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Tinnitus is a common hearing affliction where the patient experiences a sound that is frequently described as a ringing in the ears.  Learn more about tinnitus by reviewing the questions and answers below, or visit our hearing clinic in Kelowna. 9.     I heard that a certain diet might help to reduce the tinnitus?  Are chocolate and wine bad for tinnitus? It is the conscious experience of a sound that originates in the head or ears.  It is frequently described as a ringing, buzzing, humming, hissing, sound of escaping steam, etc. Disco Tinnitus is the temporary tinnitus due to exposure to loud noise.  It frequently affects teenagers and adults participating nightclubs and loud concerts. No, it does not mean you will lose your hearing.  Tinnitus may co-exist with hearing loss but it does not necessarily cause the tinnitus. There is no direct correlation of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine influencing the prevalence of tinnitus.  A low salt diet helps to reduce the symptoms of Meniere’s disease but does not reduce or enhance tinnitus.
Avoid the quietness – turn on the radio, fan, TV.  Having some sounds in the environment reduces the contrast between your tinnitus and quietness and makes tinnitus less noticeable. Hearing aids generally will help to cope with tinnitus more effectively if you have a hearing loss.  Being able to hear better can take the strain off listening. Recent discoveries regarding the generation of tinnitus have underscored the need for a collaborative counseling effort between clinician and patient, the importance of addressing stress as a potential causative factor, sleep management, and the role of sound therapy. INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was developed in English to quantify the handicap caused due to tinnitus.
OBJECTIVES: India being a multilingual country needs to develop and standardize THI in Indian languages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questions from English version of THI were translated and modified by two professionals who have a degree of MA Kannada. RESULTS: Analysis revealed 14% of the patients fall under the category of Slight, 38% under Mild, 26% under Moderate, 16% under Severe and 6% under Catastrophic group. CONCLUSION: Scores of Cronbach-alpha test shows that Kannada version of THI is a standard and reliable tool for measuring the handicap caused by tinnitus and can successfully classify individuals on a severity basis. Recent interest has surfaced in symptom - specific handicap outcome measures for many audiological and otological diseases4. A symptom specific assessment of many otological disorders will aid in understanding the severity of the symptom and effects of this on routine life. The English version of THI which is shown in Appendix 1 was the only tool available for quantifying the handicap caused by tinnitus. The beta version of THI developed by Newman and Jacobson in 1996 consists of 25 questions under the 3 sub scales of emotional, functional and catastrophic. Individuals who were suffering from tinnitus with or without any otological diseases were selected for the study. Tinnitus questionnaire was administered on the participants using a structured interview by the clinician to have a record of the demographic details and to cognize the type, nature, and the lateralization of the tinnitus, factors that affect tinnitus, presence of hearing loss, and the concern about the tinnitus. Following the administration of the tinnitus questionnaire, the participants were instructed regarding the self - assessing Kannada version of THI, its importance and the system to grade it.
Among all the participants, 94% of the participants had a minimum qualification of SSLC and a maximum qualification of a degree and could fill up the Kannada version of THI without the help of the clinician.
The results of the THI and the self assessing questionnaire were tabulated and are graphically represented below in Graph 1.
After the complete analysis of the obtained data, the percentages of the patients coming under various severities were found out. The purpose of this study was to develop a handicap inventory in native language (Kannada), to obtain a standard measurement instrument for evaluating tinnitus in patients to apprehend the effects caused due to tinnitus. From the study, we could observe that the perception of tinnitus handicap differs drastically between subjects as demonstrated by high values of standard deviations, which may be due to effective coping starategies5.
Related to the emotional aspects, the Kannada THI allows assessing the relation between tinnitus and manifestation of stress, depression, anxiety & frustration. The result of the current study shows good reliability and internal consistency as indicated by the Cronbach alpha test. Hence this inventory can serve as an effective tool to successfully classify the individuals into different grades according to the symptoms. Since the main focus of this study was to develop and standardize the THI into Kannada language, and to be administered on all Kannada patients who complain of tinnitus. The main aim of this study was to develop and standardize the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in Kannada; hence it can be administered on Kannada patients without difficulty.
