Tinnitus and zinc deficiency,tinnitus selbsthilfegruppe aargau tourismus,bridesmaid jewellery box uk,earring holder john lewis 1992 - Reviews

Researchers have tested a number of treatment methods for patients who suffer from tinnitus, with most leading to poor results. Zinc is not only good for maintaining your overall health, it is also said to be an essential nutrient when it comes to treating tinnitus. If you suffer from tinnitus and feel you’re already getting enough of these foods, you can also take Zinc supplements or apply it via a topical skin cream. You can also combine your tinnitus zinc treatment with other nutrients and medical applications to help fight off Tinnitus. About this SiteOur goal is to provide information about tinnitus treatment options, including the conventional and the holistic. DisclaimerInformation on this site is general in nature and cannot take the place of medical evaluation, diagnoses, and treatment by a health care provider.
This article provides a review of studies investigating the pharmacological treatment of tinnitus. Though success rates of 80% tinnitus control are reported with such treatment modalities as biofeedback [3] and tinnitus retraining therapy [4], these modalities of therapy are time consuming for providers and patients alike. Until recently, the lack of animal models for tinnitus has further limited our ability to define the role of pharmacological agents in preparation for clinical study. As a result, our objectives here are to review the basic and clinical science evidence for the pharmacological treatment of tinnitus, to assess for consensus on symptom definition and outcome reporting, and to chart a course for future efforts.
We searched MEDLINE (1966-2005) for English-language studies combining the word tinnitus with the term medical treatment, pharmacologic , or pharmacological. We considered evidence in light of study type, design, clarity, and applicability of findings.
Tricyclic antidepressants decrease presynaptic reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) decrease reuptake of serotonin only. The results of clinical studies on antidepressants in the treatment of tinnitus are summarized in Table 1.
The results of clinical studies of GABA receptor-binding pharmacological agents are presented in Table 2.
No consistent symptom definition was identified in these studies, and all populations were essentially convenience samples from clinics or databases.
Studies addressing the use of misoprostol in the treatment of tinnitus are summarized in Table 3. The first study had essentially no symptom definition [23], whereas the most recent two were limited to subjective tinnitus of greater than 6 months' duration with fairly specific inclusion and exclusion criteria.
The evidence linking various vitamin B deficiencies and treatments with tinnitus are largely anecdotal [7]. Zinc is an essential nutrient that can influence neurotransmission and is present in highest concentration in the human cochlea [31]. The two placebo-controlled trials of zinc were noticeably thorough with symptom definition, including laterality, constant versus intermittent, quality, pitch, association with disease process, and association with audiometric data.
EGB761 is the most common isolate of Ginkgo biloba, one of the most ancient medicinal plants recently reported to increase body circulation and having benefits for vascular insufficiency and cognitive function [7]. To isolate subjects likely to respond to treatment, one study [38] started with an open trial of 80 patients, all of whom received treatment. Overall symptom definition was vague in these studies, and no study presented a systematic method by which to identify significant otological disease as a cause of tinnitus. Antidepressants likely have a role in the management of tinnitus concomitant with major depression or depressed symptoms and can help in ameliorating comorbidities in severe or chronic cases of tinnitus. GABA receptor-binding medications, such as benzodiazepines, appear to be reasonable candidates for tinnitus therapy, given the inhibitory role of GABA in the central nervous system. Of all the nutritional supplements, zinc has had the longest history and has been subjected to the most clinical study.
The results of studies on Ginkgo biloba as a whole tend to argue against any benefit for the treatment of tinnitus.
Given the likely wide range of potential causes of tinnitus, a thorough definition of the patient population must be established.
Once outcome measures are decided, a formal inquiry of statistical power should be reported to determine the required number of subjects in all treatment arms. Basic science models for tinnitus, though limited, should be used to guide more productive study of pharmacological treatments for tinnitus. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the US Department of the Navy, US Department of Defense, or the US Government. The body does not distinguish between our figurative and our literal language; instead it seems to mirror that which we think or speak. Tinnitus sufferers: Do you wish someone would shut up because you don’t want to hear them? I’ve never made that connection for myself, but I can imagine I would if, say, my mother or my boss were yelling at me all the time!
People raised on fish sticks and boiled broccoli do not develop the jaw muscles of our ancestors whose chew-chew-chewing of real food from an early age helped the teeth align themselves for an effective bite.
