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There are two different types of hearing impairments, conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss.
A conductive hearing loss is present when the sound is not reaching the inner ear, known as the cochlea. Dysfunction of the three small bones of the middle ear, the hammer, anvil and stapes may result in conductive hearing loss.
A sensorineural hearing loss is one resulting from dysfunction of the inner ear, the cochlea, the nerve that transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the hearing center in the brain or damage in the brain. Another common reason for hearing loss due to hair cell damage is noise-induced hearing loss. Total or near-total sensorineural deafness may be the result of congenital malformations, head trauma, inner ear infection, genetic factors, or long history of excessive noise exposure.
With the advancement of medical science over the last few decades, one would think that we would be abe to explain the reasons for each individual's hearing loss, unfortunately this is not the case. Conductive Hearing Loss occurs when there is a problem in the outer ear or the middle ear, such as ear wax, fluid behind the eardrum, or middle ear infection. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain.
The great majority of human sensorineural hearing loss is caused by abnormalities in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea. Sensory hearing loss that results from abnormalities of the central auditory system in the brain is called central hearing impairment. This type of hearing loss can also be caused by prolonged exposure to very loud noise, for example, being in a loud workplace without hearing protection, or having headphones set to high volumes for a long period.
The Weber test, in which a tuning fork is touched to the midline of the forehead, localizes to the normal ear in people with this condition.
Congenital cholesteatoma - squamous epithelium is normally present on either side of the tympanic membrane. Physical trauma - either due to a fracture of the temporal bone affecting the cochlea and middle ear, or a shearing injury affecting cranial nerve VIII.
Perilymph fistula, usually due to a rupture of the round or oval windows and the leakage of perilymph.
Cerebellopontine angle tumour (junction of the pons and cerebellum) (the cerebellopontine angle is the exit site of both the facial nerve(CN7) and the vestibulocochlear nerve(CN8).
Populations living near airports or freeways are exposed to levels of noise typically in the 65 to 75 dbA range.
The most common type of congenital hearing impairment in developed countries is DFNB1, also known as Connexin 26 deafness or GJB2-related deafness.
The most common dominant syndromic forms of hearing impairment include Stickler syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome.
The most common recessive syndromic forms of hearing impairment are Pendred syndrome, large vestibular aqueduct syndrome and Usher syndrome. Autoimmune disease has only recently been recognized as a potential cause for cochlear damage. Mumps (epidemic parotitis) may result in profound sensorineural hearing loss (90 dB or more), unilaterally (one ear) or bilaterally (both ears). Adenoids that do not disappear by adolescence may continue to grow and may obstruct the Eustachian tube, causing conductive hearing impairment and nasal infections that can spread to the middle ear. HIV (and subsequent opportunistic infections) may directly affect the cochlea and central auditory system. Fetal alcohol syndrome is reported to cause hearing loss in up to 64% of infants born to alcoholic mothers, from the ototoxic effect on the developing fetus, plus malnutrition during pregnancy from the excess alcohol intake.
Syphilis is commonly transmitted from pregnant women to their fetuses, and about a third of the infected children will eventually become deaf. Otosclerosis is a hardening of the stapes (or stirrup) in the middle ear, and causes conductive hearing loss.
Some medications cause irreversible damage to the ear, and are limited in their use for this reason. There can be damage either to the ear itself or to the brain centers that process the aural information conveyed by the ears. People who sustain head injury are especially vulnerable to hearing loss or tinnitus, either temporary or permanent. Exposure to very loud noise (90 dB or more, such as jet engines at close range) can cause progressive hearing loss.
Sensorineural hearing loss can be treated with hearing aids, which amplify sounds at preset frequencies to overcome a sensorineural hearing loss in that range. Some research suggests idebenone alone or combined with vitamin E may delay the onset of hearing loss or perhaps reverse it.[6] Use of these agents for this purpose is considered experimental now. Inter-trial coherence as a marker of cortical phase synchrony in children with sensorineural hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants.
OBJECTIVE: Although brainstem dys-synchrony is a hallmark of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), little is known about how the lack of neural synchrony manifests at more central levels.
Systemic lupus erythematosus can affect inner ear by disrupting either the hearing or balance system.


