Training changes processing of speech cues in older adults with hearing loss,tinea pedis life processes ppt,high frequency hearing loss effects,fashion earring snapdeal - 2016 Feature

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Aging results in a loss of sensory function, and the effects of hearing impairment can be especially devastating due to reduced communication ability.
Hearing loss is associated with reduced quality of life in older adults, affecting social and emotional well-being (Heine and Browning, 2002).
One chief barrier to the wider use of amplification has been that hearing aids often make speech louder without improving clarity, especially in background noise (Johnson and Dillon, 2011). Because hearing aid amplification primarily addresses loss of audibility associated with cochlear pathology, there is a need to develop novel methods for counteracting the deleterious effects of hearing loss on central processing. We recruited 58 (35 female) participants (ages 55–79) for a study examining training for speech-in-noise processing.
We duplicated the electrophysiologic methods previously used to document enhanced envelope coding in older adults with hearing loss (Anderson et al., 2013a), using the protocol that produced the greatest hearing loss effects. The [da] was presented in alternating polarities, allowing for the creation of responses comprised of both the sum and the difference of the two polarities (Campbell et al., 2012). A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to assess hearing group differences in the envelope and TFS. Summary: There were significant training-induced changes in speech-in-noise perception, memory, and attention across hearing groups in the auditory training group. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button.
This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Older adults with hearing loss report that speech, especially in noisy backgrounds, is uncomfortably loud yet unclear.
This phenomenon may arise from the effects of hearing loss on central processing of speech. Here, we assessed whether auditory-based cognitive training can be used to partially restore the imbalance of speech cue representation associated with exaggerated envelope encoding. Sentences are presented in a background of four-talker babble and the SNR decreases by 5 dB for each sentence. The stimulus was a 40-ms syllable [da] synthesized in a Klatt-based synthesizer (Klatt, 1980). The amplified presentation level did not exceed 90 dB SPL or the participants' loudness discomfort thresholds.
When creating the summed frequency following response (FFR), the non-inverting envelope component of the response is enhanced while the inverting TFS component is minimized; conversely, for the subtracted responses the inverting TFS component is enhanced while the non-inverting envelope component is substantially reduced (Aiken and Picton, 2008). Mean F0ADD and H2ADD amplitudes are displayed for individual pre- (open circles) and post-data (closed circles) for the auditory training (red) and active control (blue) groups.

Mean H3SUB and H6SUB amplitudes are displayed for individual pre- (open circles) and post-data (closed circles) for the auditory training (red) and active control (blue) groups. Hearing loss results in an unbalanced neural representation of speech: the slowly-varying envelope is enhanced, dominating representation in the auditory pathway and perceptual salience at the cost of the rapidly-varying fine structure. Since both TFS (Sheft et al., 2008) and envelope (Swaminathan and Heinz, 2012) cues play an important role in consonant perception, we hypothesized that directed attention to the fast-changing consonant-vowel (CV) transition within an adaptive training paradigm results in reweighing of speech cue representation, such that the TFS becomes more salient. Due to equipment malfunction, we are missing attention data from 3 participants in the auditory training group and 1 participant in the active control group. It began with a 5-ms onset burst followed by a CV transition and was perceived as a full CV syllable although it lacked a steady-state vowel.
Fast Fourier transforms were calculated from 20 to 42 ms for the stimulus (B) and in responses to the envelope (C) and the TFS (D) in noise.
We have previously found that the amplification procedure improves morphology without distorting spectral components of the response (Anderson et al., 2013b).
Visual observation of the data reveals that there is greater pre-training variability in both groups with hearing loss and in the degree of change in the auditory training group with hearing loss.
Similar to the data for the envelope, the data demonstrates greater variability in both groups with hearing loss for pre-test data, but there is no systematic change with training as was found for the envelope.
The improvement in speech-in-noise performance was specific to the hearing impaired group, the memory change was found only in the normal hearing group, and attention improved in both groups.
We hypothesized that older adults with hearing loss can be trained to compensate for these changes in central auditory processing through directed attention to behaviorally-relevant speech sounds. To test this hypothesis, we randomly assigned older adults with and without hearing loss to complete 8 weeks of computerized training. No participants had a history of neurologic conditions and all participants had normal IQs [≥85 on the WASI (Zhu and Garcia, 1999)]. Participants from both hearing groups were randomly assigned to complete either auditory-based cognitive training or active control training (Smith et al., 2009).
The average responses for the participants with normal hearing (gray) and with hearing loss (black) are displayed. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-cognitive training in older adults (ages 55–79) with normal hearing and hearing loss. Hearing aid amplification improves audibility but cannot restore central auditory function (Tremblay et al., 2003). However, the role of TFS for understanding speech in fluctuating noise remains an area of debate (Oxenham and Simonson, 2009).
We evaluated subcortical representation of envelope and TFS cues before and after training in addition to speech perception in noise, auditory short-term memory, and auditory attention. Participants provided informed consent for procedures that were approved by the Northwestern Institutional Review Board and were paid for their time.

The fourth (3600 Hz) and fifth (4500 Hz) formants remained constant for the duration of the stimulus. Repeated hearing tests verified that there were no changes in hearing after 8 weeks and therefore all participants received the same amplified stimulus before and after training.
Spectral amplitudes were calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) over 60 Hz bins around the frequencies of interest, which included the fundamental frequency (F0) and its integer harmonics. After training, the auditory training group with hearing loss experienced a reduction in the neural representation of the speech envelope presented in noise, approaching levels observed in normal hearing older adults. In an animal model, sensorineural hearing loss is associated with enhanced envelope coding in the auditory nerve (Kale and Heinz, 2010) and midbrain (Anderson et al., 2013a). A spectrogram and Fourier transform of the stimulus waveform are presented in Figures 3A,B, respectively. The time region chosen for this calculation was 20–42 ms, corresponding to the most periodic time region of the FFR. It is evident from these figures that individuals with hearing loss have greater variability than individuals with normal hearing. In the first module, an adaptively decreasing inter-stimulus interval challenges processing speed. Importantly, changes in speech processing were accompanied by improvements in speech perception. These effects might explain the hearing impaired listener's complaint that speech is loud yet unclear (Johnson and Dillon, 2011).
In subsequent modules, focused attention is directed to adaptively expanding and contracting CV transitions. Thus, central processing deficits associated with hearing loss may be partially remediated with training, resulting in real-life benefits for everyday communication. The overall goal of the training is to improve sensory function, based on the idea that an increase in the quality of neural information flowing through peripheral and central sensory systems may lead to better cognitive function (Schneider and Pichora-Fuller, 2000). The active control group watched educational DVDs and completed multiple-choice questions about the content.
Training groups (and hearing subgroups) were matched for sex, age, hearing, click-evoked wave V brainstem latency, IQ, and test-retest intervals (Table 1).

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