Paper submitted to the ITJ-SGP (Publishing Management System) on December 17, 2012; and accepted on January 17, 2013. Kindle Paperwhite - The world's most advanced e-reader: higher resolution, higher contrast, buit-in light, 8-week battery life. Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom resulting based on information from a range of underlying spells which can key in ear infections, overseas objects or wax in the ear, nose allergies the present preclude (or induce) fluid drain and cause wax build-up, and injury based on what i read in loud noises. Tinnitus may also have a connection to memory problems, anxiety, fatigue or a general state of poor health. Tinnitus is a ringing, swishing, or other type of noise that seems to originate in the ear or head. Tinnitus is a condition of temporary or continuous noises like buzzing or humming in the ears or 'in the head' of a person, with no external source. Changes in the levels of hormones circulating in the body during menopause may affect tinnitus awareness through some unknown action. In some individuals, the intensity of tinnitus can be changed by shoulder, head, tongue, jaw, or eye movements. Heller and Bergman (1953) conducted a study of 100 tinnitus-free university students placed in an anechoic chamber and found that 93% reported hearing a buzzing, pulsing or whistling sound. I am pretty much pleased with the information placed on the site and it was rather informative. This study evaluated the interference of tinnitus on the quality of life for noiseexposed workers enrolled in a hearing conservation program.
Most tinnitus research has focused on effective treatments and the mechanisms of the cause, detection, and perception of tinnitus. In addition to its medical and audiological aspects, the psychosocial consequences of tinnitus can be of significance and have also been investigated. Tinnitus is a common complaint among noise-exposed workers, and in some countries it is even recognized as a work-related condition for compensation purposes. The objective of our study is to evaluate the impact of tinnitus on the quality of life of workers who are exposed to noise and enrolled in a corporate hearing conservation program.
We enrolled participants from a meat-packing facility in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We administered a questionnaire to all the employees of the company (N = 372) at the beginning of the training sessions of their hearing conservation program. To assess the workers' hearing status, we performed otoscopy and pure-tone audiometry, according to the requirements of the Brazilian legislation [10]. We administered to the 52 participants the Brazilian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) questionnaire, elaborated by Newman et al. We calculated Pearson coefficients of linear correlation and tested their significances via the Student's t -test and Fisher's exact test, using a significance level of 5%. Eighty-two workers (22%) of the total population of 372 workers in the studied company reported tinnitus in the first interview of this study.
Company records also indicated that 15% of the participants who were exposed to noise were also exposed to other hazards. The results of the relationship between tinnitus and the three THI scales are presented in Figure 2.
Table 2 displays the correlations between the functional, emotional, and catastrophic scales and medical history. Table 3 presents the correlations of the THI results with the health problems described by the participants (n = 52).
We separated the participants into two groups: The first was composed of 37 participants with normal hearing (71%), and the second included 6 participants (12%) with a bilateral high-frequency notch.
Twenty-two percent of the noise-exposed participants complained of tinnitus, a finding comparable to rates of 25% reported by Sahley and Nodar [14] and 15.5% reported by Zimmermann [15]. Seventy-one percent of the participants with tinnitus complaints presented normal audiometric results, which suggests that tinnitus can be an early indicator of auditory risk from exposure to noise. The application of the Brazilian version of the THI was both easy and expedient, as indicated by Newman et al. In Table 2, we found significant results involving the functional scale results with the use of prescription drugs and the catastrophic scale results with consumption of coffee. Concerning the degree of severity of tinnitus, 44% presented degree 1 or "slight" tinnitus according to the classification by McCombe et al. We observed a significant correlation between tinnitus severity and exposure to noise and chemical pollutants, predominantly CO. We observed a significant correlation between the duration of noise exposure and the emotional scale for the participants with high-frequency notches, suggesting an extra-auditory effect of noise. The results of this study demonstrated that the prevalence of tinnitus was high (22%) in this population, despite the fact that study participants were young individuals who had a short duration of noise exposure. The Brazilian version of the THI proved to be an easy instrument to use for evaluating the impact of tinnitus on the quality of life of noise-exposed workers. The results from this clinical study strongly support the use of Widex Zen Therapy in tinnitus patient management. Previous reported investigations of hearing aids containing fractal tones1-6 have yielded favorable results in reducing the tinnitus annoyance or handicap for patients with significant tinnitus. Derived from these findings and subsequent research, Widex introduced a new tinnitus management approach called “Widex Zen Therapy” in 2012.7 The overall objective of Widex Zen Therapy (WZT) is to ensure that the tinnitus does not negatively impact the patient’s quality of life.