This so explains why I get relief from my TMJ when I chew on the chew pad that my dentist provided me.
The key to the chew pad is that it is horseshoe shaped—both sides of the jaw are working equally. I showed it to the teacher and told her she should keep it down to 85 decibels—85 is the level at which the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) starts regulating.
The music and instructor were still plenty loud enough AND I could feel the music in my chest. Remember, if you do encounter excess noise from whatever source, give your ears a break so they can recover.
Getting vitamin D from the sun is the most efficient source, but now that winter is upon us, it’s pretty hard to do. The Medical College of Wisconsin gives a nice summary of vitamin D requirements, how-to and what-happens-if-you-don’t. Experts recommend sunning yourself for 10 to 15 minutes several times a week between the hours of 10am and 2pm. A primary tenet is to think your muscles into good posture, not to move them, as most of us would have thought. Learning the Alexander Technique helps you become aware of tensions in your body and helps you figure out how to release those tensions.
Consultation with your doctor, $100; drugs at the pharmacy, $69; information that helps you cure your tinnitus, priceless! Information in these pages is not a substitute for visiting your doctorand is not intended as medical advice. In fact, there are over two billion people who suffer from a zinc deficiency and, especially at a young age; this can end up disrupting the growth and functionality of the body. Keep in mind that too much zinc can lead to negative side effects — taking more than 50mg a day for long periods of time can result in other mineral deficits and lead to easy bruising, fatigue, anemia and hair loss.
A good supplement addition would be Vitamin B12, which helps stop the onset of tinnitus and it complements the effects of zinc when it comes to relieving symptoms. Studies related to zinc and tinnitus have indicated that taking zinc can be useful in treating hearing loss and age-related tinnitus, however hard evidence to prove just how effective is lacking. Thomas is an author, researcher, nutritionist and health consultant who dedicated his life to creating the ultimate Tinnitus solution guaranteed to permanently reverse the root of ear ringing and naturally and dramatically improve the overall quality of your life, without the use prescription medication and without any surgical procedures. We'll cover home remedies, tinnitus diet tips, and general information that will be useful to tinnitus sufferers. Tinnitus continues to be a significant and costly health problem without a uniformly accepted treatment.
It is reported to occur in up to 30% of individuals in those nations, with 10-15% of individuals experiencing symptoms significant enough to require medical attention [1]. Currently, no drug exists with an indication for tinnitus, though several are used "off-label," and side effects can be an issue that limits compliance.
We excluded studies not focused on tinnitus, nonpharmacological articles, and studies addressing a particular neurootological disease. Heller [1] reviewed classification systems of tinnitus, although none are universally used.
Although the anticholinergic, antihistaminic, and adrenergic activities of tricyclic antidepressants are postulated to play a role in the mitigation of tinnitus [9], no basic science studies have demonstrated a plausible biological mechanism. In a small study, trimipramine failed to demonstrate any subjective or audiometric benefit over placebo [9].
Decreased GABA activity is postulated as a potential causative factor for tinnitus that results from abnormal activation of central nervous system auditory pathways. Alprazolam, a drug that potentiates GABA activity at GABA-A receptors, was found to decrease both subjective loudness and intensity matching of tinnitus in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study [18].
Subjective outcomes measures ranged from yes or no responses on tinnitus improvement, to visual analog scales, to the 25- question THI. In guinea pigs, a model of prostaglandin activity suggested that prostaglandins may act as neuromodulators of cochlear afferent transmission [22]. The first demonstrated a subjective report of 33% response to active treatment as compared to 0% with placebo treatment and showed that responders to medication had statistically significantly decreased subjective rating-scale scores of tinnitus after 16 days of treatment, as compared to the scores of nonresponders [23]. Subjective outcome measures were limited to yes or no improvement replies and visual analog scales, without any tools to measure impact of tinnitus on functioning. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective trial of 48 patients treated with nicotinamide (vitamin B3), results were no better than those from placebo [29].
The reported incidence of zinc deficiency in patients with tinnitus is inconsistent, with some reporting a positive correlation [31-35] and others finding no relationship [36,37].
All studies used an analog subjective tinnitus rating scale-either from 0 to 7 or from 0 to 10-as the main outcome measure, with one trial [35] using loudness matching as an additional outcome measure. Improvement in blood circulation to the organ of Corti has been suggested as a mechanism for ameliorating tinnitus [38]. One trial demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in tinnitus loudness matching as compared with results from placebo [40].
