glaciers are melting?Then, why doesn't the Democrat report on it? Following the introduction of the mariner's compass in Europe towards the end of the 13th century, nautical or portolan charts were made as an extension of the peripli, constructed on a framework of radiating compass lines, with north at the top. Places were located and marked around the coasts, while places located further inland and usually the entire interior of the continents were left blank. The province and town of Lop mentioned by Marco Polo can be connected with the modern town of Ruoqiang (Charkhlik) south of Lop Nor. What started as a private art gallery now offers an introduction to the whirling dervish ceremony and the Sufi community in Turkey as well as courses in painting, henna, paper-marbling and calligraphy (along with a permanent exhibition of paintings, statuettes and art at the Sultanahmet address). It should be emphasized that while the Atlas was drawn in the portolano style, it is not, strictly speaking, a portolan chart. Les Arts Turcs recently opened a second gallery and a travel agency near the TopkapA± Palace and prides itself on appearing in many travel guides. The typical nautical chart, which some scholars believe had its origin with the Catalan mapmakers, had hitherto been cartographically the very opposite of the medieval theocratic or ecclesiastical maps. Portolan charts traditionally displayed only known, discovered coasts, precisely detailed harbors, river mouths, rocks, shallows, currents, etc. The state Senate last week approved a 294-percent increase in the state cigarette tax, and unless the House or Gov. Art and history are everywhere," exclaims AzengA?ler, his gaze now overlooking the streets of Sultanahmet, which vibrate three stories below his gallery. Crist rejects the plan, it will punish the very taxpayers the stimulus package purported to save.A A cigarette tax increase is a regressive tax hike on the state's low-income population during a devastating recession. Florida smokers' median household income is almost $10,000 less per year than that of Florida nonsmokers.
I advise those travelers to read a lot beforehand, to watch documentaries and movies from or about Turks. In some of the state's poorest counties, the cost of cigarettes will surpass 5 percent of household income.A Cigarette tax increases also have detrimental effects on nonsmokers by damaging the larger economy.
The first are travelers who heard about Les Arts Turcs and visit the gallery -- occasionally buying some objects on display -- and then return home.
Raising the price of a pack of cigarettes higher than those found in bordering states promises to not only repel out-of-state consumers but drive Florida citizens over the state border, where prices are lower.
Retailers are justifiably clamoring to defeat the tax hike, because they see sales evaporating as customers buy their cigarettes in Georgia and Alabama, where a carton will cost almost $10 less. For example, the French magazine Elle was looking for female whirling dervishes and we helped them find some. The price advantage that Florida's retailers enjoyed will go up in smoke if this tax hike happens.A Florida Senators are lauding the $1-per-pack hike as a victory for both balanced budgets and anti-smoking initiatives, but the reality is a cigarette tax increase cannot achieve both.
Any drop among in-state cigarette purchases goes hand-in-hand with a reduction in tax revenues, leaving another gaping budget hole in the future. As growing numbers of Florida smokers buy their cigarettes somewhere else, revenue projections will not be met. Turkey sees itself as European, he agrees, but Turks are increasingly protective of their own identity. Between FY 2002 and FY 2007, state cigarette taxes were increased 57 times; 39 of those increases yielded revenues that fell short of predictions.
In New Jersey, cigarette tax revenue actually declined after a tax hike there, with revenues falling 181 percent short of expectations. A study by the National Taxpayers Union found that, after 35 tobacco tax hikes between 2004 and 2006, 22 states followed up with other tax increases.For those of you keeping score at home, cigarette taxes are bad for smokers, nonsmokers, the poor, retailers, the government and anyone who cares about the state's economy. CNN TA?rk, Sky TA?rk, Kola TA?rk, a€¦ I am obviously not the only one who strives to affirm the Turkish identity." Then why did he give his art gallery a French name? It appears the only people these tax hikes benefit are the misinformed, who will change their tune soon enough.The fact that any tax hikes are on the table is preposterous. Florida expects to receive a $13 billion infusion from the federal government as part of President Obama's stimulus package. Our plan is to invite foreigners who have been writing about A°stanbul -- a movie, a book, a documentary a€¦ -- and ask them to write again about Turkey. 11, we have received many inquiries from Westerners, particularly Americans, about Sufism and [Muhammed Jelaluddin] Rumi. He may be thinking about his current research on the hippies, his partnership with painter AyAYe TA?remiAY or with American illustrator Trici Venola. We need a government that will encourage entrepreneurs and preserve property rights, thus allowing citizens to invest in America.A This is what has made America great a€” letting one choose his or her own destiny. But keeping people employed through government jobs at the taxpayers' expense will not stimulate the economy.