4) Relaxation strategy program, highlighted by relaxation exercises and sleep management strategies. The appropriate components constituting the therapeutic intervention are tailored for each individual in accordance with the audiologic evaluation and the patient’s reaction to the tinnitus. 2) to investigate how subjects employ the hearing aids and the acoustic (fractal tones or filtered noise) options. Two tinnitus clinics participated in the data collection (Hearing and Tinnitus Center Tinnitus Clinic in New York and Canadian Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre in Whitby, Ontario, Canada). Subjects were given a comprehensive audiologic and tinnitus evaluation by trained tinnitus clinicians at the two clinical sites. All subjects had significant tinnitus distress (THI >18) when they enrolled in the clinical study with a mean THI score of 51, ranging from 20 to 96.
Instructional counseling was similar to that provided in Tinnitus Retraining Treatment (TRT)11 directive counseling. The choice of the particular model (which varied from the high end 440 to the entry level 110) was based on the individual patient’s needs and economic considerations. There are five Zen fractal tone styles available that vary in their tempo, pitch, dynamic range, and chord. Zen Program A utilized the “Aqua” setting that has proven to be the most popular fractal tone style. Subjects were instructed on hearing aid use, including how to access the various Zen programs and how to adjust the volume. The mean TFI baseline score was 53 (range 20 to 82), while the final TFI mean score improved to 25 (range 0 to 62).
Individual subject scores for the baseline and 6 months after WZT are shown in Figures 3 (THI) and 4 (TFI).
Symbols falling below these diagonal dashed lines reflect clinically significant relief from tinnitus on these two scales. A secondary objective of this study was to ascertain individual preferences and wearing habits for the hearing aids and programs. The majority (80%) of subjects selected “Aqua style with microphone on” as their Zen A program. Figure 6 shows the mean percentage of time use for amplification versus the three Zen programs.
Additionally, 74% and 75% of subjects achieved clinically significant changes in their THI and TFI scores, respectively. Although it is not possible to determine the relative contribution of each WZT component to the reduction of tinnitus handicap and quality of life improvement, it is interesting to note that the degree of improvement (in terms of THI and TFI reduction) was slightly greater (though not statistically significant) for the subjects receiving the more comprehensive cognitive behavioral intervention and relaxation exercises.
Future clinical studies would be useful to lend support to these findings and to determine the longer-term efficacy of this treatment.
Tinnitus may co-exist with hearing loss but hearing loss may not be the cause of tinnitus.  Tinnitus is frequently associated with some diseases in the ear, such as otosclerosis, ear infections, and Meniere’s disease. A relaxed body can cope with tinnitus more effectively.  Tinnitus is usually not a sign of a serious, ongoing medical condition. In this session, the instructor will describe components of a new, integrated, and individualized approach to managing the patient with tinnitus, consisting of instructional and adjustment-based counseling, relaxation techniques and sleep management, along with considerations for sound therapy. Translated inventory was given to 50 native Kannada speakers for the familiarity check & the most familiar sentences were included in the study.
According to the data obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics, tinnitus is more commonly seen in males than females and increases in prevalence with advancing age. There are two important aspects of symptom - specific evaluation that is generally done by a valid and reliable inventory5. A Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was developed in order to measure the handicap caused by tinnitus.


India being a multilingual country with a multicultural background, there is no such inventory available in any of the Indian languages other than in Tamil. For the present study, the English version of THI was translated to Kannada using the standard Translation-back-translation method (Bardley, 1994) by two professors who have a degree of MA in Kannada. Participants were interviewed briefly regarding tinnitus and those who complained tinnitus for more than 3 months were included for the further procedures, so that, they can quantify accurately the physical, emotional and catastrophic impacts of tinnitus on their daily acvtivities. Thereafter based on the subject's grading for all the questions, the total scores were calculated. Rest percentages of participants were from a lower socio-economic status and could fill up the questionnaire only with the help of the clinician due to their inability to read and understand Kannada. Cronbach alpha test was administered to check for the internal consistency and reliability of the Kannada version of the THI and also an Item-Total Correlation was also carried out. Thus, according to the Cronbach alpha score, the Kannada version of THI has got a good internal consistency and reliability to administer on the tinnitus patients in the Kannada population. With the administration of Kannada THI it was found that, all the subjects could quantify the severity of tinnitus from slight degree to catastrophic degree, and thus fulfilled the aim of the study.