Only those who reported some improvement (n = 21) were invited into a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.


Similarly, despite their widespread use and in the absence of compelling clinical evidence, none of the commonly advocated nutritional supplements are any more effective than is placebo in tinnitus control. In particular, several animal studies suggested that changes in the GABA-A-receptor binding in the brainstem and inferior colliculus may be responsible for tinnitus, though the relationships are complex. The zinc studies have similar characteristics, although a trend toward helping elderly patients with zinc deficiency was identified [36].
Given the lack of adequate basic science models, disparity in symptom definitions and outcome measures, and overall lack of power of past studies, it is also not possible to exclude most (if not all) of the reviewed treatments from future analysis. Such models as conditioned lick suppression in the presence of sound [46] still rely on salicylate toxicity that may not accurately mimic the wide range of potential causes of tinnitus.
Studies should include a table that offers information on age, gender, subjective versus objective tinnitus, laterality, constant versus intermittent, location (central versus cochlear), duration, hearing function, any known tinnitus causing disease, psychiatric illness, systemic illness, current medications for tinnitus, past medications for tinnitus, and baseline measures of the impact of tinnitus on quality of life.
However, every effort should be made to use subjective measures that have clinical significance, with an a priori decision on the defined level of improvement that constitutes a relevant outcome.
Studies should be prospective, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigations with adequate washout time between placebo and active treatment. In Why We Get Sick, the New Science of Darwinian Medicine, Authors Randolph Nesse and George Williams explain.
The foods that were available during most of human history are not the soft fruits and vegetables, meats and breads we have today. A sound-level measurement device will help you figure out if you’re being subjected to too much noise. Included in their list of symptoms of a lack of vitamin D is numbness around the mouth and abnormal heart rhythms. However, at the latitude of Boston (42), between November and February, this will not be enough. I’ve been sunning myself religiously but I haven’t been taking my vitamins or eating my sardines!
The Alexander Technique is a re-education in using your body—it teaches you how to use your body in a more ergonomic way. All rights reserved.Permission to reprint in any form granted provided proper attribution is included. Zinc helps the body fight off illnesses including cold and flu and speeds the recovery process. Zinc capsules typically need to be taken with food or else it can cause nausea; however the New Chapter Zinc Food Complex is known for being very easy to take without incident, even if you take it without a meal.
That being said, if your physician approves, a tinnitus zinc treatment plan is an option worth trying. A wide variety of studies exploring prescription, supplement, and vitamin therapies are assessed for efficacy of treatment and for establishing consistencies in symptom definition, assessment, and outcome measures. Of the 342,903 US veterans receiving disability pensions in 2004, 84% received payment for a tinnitus disability.
In addition, its presence in isolation or in the setting of specific disease entities, such as hearing loss, Meniere's disease, or trauma, is inconsistent. As a result, despite their efficacy, widespread use for such a common problem is unlikely and economically unfeasible. Since then, Dobie [6] reviewed well-controlled, randomized clinical trials for all treatments of tinnitus.
In comparison, multiple nutritional supplements are sold individually or in combination with claims of tinnitus relief. Of the 59 results remaining, primary focus was given to summarizing developments since previous reviews [5-7].
Therefore, we reviewed studies in our effort for their inclusion of the symptom location, character, loudness, pitch, impact on daily life, association with hearing loss or other neurootological disease, and verification with such measures as audiometry, pitch matching, loudness matching, and masking level.
A trial of nortriptyline demonstrated statistically significant subjective and objective improvements within both treatment and placebo groups but essentially no differences between groups [10]. The inferior colliculus projects auditory information via the ventral medial geniculate body of the thalamus in the classic auditory pathway. No statistical comparison was made between treatment and placebo groups, only within those groups.
The Lioresal trial used loudness matching, pitch matching, and maskability as audiometric outcomes. Audiometric outcomes in the most recent trials included tinnitus frequency and intensity matching. More recently, the anticoagulant sodium enoxaparin was compared to combination therapy of corticosteroids, vasoactive agents, multivitamins, and anticoagulants, with a reported abatement of tinnitus symptoms [27]. A statistically significant increased incidence of vitamin B 12 deficiency was identified in patients with chronic tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as compared with NIHL and normal subjects, with reported improved symptoms after replacement therapy [30].