Acetaminophen and NAPQI are toxic to auditory cells via oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent pathways. Pain relievers containing N-acetyl-para-aminophenol, also called APAP, acetaminophen or paracetamol, in combination with opioid narcotics are top-selling pharmaceuticals in the U.S. Topical insulin-like growth factor 1 treatment using gelatin hydrogels for glucocorticoid-resistant sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a prospective clinical trial. The great majority of human sensorineural hearing loss is caused by abnormalities in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea.
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Categories of Hearing Impairment: Hearing Loss Types Hearing healthcare providers may categorize your hearing impairment by its “hearing loss type” based on the location of the impairment.
This category of loss is common in the aging population and persons at riskfor heavy noise exposure. Ask you hearing healthcare provider to fully describe your hearing loss type,so that you can understand your symptoms better. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. It is a commonly accepted fact that we are living in an increasingly noisy world and damage to hearing due to over exposure to noise is becoming more and more commonplace.
If you answered yes to any of these questions call to schedule an appointment for a complimentary hearing evaluation. Their superior brand offers 48 band of adjustment to fine tune your hearing to make it as natural and crystal clear as possible.
Call 717-602-3899 or 717-245-2437 today to schedule your FREE hearing test, FREE consultation, and FREE listening demonstration.
Our selection of helpful hearing care related videos can help you understand hearing loss and how we can help. Our knowledgeable staff can answer any questions you may have and help you find the right hearing aid for your lifestyle.
Our complete selection of hearing health care services can help diagnose any hearing care problems you may have. Conductive hearing loss occurs when the eardrum, bones and membranes don’t properly transmit vibrations to the cochlea. Study conducted by UCLA Sleep Disorder Center concludes impact to brain function from sleep apnea. The mobility of these bones, or ossicles, may be impaired for different reasons and disruption of the ossicular chain due to trauma, infection or other process may also result in hearing loss. Chronic ear infection can result in a defective eardrum or middle ear cavity, and often in addition to the conuctive hearing loss the individual may have a sensorineural hearing impairment.
Almost half are under the age of 65 and 54% of the population over the age of 65 suffer from hearing loss. Many times this type of hearing loss may be corrected by medical or surgical treatments.Symptoms of Hearing Loss. There are also very unusual sensorineural hearing impairments that involve the eighth cranial nerve (the vestibulocochlear nerve) or the auditory portions of the brain. Since the auditory pathways cross back and forth on both sides of the brain, deafness from a central cause is unusual. Externally, within the external auditory meatus or ear canal and internally within the middle ear. Meniere's disease is characterized by sudden attacks of vertigo, lasting minutes to hours preceded by tinnitus, aural fullness, and fluctuating hearing loss. If lifestyles include significant outdoor or open window conditions, these exposures over time can degrade hearing.
More than 40 genes have been identified to cause deafness.[2] There are also 300 syndromes with related hearing loss, and each syndrome may have causative genes. If a family has a dominant gene for deafness, it will persist across generations because it will manifest itself in the offspring even if it is inherited from only one parent. Please discuss this issue on the talk page and conform with Wikipedia's Manual of Style by replacing the section with a link and a summary of the repeated material, or by spinning off the repeated text into an article in its own right.
Although probably rare, it is possible for autoimmune processes to target the cochlea specifically, without symptoms affecting other organs. It is considered by some to be a degenerative process, although there has never been a proven link to aging. Exposure to a single event of extremely loud noise (such as explosions) can also cause temporary or permanent hearing loss.
In China, the First Hospital of Jiaxing cooperated together with MD Ferdinand Bisselink from the Medical Center Sanit in The Netherlands,for treatment of patients with sudden deafness. There are 3 types of hearing disorder : conductive hearing disorder, sensorineural hearing disorder, and mixed hearing disorder which are presented here by Hearing Aids Discounted.
This is where the hearing has become damaged as a result of hair cell damage in the nerve (known as the Cochlea) often caused by general wear and tear. This happens when a problem occurs with either the ear drum, such as a perforation, or difficulty with the area between the ear drum and the nerve (known as the middle ear) such as pressure build up, Glue Ear or similar.