Tinnitus assessment not only involves to match the tinnitus, ascertain the intensity of the tinnitus and to find out the intensity of wide band noise that can mask the tinnitus, but also involve administration of various inventories like THI to rate and assess the severity of tinnitus in order to help the clinician to counsel the patient as well as to know the level at which the management options should begin8. With respect to the functional aspect, the Kannada THI allows to identify the relationship between tinnitus and activities involving concentration, hearing acuity, attention & reading. This inventory could easily be understood to all the laymen and 94% of patients could fill the inventory without any help from the clinician. Following all the analysis and standardization, the Kannada version of THI came out successfully for the evaluation of tinnitus and found to be reliable. The Kannada version will help the patients with tinnitus to comprehend the severity and intensity of their problem and also considered as a reliable instrument for the verification of the impairment in the quality of life due to tinnitus. Department of Speech Language Pathology - All India Institute of Speech & Hearing - Mysore - India. Tinnitus and hearing loss can be permanent conditions, and therefore precautionary measures are advisable. Tinnitus can arise in any of the four sections of the ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain.
Most people with tinnitus have hearing loss in that they are often unable to properly hear external sounds which occur within the same range of frequencies as their "phantom sounds". Noise measurements, a questionnaire, a Brazilian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and pure-tone audiometry were conducted with 52 participants (mean age, 29 years) who suffered from tinnitus. Among the risk factors for tinnitus, the most prominent are age, gender, various diseases (otological, metabolic, neurological, and vascular alterations and dental factors), hearing loss, and exposure to noise, ototoxic drugs, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol [1-4]. Tinnitus can alter an individual's ability to function in professional, social, and leisure activities and in family relationships, hence affecting the quality of life [5,6]. In addition to being beneficial for clinical applications, the tinnitus questionnaires are valuable for understanding the relationship between personality and the psychopathology of tinnitus, its impact on the daily life of persons who suffer from tinnitus, the difficulties and the perception of social support in relation to the problem, and the incapacities and the difficulties produced by tinnitus that can seriously affect quality of life [7-9].
Occupational hearing loss prevention initiatives rarely focus on the prevention and management of tinnitus. The company employs 372 workers (120 female, 252 male) working in two fixed 8-hour and 48-minute shifts.
The questionnaire gathered information on demographics and occupational and medical histories for each worker. We also used Spearman's rank correlations to examine the results of exposure information versus the outcome. Because of attrition, we were able to study only 52 workers (14% of total population of the plant). Of those, 62% were exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), 13% to CO and vibration, 12% to hydrochloric acid, and 13% to sodium hydroxide. We observed that of the 52 participants, 71% had normal audiometric results, whereas 12% presented a bilateral high-frequency notch and 17% presented audiometric configurations of hearing loss due to causes other than noise, such as unilateral losses and flat audiometric configuration. Median of hearing thresholds for the groups with normal hearing (all thresholds 25 dB hearing level [HL]), hearing loss configurations suggestive of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and hearing loss from various causes.
The distribution of poorest scores across scales of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, in percent (n = 52). We observed a significant correlation between headaches (p = .0458) and the duration of tinnitus. We did not include the remaining 9 individuals (17%), who displayed other audiometric configurations of hearing loss in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of tinnitus complaints in male subjects was 16% and in female subjects was 9%, similar to what has been reported [16-18]. Schleuning [2] explained that caffeine and nicotine could aggravate tinnitus because they are stimulants and can induce the constriction of blood vessels. The participants of the study who had such combined exposure had a higher degree of tinnitus severity. Moreover, a negative impact of tinnitus on the subjects' quality of life could de detected.
The 22% tinnitus rate among workers, most of whom nonetheless had normal hearing, suggests a need to address tinnitus in occupational hearing loss prevention initiatives. Rick Davis and Robert Randolph (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, USA) and Alberto Behar (University of Toronto, Canada) provided helpful critiques of the manuscript. The data revealed substantial positive adjustment to tinnitus, as measured by the TFI and THI, evident within the first 2 months of treatment, with further (albeit not statistically significant) changes occurring through 6 months.
It appears that a combination of fractal tones (generated by hearing aids), amplification, and counseling have great potential for tinnitus patient management. The more severe and negative the tinnitus reaction, the more components listed above will be added in the individualized program. The mean tinnitus loudness was 6 (on a 10-point scale) and the tinnitus pitch was 7 (on a 10-point scale). Subjects participating in the study were patients who visited the clinics to seek tinnitus management.
In addition, adjustment-based cognitive behavioral intervention (explained below) and relaxation exercises were applied for those individuals demonstrating more severe negative reactions to their tinnitus.