Government should reduce jobs, just as the private sector does.A This brings me to ask why we, the citizens of Leon County and Tallahassee, are being hit with so many fees in these troubled times? Are citizens here obligated to furnish local-government employees with a better lifestyle by imposing fees while local businesses are hurting for sales? What's next?A The city and county should first look at the situation we have now, which is an ex-fire chief managing the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a fire chief managing the Tallahassee Fire Department.
Taxpayers are covering the cost now, and taxpayers have always paid for fire protection through their property taxes.In the 1960s, '70s, '80s and '90s, property taxes paid for local government without the fees we are faced with today. It appears that, like spoiled children, these '60s leftovers care not about anything except their own power.
Did Phil Jones of the Climatic Research Unit admit there's been no warming in 15 years or that the earth was warmer during the Medieval Warm Period? Did the IPCC retract its assertion that Himalayan glaciers are melting?Then, why doesn't the Democrat report on it? Florida smokers' median household income is almost $10,000 less per year than that of Florida nonsmokers. Florida expects to receive a $13 billion infusion from the federal government as part of President Obama's stimulus package. But keeping people employed through government jobs at the taxpayers' expense will not stimulate the economy.
What's next?A The city and county should first look at the situation we have now, which is an ex-fire chief managing the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a fire chief managing the Tallahassee Fire Department. If Nader hadn't drawn 90,000 Florida votes in 2000, the reasoning goes, a handful of his supporters might have closed their eyes, swallowed hard and voted for Al Gore a€” probably closing the 537-vote gap by which Bush carried the state. A Imagine Clinton or Obama (maybe Clinton and Obama) versus McCain or Mitt Romney or Mike Huckabee next fall. Once again, the Democrats will be the peace party while the Republicans defend their policies.
A It's probably too much to hope for, but the best-known leaders in both Florida political parties are being mentioned for vice president.
Charlie Crist's well-timed endorsement of McCain raised his running-mate ratings in the GOP. Bill Nelson, having won four times in a state with 27 electoral votes, should be on the short list of either Democrat. They're affable and telegenic, but they have shown they can be tough, capable campaigners. On the other hand, gay-marriage proponents, who have pushed this issue in the courts and legislatures from Hawaii to Massachusetts, seem startled and offended when their cause runs into resistance. Ulysses Grant's drinking, Abraham Lincoln supposedly joked that he would find out what kind of liquor Grant liked and send a case to each of his other generals. Well, Leon County has always had totally clean elections a€” zero defects in the recounts, readily certifiable results, relatively short lines, few if any complaints from candidates.
Even in the post-presidential merriment of 2000, Ion Sancho's office stood out from the rest of Florida.
So now Sancho is investigating allegations of drinking on primary night by some of his employees. Considering how well our elections have run, maybe he ought to find out what they were drinking and send a case to colleagues in some other counties. With the interviews to begin in FSU's athletic-director search, did you know that the first FSU AD was a woman?
Montgomery entered Florida State College for Women, she found there was no provision for recreation for women students outside of a couple of tennis courts.
Some said it was not quite ladylike for women to take physical education and was a hazard to the health of women to take violent exercises.
When FSCW became FSU and men were enrolled, a football team was organized, and of course a (male) coach was hired.
Montgomery had a doctorate in physical education, and the coach had only a bachelor's degree, she still remained head of the department of physical education.



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