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A cholesteatoma is a skin growth that occurs in an abnormal location, the middle ear behind the eardrum. Cholesteatoma is a serious but treatable ear condition which can only be diagnosed by medical examination. Otitis media is the inflammation of the middle ear and occurs most commonly during the winter and early spring months. Remember, without proper treatment, damage from an ear infection can cause chronic or permanent hearing loss.
Earwax is healthy in normal amounts and serves to coat the skin of the ear canal where it acts as a temporary water repellent. Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning; that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of ear canal skin from the eardrum to the ear opening. When cerumen is removed from the ear, the physician uses sucion, a cerumen spoon, or delicate forceps to do so. A perforated eardrum is a hole or rupture in the eardrum, a thin membrane that separates the ear canal and the middle ear. Middle ear infections may cause pain, hearing loss, and spontaneous rupture (tear) of the ear-drum resulting in a perforation.
On rare occasions a small hole may remain in the eardrum after a previously placed PE tube (pressure equalizing) either falls out or is removed by the physician.
Most eardrum perforations heal spontaneously within weeks after rupture, although some may take up to several months.
The most common symptoms of swimmer’s ear are mild to moderate pain that is aggravated by tugging on the auricle and an itchy ear. WARNING: If you already have an ear infection, or if you have ever had a perforated or otherwise injured eardrum, or ear surgery, you should consult an ear, nose, and throat specialist before you go swimming and before you use any type of ear drops. The tympanogram is a test that measures how easily the eardrum vibrates back and forth and and what pressure the vibration is the easiest.
The ABR is a special hearing test that can be used to track the nerve signals arising in the inner ear as they travel through the hearing nerve (called the auditory nerve) to the region of the brain responsible for hearing.
The ABR can also be used on small infants since it requires no conscious response from the person being tested.


The ENG (short for electronystagmogram) is actually not a hearing test but rather a special test of the balance mechanism of the inner ear. These funnel through the ear opening, down the ear, canal, and strike your eardrum, causing it to vibrate. It is usually due to repeated infection, which causes an ingrowth of the skin of the eardrum. Persisting earache, ear drainage, ear pressure, hearing loss, dizziness, or facial muscle weakness signals the need for evaluation by an otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon.
Old earwax is constantly being transported from the ear canal to the ear opening where it usually dries, flakes, and falls out. However, if you want to clean your ears, you can wash the external ear with a cloth over a finger, but do not insert anything into the ear canal. It typically occurs in swimmers, but the since the cause of the infection is water trapped in the ear canal, bathing or showering may also cause this common infection. If you do not know if you have or ever had a perforated, punctured, ruptured, or otherwise injured eardrum, ask your ear doctor. This graph shows the amount of hearing loss expressed in units called decibels at different sound frequencies (also called Hertz). The middle ear is normally filled with air at a pressure equal to the surrounding atmosphere. A special probe is placed up against the ear canal, like an ear plug, and the equipment automatically makes the measurements.
The test is useful because it can tell us where along that path the hearing loss has occurred.
The test involves running a cool liquid and then a warm liquid through the ear canal (it is usually done through a small tube so the ear itself remains dry). The vibrations are passed to the small bones of the middle ear, which transmit them to the hearing nerve in the inner ear. Cholesteatomas often take the form of a cyst or pouch that sheds layers of old skin that builds up inside the ear. The middle ear is connected to the nose by the eustachian tube, which equalizes pressure in the middle ear.


When water is trapped in the ear canal, bacteria that normally inhabit the skin and ear canal multiply, causing infection and irritation of the ear canal. Simple tests, such as ones done in many schools, may be useful for screening, but a careful audiogram is necessary for accurate diagnosis of most hearing problems.
If the middle ear is filled with fluid, the eardrum will not vibrate properly and the tympanogram will be flat. For example, the ABR is often used for individuals with a sensorineural (nerve) loss in just one ear. Special electrodes automatically record the nerve signal; the patient can even be asleep during the test. This change in temperature stimulates the inner ear which in turn causes rapid reflex movements of the eyes. Here, the vibrations become nerve impulses and go directly to the brain, which interprets the impulses as sound (music, voice, a car horn, etc.).
Over time, the cholesteatoma can increase in size and destroy the surrounding delicate bones of the middle ear. If the middle ear is filled with air but at a higher or lower pressure than the surrounding atmosphere, the tympanogram will be shifted in its position.
This movements are recorded, and from these we can get information about how well this balance mechanism is functioning. Hearing loss, dizziness, and facial muscle paralysis are rare but can result from continued cholesteatoma growth.
If the ABR is normal along that region of the path, the chances of having this tumor are quite small.



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17.09.2014 admin



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