All subjects received detailed instructional counseling related to the hearing loss and tinnitus.
The objectives were to provide the patient with an understanding of the habituation process and to help the patient reclassify the tinnitus. Because many clinicians feel instructional counseling alone is not adequate to address the emotional consequences of tinnitus, including fear, anxiety, and depression,12 WZT recommends adjustment-based counseling or Cognitive Behavioral Intervention (CBI) to help the patient identify barriers to achieving natural habituation. All subjects were fit bilaterally with Widex Dream hearing aids with True Input Technology that remain undistorted at the input stage with inputs as high as 113 dB SPL. All of the hearing aids were programmed to have four memories; a “master” (amplification only) program, and three “Zen” programs, as explained below. The Zen programs use fractal (Zen) tones that are generated by a semi-random recursive algorithm.
In addition, fine-tuning adjustments of each style can be made to its pitch, tempo, and volume by the clinicians. They were told that the fractal tones should be audible, but soft enough to not interfere with conversational speech.
The use of relaxation exercises was given to patients to break the vicious cycle of tinnitus and stress. Mean Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) scores at baseline, 2 and 6 months. Individual subject Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) baseline and 6 months post Widex Zen Therapy scores for 23 subjects (one subject was missing the THI at baseline).
Individual subject Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) baseline and 6 months post Widex Zen Therapy scores for the 24 subjects. Inspection of individual subject data revealed that 74% of subjects obtained a clinically significant change in THI scores, and 75% of the subjects had clinically significant changes in TFI scores.
In addition, the degree of improvement (in terms of THI and TFI reduction) was slightly greater (though not statistically significant) for the subjects receiving the more comprehensive cognitive behavioral intervention and relaxation exercises. Choice of styles and microphone settings for Zen A, Zen B, and Zen C programs at the initial fitting. About two-thirds (65%) of the subjects selected “Aqua + microphone off” as their Zen B program. Percentage (time) of use of amplification only (Master program), Zen A, Zen B, and Zen C at the 2 and 6 month visits. The average use of amplification only (the Master program) was 50%, and the average use of the three Zen programs combined was 50% also. The data revealed substantial positive adjustment to tinnitus (as measured by the TFI and THI) evident within the first 2 months of treatment, with further (albeit not statistically significant) changes occurring through 6 months. While other tinnitus treatments have reported similar success,16 the speed in which the WZT treatment achieved these changes is particularly impressive and vital, considering the importance of early success in maintaining motivation for tinnitus patients. It is also relevant to note that WZT is one of the few current tinnitus treatments utilizing amplification in addition to other sound therapy options. In addition, investigations focusing on and delineating the individual components of WZT would help understand how each component contributes to the process. Meikle MB, Henry JA, Griest SE, Stewart BJ, Abrams HB, McArdle R, Myers PJ, Newman CW, Sandridge S, Turk DC, Folmer RL, Frederick EJ, House JW, Jacobson GP, Kinney SE, Martin WH, Nagler SM, Reich GE, Searchfield G, Sweetow R, Vernon JA.
In addition, there are more than 200 medications listing tinnitus as a potential side effect.  However, there is small percentage of normal hearing people have tinnitus. Tinnitus questionnaire was then administered, followed by the Kannada version of THI on 140 patients and total scores were obtained. The diagnosis and rational management of tinnitus is one of the legacies of the past millennium, which the medical profession has carried unsolved to this century2. Initially, the self-assessment tool assesses the severity of symptoms and provides objective data about the severity of the symptomand later, the evaluation allows investigators to accurately assess and compare the pre-treatment and post-treatment periods. THI is a method of quantifying the impact that tinnitus has on an individual's daily living conditions. The translated form of the inventory was given to 50 native Kannada speakers who were exposed to Kannada language or had first language as Kannada, who were able to read and write Kannada, for the content validation. Individuals with any significant neurological history, history of psychiatric or psychological counseling with regard to their tinnitus were excluded from the study. Under the functional subscale, 30% of responses were for YES and 50% of responses were for NO and 20% of responses were for SOMETIMES. 38% of patients fall under the category of mild, 26% of patients fall under the category of Moderate, and 16% fall under the category of severe and 6% fall under the category of catastrophic group which is represented in Graph 2. Also a comparative study was carried out between the English version of THI and the Kannada version of THI. The quality and intensity of tinnitus can affect daily routine of an individual which have an effect on the individual's psychological functioning7. The catastrophic aspect of Kannada THI allows identification of negative sensations produced by the tinnitus in the patient's lives such as intolerance, loss of control of the sensation. The English version of THI is currently used by most of the audiologists and otorhinolaryngologist to find out the severity of the problem in different patient population and found to be difficult to administer on native speakers of Karnataka. The recruited subjects for this research presented changes in their Quality of Life (QL) as regards to the functional, emotional and catastrophic aspects due to tinnitus.