No substantial basic science evidence demonstrates the role of zinc in the pathogenesis or treatment of tinnitus. The first reported no significant difference between Zn2+ , 22 mg three times daily, and placebo [37].
No discussion of statistical power was mentioned in any study, and enrollment ranged from 40 to 96 subjects. The statistical significance was recorded as p Ginkgo biloba treatment before being randomly assigned to oral therapy versus placebo.
Even with this selection, no significant improvement on subjective scores of tinnitus was found as compared to results from placebo. The THI was used as a quality-of-life outcome in the most recent study [42], and a similar questionnaire was used in the largest study [41]. Despite this lack of conclusive evidence, much can be gathered from the available research on the pharmacological management of tinnitus. Other antidepressants, such as SSRIs, likely are similarly effective, although a placebocontrolled, prospective study of SSRI medications is needed. The available clinical studies using benzodiazepines are of short duration and have limited patient numbers.
Thus, though zinc deficiency can be a cause of tinnitus, zinc replacement in tinnitus sufferers with normal zinc levels is of little benefit.
Clinical investigations, including a large number of subjects as well as meta-analysis, failed to show any benefit over placebo. Given that a placebo can result in a 30-40% response rate for tinnitus, similar findings with treatment should be presented with caution [10,48]. Antidepressant treatment of tinnitus patients: Report of a randomized clinical trial and clinical prediction of benefit. GABAAbenzodiazepine- chloride receptor-targeted therapy for tinnitus control: Preliminary report.
Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: Double blind, placebo controlled trial. Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with tinnitus: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
Enhancing intrinsic cochlear stress defenses to reduce noise-induced hearing loss [candidate's thesis].
For the sake of everyone else, I only hope they don’t spend much time listening to music at that level.
Look at a skeleton and you’ll see that your hips are attached to your spine and are an extension of your torso.
Individuals with tinnitus have seen a considerable improvement when they take supplemental zinc, so let’s learn more about how it works.
A zinc deficiency can lead to a weak immune system, loss of smell and taste, hearing problems — and in some cases leads to tinnitus. You’ll more than likely be advised to take a tinnitus formula that contains an easy-to-absorb form of zinc (less than 40mg) if you are going to be taking it regularly.
This review reveals no compelling evidence suggesting the efficacy of any pharmacological agent in the treatment of tinnitus.
In that year, it was the third most prevalent disability among veterans, after hearing loss and generalized musculoskeletal disability. Therefore, therapy tends to be individualized and can range from placebo to surgery, with a multitude of options found between.
Thus, the potential for a safe and effective oral pharmacological intervention has the hope of offering widely accessible and acceptable treatment for tinnitus patients.
Most recently, Seidman and Babu [7] reviewed the role of alternative nutritional and medicinal treatment. Though these claims may be based on some science, their marketing and manufacturing is minimally regulated, with side effects and drug interactions poorly characterized. We supplemented sources by personal files and cross-referenced articles of the primary search.
We also gave attention to the presence of specific, defined outcome measures, including changes in audiometric tests or quality-of-life measures, such as the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) [8]. However, a follow-up study from the same trial (and apparently the same data set) demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in tinnitusrelated disability via the multidimensional pain inventory (MPI) tinnitus interference questionnaire and in tinnitus loudness via audiometric matching at the frequency of tinnitus as compared with placebo [11].
Audiometric analysis was more consistent and typically involved pure-tone thresholds, speech discrimination, uncomfortable loudness levels, and tinnitus frequency and intensity matching.
However, projections also occur via the dorsal and medial thalamic nuclei via the nonclassic pathway that subsequently projects to the amygdala and association cortices. The study lacked details of patient selection, crossover of treatment and placebo groups, and a discussion of the potential impact of drowsiness, caused by the sedating action of alprazolam, on loss of blinding. The gabapentin and clonazepam trial used SPECT imaging with 99Tc-HMPAO to identify increased perfusion in the medial temporal lobe system as evidence of treatment success. Statistical power was alluded to in all trials, though not formally discussed, and was the subject of a critique on the study of prostaglandins in tinnitus [26]. However, the study did not include any statistical analysis comparing groups, offered no placebo, had a total of 20 subjects in each group, and was not blinded.
However, a more recent study reported a statistically significant improvement in subjective rating of tinnitus both within the Zn2+ 50-mg daily treatment group and in comparison with placebo [35]. Finally, only 22 of 60 patients completed all phases of evaluation, although all subjects were analyzed on an intention-totreat basis.