Hearing impairments are categorized by their type - conductive, sensorineural or both, by their severity, and by the age of onset. This will often interfere with speech understanding, as it is in the high frequency range that we find the consonant sounds that are most important especially in noisy surroundings. Hearing loss is the third most common medical condition in our adult population, following only high blood pressure and arthritis.
With this type of hearing loss the hair cells in the inner ear (Cochlea) have become damaged or less effective. If you recognize any of the following symptoms of hearing loss, please contact one of our offices or your personal physician to have your hearing professionally evaluated. In the rarest of these sorts of hearing loss, only the auditory centers of the brain are affected. There are both external causes of damage, like noise trauma and infection, and intrinsic abnormalities, like deafness genes.
Within the middle ear the simple epithelium gradually transitions into ciliated pseudostratified epithelium lining the Eustachian tube now known as the pharyngotympanic tube becoming continuous with the respiratory epithelium in the pharynx. A history of an event that increased intracranial pressure or caused trauma is usually present). For example, the safe daily exposure amount at 85 dB is 8 hours, while the safe exposure at 91 dB(A) is only 2 hours (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1998). If a family had genetic hearing impairment caused by a recessive gene, it will not always be apparent, as it will have to be passed onto offspring from both parents.
This includes theouter visible portions of the ear, the external ear canal, the ear drum, andthe middle ear space located behind the ear drum where the small vibratorybones are located. Common complaints include believing that othersare mumbling, not speaking clearly, or talking too quickly. Typically, this type of hearing loss is apparent with 1 in 4 adults as we get older and will tend to effect high frequency sounds such as beginning and endings of words, female and children’s speech and certain types of music. With this type of loss, the nerve is working correctly but there is a problem with the sound getting to it.
This type of hearing loss is certainly more rare and can sometimes require further investigation. Furthermore, a hearing impairment may exist in only one ear (unilateral) or in both ears (bilateral).
Head trauma, ear infections, tumors and toxic medications such as certain strong antibiotics and chemotherapeutics are other reasons for sensorineural hearing loss. On average, once a person determines that they have a hearing loss, they wait over seven years before seeking assistance.The impact of a hearing loss can be far reaching and involve many aspects of one's life. In this situation, cortical deafness, sounds may be heard at normal thresholds, but the quality of the sound perceived is so poor that speech cannot be understood.
The squamous epithelium hyperplasia within the middle ear behaves like an invasive tumour and destroys middle ear structures if not removed.
EPA and various states have set noise standards to protect people from these adverse health risks. From the treated patients more as 80% get the hearing back after a treatment in a single user HBOT cabine for 40 times, which was done in 5 days per week. Due to their shape, these bones are commonly called thehammer, anvil, and stirrup.For people with this category of hearing loss, the volume of sound will be aprimary issue. Most will notethat they can ‘hear’, but that they do not understand all that is said.Mixed hearing loss is characterized by damage, defect, or dysfunction in acombination of the areas where conductive and sensorineural hearing lossoccurs. It is important to remember, whatever the results of your hearing test show, we are usually able to help people regain the hearing they have not been enjoying, often for many years.
Depending on the definition it could be estimated that more than 50% of the population over the age of 70 has impaired hearing.
Hearing impaired individuals may have difficulty localizing sounds, understanding speech in busy environments, and participating in everyday normal conversations. The EPA has identified the level of 70 db(A) for 24 hour exposure as the level necessary to protect the public from hearing loss (EPA, 1974). Recent gene mapping has identified dozens of nonsyndromic dominant (DFNA#) and recessive (DFNB#) forms of deafness.
This can lead to social isolation, confusion, frustration, tension, anger, stress and depression. Common complaints include the feeling of havingplugged, stopped up, or full ears.Sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by damage, defect, ordysfunction of the inner ear (cochlea), hearing nerve, or a combination ofthe two. Recent studies also indicate that untreated hearing loss negatively affects one's overall health, quality of life and happiness.Causes of Adult Hearing Loss.
A combination of symptoms ofconductive and sensorineural hearing impairment may be experienced.Less common categories of loss include functional and central hearingimpairment.
The peripheral hearing system is functioning normally, but theprocessing of sound is defective.




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30.04.2014 admin



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