The functional neuroanatomy of tinnitus: evidence for limbic system links and neural plasticity.
Validity of the Italian adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; focus on quality of life and psychological distress in tinnitus-sufferers. Brazilian Portuguese Language version of the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": validity and reproducibility. Tinnitus can have many different causes, but most commonly results from otologic disorders - the same conditions that cause hearing loss. Tinnitus can in very rare situations be a symptom of serious problems such as an aneurysm or a brain tumor (acoustic tumor).
THI results indicated that tinnitus had the greatest influence in the functional scale (54%).
We used the overall result to identify the degree of severity of tinnitus for each individual and for completing an analysis of the total scores by scales. Of all noise-exposed female workers in the plant, 11 (9%) reported having experienced tinnitus, and 41 (16%) of the noise-exposed male workers reported the condition.
Spearman's rank correlation coefficient results indicated a significant correlation between noise levels and how often workers experience tinnitus (p = .01). We also observed a significant correlation between the duration of noise and the functional scale (p = .039). It is important to notice that the average age of the population of our study (29.2 years) is younger than in other studies, which reported results from groups whose mean ages varied from 40 to 50 years and who had a short duration of noise exposure (average, 7 years)[18-21] .
According to that author, doctors believe that 50% of patients with complaints of tinnitus improve significantly when they stop smoking or reduce caffeine intake. In recent decades, studies have demonstrated that simultaneous chronic exposure to CO and noise represents a potential risk to hearing, but reports of tinnitus exist only for cases of intense poisoning from CO [24].
This supports the inclusion of tinnitus prevention initiatives alongside workplace hearing loss prevention initiatives because of shared causal factors. Information on tinnitus prevention and treatment could have a measurable, positive impact on a person's quality of life.


The authors thank all those who participated in the study for their time, interest, and cooperation. Guidelines for the grading of tinnitus severity: The results of a working group commissioned by the British Association of Otolaryngologists. The average (mean) reduction in THI scores was 30 points (23 points after only 2 months) and was 28 points in TFI scores (25.5 points after only 2 months). A total of 32 subjects were initially enrolled, but only 24 subjects completed the data collection.
Only 6 of the subjects indicated having received previous tinnitus management such as counseling, chiropractic adjustment, medication, dental treatment, Neuromonics,10 and hearing aids.
The initial Widex Intake Questionnaire, THI, TFI measures, and the clinician’s observation of the subjects were used to determine which components of Widex Zen Therapy were utilized during the treatment.
Table 2 shows the number of subjects receiving the various WZT components in the clinical trial. In addition, the relationship between impaired hearing and tinnitus perception, as well as the reasons why there is commonly an emotional connection established in the brain between the limbic system, autonomic nervous system, and the auditory cortex, was explained. This intervention utilizes segments of the programs and tools used by psychologists and clinicians who provide comprehensive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. These instruments have wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) with compression thresholds as low as 0 dB HL, adaptive multichannel directional microphones, noise reduction, active feedback cancellation, inter-ear communication, and data logging.
The four normal-hearing subjects had their hearing aids programmed as if they had a 15 dB hearing loss in order to ensure audibility of the Zen programs. The fractal tones are harmonically related but vary in tonality, intensity, or tempo over time. Each Zen setting was programmed in accordance with the hearing loss (based on the Sensogram) to assure audibility of the tones. They were further advised to avoid frequent volume changes and to use the Zen programs as much as needed for tinnitus and relaxation management and to avoid silence when possible. Tinnitus measures and hearing aid data logging information were collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months.
The solid line represents equivalent baseline vs final (post treatment) scores while the dashed line represents the 20-point benefit score considered clinically significant. The solid line represents equivalent baseline vs final (post treatment) scores while the dashed line represents the 13-point benefit score required for clinical efforts to be considered clinically significant.
Given the high prevalence of hearing loss (often too mild to clearly warrant the necessity for hearing aids), the benefit of using amplification is an added value. The Tinnitus Functional Index: Development of a new clinical measure for chronic, intrusive tinnitus.