Studies with larger power, longer follow-up, and consideration for potential dependency are needed.
In particular, the studies on misoprostol failed to show subjective improvements, and the clinical significance of decreased tinnitus loudness matching is doubtful.
An experiment using a behavioral avoidance task during sound was able to reduce false-positive avoidance (presumably caused by tinnitus) with the use of N-methyl- D -aspartate receptor-blocking agents that may play a role as local therapeutics [47]. Specific selection, inclusion, and exclusion criteria should be presented, and convenience samples should be avoided.
Outcomes that are likely to be clinically significant are those associated with a meaningful improvement in a patient's life. Statistical comparison of baseline characteristics of treatment groups should address any significant differences. As more than 70% of patients with noise-induced hearing loss also suffer from tinnitus, efforts to reduce the impact of environmental noise on hearing should continue, including the use of pharmacological agents.
85 decibels is the level at which our Occupational Safety and Health Administration starts to regulate.
Just this piece of knowledge about your anatomy can help you move more fluidly and with less effort. Analysis of prior investigations provides insight to appropriate methods for future work, which are outlined. Auditory disabilities taken together resulted in more than $1 billion of payment by the US Department of Veterans Affairs in fiscal year 2004 alone [2].
Finally, consensus on accepted outcomes for treatment is lacking, owing to the subjective nature of tinnitus. This form of therapy can be self-administered and selfmonitored, reducing the impact on medical resources for treatment. Although not establishing consensus, these studies identified some agents with promise, but the lack of uniform symptom definitions, outcome measures, and statistical power of the studies reviewed renders interpreting these conclusions challenging. Thus, the pharmacological treatment of tinnitus remains a realm of pseudoscience and supplements.
We reviewed studies for basic and clinical science evidence for the pathophysiology and treatment of tinnitus, symptom definition, outcome measure, statistical power, and potential for future research. Both studies highlighted the effectiveness of nortriptyline treatment of the depression associated with the tinnitus. This nonclassic pathway receives somatosensory input, which may be abnormally redirected to auditory regions of the central nervous system and perceived as tinnitus [14]. Baclofen (Lioresal), a GABA analog with binding to the GABA-B receptor, was found to be no more effective than placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective trial [19].
Statistical power was specifically mentioned in the Lioresal trial, as 90 patients were calculated as the minimum number necessary to afford a power of 80% to detect a clinically significant difference between treatment groups. The other two studies were prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials by the same authors in different patient populations with similar results. A recent novel study compared subcutaneous periauricular injections of botulinum toxin A with placebo in a double-blind, prospective, crossover, randomized, controlled trial and reported significant differences between groups along with a significant decrease in THI scores between pretreatment and 4-month post-botulinum toxin A therapy [28].
The remaining trials showed no benefit as compared to placebo, and each had unique features that merit review. This was a large trial involving age, gender, and duration-of-symptoms matching analysis that revealed no differences in subjective rating scales of loudness, annoyance, and quality-of-life impact. Discussion of statistical power along with recruitment of adequate subjects was obtained in two studies [41,42], both reporting no effect of treatment.
These models have advanced our understanding of tinnitus as a central phenomenon and can be used to refine the exploration for effective pharmacotherapy. Benzodiazepines may prove to be counterproductive in the long run if suppression of neural plasticity is indeed something that will prevent reconditioning of nonclassic auditory pathways, as theorized in tinnitus retraining therapy [4]. However, these studies were also underpowered and did not address quality-of-life outcomes that may be evident with treatment.
However, more standardized definition of zinc deficiency along with higher-powered studies are needed to address this potential treatment. At best we can say that no benefit has accrued for the given dose and extract used in these studies. Riboflavin (B12) deficiency was demonstrated in sufferers with noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus as compared to those without tinnitus.
Very likely, different treatments for tinnitus will emerge for different groups of patients on the basis of comorbid illness and tinnitus duration, severity, or location. Small improvements may be meaningless to those with mild tinnitus but very important to those whose tinnitus is disabling.
Accessible, efficient, and effective treatment for this potentially disabling symptom remains elusive. All these issues lay the foundation for a heterogeneous body of literature on the topic that is largely devoid of compelling evidence for any particular treatment protocol. Additionally, such therapy may also benefit by reducing the causes of tinnitus and not just providing symptomatic relief. Further complicating matters is that largescale, well-controlled clinical trials of pharmacological agents are expensive and time consuming if conducted properly.