Treatment of tinnitus with a customized acoustic neural stimulus: a controlled clinical study. A critical analysis of the directive counseling as a component of tinnitus retraining therapy.
The THI was developed by the British Association of Otolaryngologist, Head and Neck surgeons, which consists of 50 questions6. The speakers were given a five-point rating scale to grade the items from very familiar to non-familiar. A score of 4 was given for YES and a score of 0 was given for NO and a score of 2 was given for SOMETIMES. The overall Cronbach alpha score of both the THI versions and the individual scores for all the three subscales in both the versions were compared. From the current study, it is clear that the Kannada version of THI is readily available, easy to understand and is a reliable tool for measuring the handicap occurring due to tinnitus.
Tinnitus is also a side-effect of some oral medications, such as aspirin, and may also result from an abnormally low level of serotonin activity.
Tinnitus may also occur along with certain other medical conditions, such as anemia, which is a condition in which blood levels of hemoglobin, the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to nourish the tissues of the body, are below normal. As tinnitus is often defined as a subjective phenomenon, it is difficult to measure using objective tests, such as by comparison with noise of known frequency and intensity, as in an audiometric test. Eighty-two individuals (22% of the total population) had experienced tinnitus and were invited to participate in the study. The equipment used was an Interacoustics audiometer, model AD 229, with TDH-39 earphones, calibrated according to ISO 8253. The average age of the sample was 29.2 years, and the average duration of noise exposure was 7 years. Moreover, significant results were found for the degree of tinnitus and exposure to chemical pollutants (p = .02).
The THI indicated that even the degree 1 "slight" tinnitus experienced by most of the participants who reported tinnitus nevertheless had an impact on their quality of life.
For instance, lesions in the neck and the middle ear and sinusitis and headaches increase the risk of tinnitus from 28% to 35%.
The findings underscore the need for noise control and other effective strategies to mitigate causal factors.
The use of an instrument designed to evaluate the impact of tinnitus on a person's life, such as the THI, can contribute to a greater understanding of the needs of a specific person or group (or both). Experiencia do hospital das clinicas da faculdade de medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo.
The other 8 subjects kept the hearing aids but were excluded from the final data analysis because they did not return for the 6-month follow-up. Twenty of the 24 subjects reported having had tinnitus for more than 1 year, and 18 reported having bilateral tinnitus. However, CBI does not require the same intensive therapeutic approach, which would be beyond the expertise of many hearing care professionals and would require a greater time commitment than can be reasonably expected. Subjects with hearing loss were instructed to use the devices during waking hours where hearing and communication were essential. The tones (which sound somewhat like wind chimes) are generated while incorporating the properties of music that are proven to be most relaxing.1,2,7 Thus, they are meant to be pleasant and are not associated with music that the listener may hold in memory. Zen Programs B and C were only recommended if the subjects experienced periods where the tinnitus was very bothersome. In addition, data logging revealed that the Zen A and Zen C programs were used more frequently than the Zen B program. Later, a modified beta version with 25 questions was developed by Newman et al.5 which is in the form of a self-assessment report that a person suffering from the condition can fill in. In such circumstance administering these inventories becomes difficult and sometimes impossible too. Later, all the 50 filled inventories were assessed to find out if all the words and the meaning of the questions were understood by the Kannada speakers. Once the subject finished rating the questions, they were grouped under 5 categories based on the severity that is Slight, Mild, Moderate, Severe and Catastrophic.
Tinnitus is much more common is people in middle to later life than it is in younger people, so increased tinnitus awareness may occur coincidentally with other age-related factors. About one in five people between 55 and 65 years old report tinnitus symptoms on a general health questionnaire.
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Twenty (24%) of the 82 were not able to participate because they lost their jobs before collection of data, 5 (6%) declined to participate saying that they no longer had symptoms of tinnitus, and 5 (6%) were on vacation at the time of data collection.
We performed puretone audiometry for all subjects at frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz. The functional subscale, composed of 11 questions, evaluates the limitations that tinnitus induces in the mental, social, occupational, and physical areas. Table 1 displays the findings pertaining to the health problems and auditory and medical histories described by the participants. In the THI, tinnitus was shown to have the greatest relationship to the functional scale (54%), indicating that its impact is more noticeable in social, daily, and reading activities involving concentration, auditory acuity, attention, and rest.