Compared to placebo, amitriptyline demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in a subjective measure of tinnitus intensity in a single-blind prospective trial [12]. Subjective outcomes ranged from a simple yes or no response to the question, "Has your tinnitus improved?" [10] to longer multipart questionnaires, such as the Iowa Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire [11]. Salicylate toxicity, a known cause of reversible tinnitus in humans, also results in GAD upregulation and increased GABA receptor affinity in the inferior colliculus of rats [15]. The study did demonstrate a statistically significant improvement on the THI within the treatment group, but this was not considered clinically significant, and treatment was associated with significant side effects leading to withdrawal from the study by 26% of participants. The studies found a statistically significant decrease in loudness matching and a statistically insignificant decrease in subjective rating of tinnitus in patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus (or both) [24] or the absence of systemic or other known otological disease [25]. The study identified having limited power, with a total of 26 subjects completing injections and follow-up, and the differences in groups incorporated those improved, those worsened, and those unchanged, without specifically addressing the statistical difference in improvement alone.
Two additional, nonplacebo- controlled studies investigated the incidence of zinc deficiency in patients with tinnitus along with the potential for improvement with zinc replacement.
However, this study was done completely by mail or phone, and no physical or audiometric evaluation was performed on patients. Another GABA-active drug, baclofen, showed promise in a limited animal study, although the single clinical study with significant design limitations demonstrated no better efficacy than that of placebo. Effective definition of the study population will enable important post hoc analyses to reveal these potential treatments. Visual analog scales are useful but should record variables of annoyance and awareness in addition to simply loudness. Much of the available clinical data, therefore, comes from small studies with significant design flaws.
However, comparisons were made before and after treatment within groups but not between groups. GABA inhibition at the level of the inferior colliculus in rats is also associated with development of audiogenic seizures [16].
A prospective study reported 90% improvement in those completing treatment with combined gabapentin and clonazepam in a select group of patients with severe, disabling tinnitus verified by decreased perfusion on SPECT imaging of the amygdala-hippocampus region [20].
The first study reported a significantly increased incidence of zinc deficiency in tinnitus as compared with healthy controls and a significant decrease on a subjective rating scale with Zn2+ 34-68 mg daily over 2 weeks [32]. The most recent randomized, controlled trial showed no significant improvement with Ginkgo biloba by itself and also no benefit when considered in a meta-analysis along with other trials in the literature [42]. The doses used in the studies were substantially lower than those demonstrating benefit in the animal model. Currently, no clinical study has used gabapentin alone, though this seems a logical choice for chronic therapy, given its limited side-effect profile and lack of addiction potential. A retrospective look at SSRI use in patients with tinnitus reported a statistically significant improvement on a tinnitus severity index over time in 23 of 30 patients [13].
No discussion of statistical power was mentioned in any study, and studies involved between 19 and 92 subjects. In an analysis of inferior colliculus hyperexcitability, various GABAergic agents were found to have very different effects on modulating evoked potentials, suggesting agonist-receptor variability with potential clinical implications for treatment. However, improvement was defined on subjective analog scales from 0 to 7, no control or placebo was used, and the 30% of patients who dropped out of the study for various reasons were not included in analysis. The second study found no strong relationship of zinc deficiency and tinnitus and failed to demonstrate significant improvement with Zn2+ 220 mg daily for 2 months, although a trend toward improved symptoms in elderly patients with hearing loss was noticed [36]. Many have been shown to reduce noise-induced hearing loss in animal models, and the effects are both peripherally and centrally mediated [45].
Again, widely recognized categorical scales and scored questionnaires that measure quality-of-life impact are recommended.
However, no control group was included, nor was mention made of when patients began SSRI use relative to their initial tinnitus severity index score. In those with normal hearing, zinc deficiency may play a role in the development of tinnitus, and zinc supplementation may be helpful in those cases [33,37]. Statistical analysis should compare effects within all treatment arms as well as between arms.
Finally, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has suggested a loss of GABA inhibition in the amygdalahippocampus formation in humans with tinnitus [17].
Though they may not prove useful in treating tinnitus, antioxidants may help to reduce the noise-induced injuries that precipitate tinnitus. Side effects of active and placebo treatment should be carefully documented and analyzed for possible effects on subjects discontinuing the trial.



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