The analysis of the THI results along with the audiometric results indicated that a considerably greater number of significant correlations were verified in the group with altered hearing, which was expected because the two conditions-compromised hearing and tinnitus-are often associated. Information dissemination on the risks and prevention alternatives is of great importance, as is the management of tinnitus. Finally, it could be used in the design of appropriate strategies to manage tinnitus in the workplace. During this phase, the clinicians help the patient identify the unwanted thoughts and behaviors hindering natural habituation, challenge their validity, and help the patient replace them with alternative and logical thoughts and behaviors.13 Basically, the intervention’s objective is to help the patient recognize that it is not the tinnitus itself that produces these beliefs, it is the patient’s reaction to tinnitus. The self report has been developed subsequent to previous studies that have thrown up reliable data that can be used to classify tinnitus into different grades according to the degree to which the tinnitus has affected a subject.
As this inventory quantified the alterations of the daily life of an individual due to tinnitus and due to the non capability of multilingual Speech & Hearing professionals to translate accurately the English version of THI to the regional languages and to avoid communication interpretation, there is a need to develop and standardize the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in Indian languages. The questions which were rated as 1 or 2 were selected for the inventory and any questions with ratings over 3 were re-framed according to the familiarity of the speakers.
All the participants underwent assessment by an otorhinolaryngologist and complete audiological evaluation prior to the administration of the inventory. Tinnitus can arise in any of the four sections of the hearing system: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain.
Folks just like you have tossed their wheelchairs, junked their medicines, reversed "hopeless" cancer, and cured other mystery ailments. Therefore, the final sample of the study consisted of 52 participants: 11 females (9% of the total of 120 noiseexposed female workers in the studied plant) and 41 males (16% of the total of 252 noise-exposed male workers in the studied plant). The emotional subscale, composed of 9 questions, includes affective answers for tinnitus (anger, frustration, irritability, and depression). All participants exposed to noise levels greater than 85 dB are required to use ear muffs, and information on their use and maintenance are given when workers are hired. The emotional scale was the second most affected and is related to manifestations of nervousness, frustration, irritation, depression, anxiety, insecurity, and difficulty in relationships with family and friends. Estabelece diretrizes e parametros minimos para avaliacao e acompanhamento da audicao dos trabalhadores expostos a niveis de pressao sonora elevados.
The duration of tinnitus, location, and quality reported by the subjects are shown in Table 1. He was the developer of the auditory training program LACE (Listening and Communication Enhancement). THI consists of 25 questions under the 3 sub-scales of emotional, functional and catastrophic. We also performed daily biological calibration checks on the audiometer immediately before testing subjects. Last, the catastrophic subscale is composed of 5 questions and examines the most severe reactions from tinnitus (desperation, loss of control, inability to face problems, inability to escape tinnitus, and fear of having a serious ailment)[12].
Walkthrough observations suggest that use of the hearing protection is high, but no information exists on the consistency of hearing protection use.
The catastrophic scale demonstrated alterations related to desperation, intolerance to tinnitus, and loss of control in situations when experiencing tinnitus (see Fig. The THI beta version is one of the best and most standardized tinnitus measuring tools and has got a good reliability, validity and a good internal consistency to administer on tinnitus patients. In our study, factors such as gender, age, tobacco, and exposure to firearms were not significantly associated with tinnitus.
Coles [26], among several authors, reported that the worse the hearing is, the more probable is the occurrence of tinnitus. The neurons in the brain that are responsible for high frequencies will begin to take on some other function.
Sweetow was the recipient of the prestigious 2008 Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Academy of Audiology. Approximately 20% of the patients with hearing loss present complaints of tinnitus, whereas 90% of those with severe tinnitus had hearing loss. If a person does not perceive the tinnitus as being of any importance, then the natural habituation process is much more likely to take place than when a person has a lot of negative emotions around their tinnitus. An alpha level or an alpha band is your relaxed level, your beta band is a more active level, and the gamma network is the most active level. It is designed to relax the patient because we know about the effect of stress on tinnitus, and also to provide acoustic stimulation. A relaxing strategy program highlighted by behavioral exercises is the final component.In terms of disclosure, I am a part-time consultant with Widex, and I have been involved in writing their Widex Zen therapy manual as well as working with them on the development of their fractal tones.
In a situation like that, the auditory system picks this very soft signal - the floor squeaking – and the hippocampus identifies it as the floor, but now the amygdala determines this is a potential danger. What we want to do is change the cognitions and that subsequently will change the emotional state. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and extradural electrodes implanted on secondary auditory cortex for tinnitus suppression.
Tinnitus perception and distress Is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.



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