What causes noises in the ears 900,common cause tinnitus efectos,hearing loss statistics in older adults 2014,ringing in ears sore throat headache chills - Review

This editorial refers to ‘Are air pollution and traffic noise independently associated with atherosclerosis: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study’†, by H. The great majority of the world's population is continuously exposed to some level of air pollution from transportation, household sources, agriculture, and industry, and many are also exposed to ambient noise from the same sources.
Air pollution includes a variety of gaseous species, such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, as well as suspended particulate matter of various sizes. Kalsch and colleagues examined the associations of 1-year average particulate air pollution and traffic noise with the TAC score in 4238 participants in the Heinz–Nixdorf Recall Study, who were also well characterized in terms of both lifestyle and clinical cardiovascular risk factors. The results of Kalsch et al.2 appear to suggest that there may be independent associations of night-time traffic noise and particulates on TAC, but their approach can only yield estimates with small biases if all confounders are included and if measurement errors—the differences between the data and the unknown true values—are also small. The study by Kalsch and colleagues provides new evidence on the associations of pre-clinical atherosclerosis with long-term particulate air pollution and traffic noise, complementing previous studies which have more often focused on short-term exposures and acute cardiovascular events.
Noise Pollution or Sound Pollution is when the exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears.
It has been estimated that globally ?3 million premature deaths are attributable to outdoor air pollution each year,1 but it is the ubiquity of air pollution and ambient noise, as much as the likely magnitudes of associated risks, which makes them important as potential causes of cardiovascular diseases. Many of these have been shown in isolation to have adverse effects on cardiovascular health at higher doses, such as those experienced by active smokers of tobacco.4 Observational studies also provide substantial evidence of effects on cardiovascular health at lower levels of exposure due to ambient air pollution, particularly for the risk of acute events such as myocardial infarction5 or heart failure6 in response to short-term increases in pollution over days or hours. First, the statistical evidence is not particularly strong for the associations with traffic noise. In the case of modelled particulates and traffic noise, however, uncertainties are present in the model parameters and underlying data, in the approximation of each individual's location by their residential address, in any smoothing that may occur due to the choice of spatial resolution, and in the choice of time scale. It is often repeated that in the special case of random measurement errors in a single exposure, estimates of associations are biased towards the null hypothesis of no effect. However, there remain important methodological challenges in estimating the separate effects of long-term air pollution and traffic noise on cardiovascular outcomes.
Industrialization: Most of the industries use big machines which are capable of producing large amount of noise from equipments like compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mills also participate in producing big noise. Poor Urban Planning: Congested houses, large families sharing small space, fight over parking, frequent fights over basic amenities leads to noise pollution which may disrupt the environment of society.


Social Events: Whether it is marriage, parties, pub, disc or place of worship, people normally flout rules set by the local administration and create nuisance in the area. Transportation: Large number of vehicles on roads, aeroplanes flying over houses, underground trains produce heavy noise and people get it difficult to get accustomed to that. Construction Activities: Under construction activities like mining, construction of bridges, dams, buildings, stations, roads, flyovers take place in almost every part of the world. Household Chores: We people are surrounded by gadgets and use them extensively in our daily life.
Because they share common sources, air pollution and ambient noise are correlated, and this means that any association of cardiovascular disease with either exposure may be masked or confounded by the other. Overall average traffic noise over 24 h and distance to a highly trafficked road were not associated with TAC. Confounding is one of the most important sources of bias in observational studies; an association between an exposure and an outcome is confounded by a third variable when the latter is associated with the exposure and, independently, with the outcome of interest. It is therefore possible that random and systematic errors in modelled particulates and traffic noise are actually large, so that measurement error may pose a particularly difficult methodological challenge in studies of this nature. In general, however, there may be bias either towards or away from the null, and in extreme cases this can even change the apparent direction of an association.
Larger studies are certainly needed to provide estimates which have greater statistical precision, but validation of modelled individual exposures must also become routine, so that the estimates can be shown to be unbiased, as well as precise. Therefore, you must have seen workers in these factories and industries wearing ear plugs to minimize the effect of noise. People play songs on full volume and dance till midnight which makes the condition of people living nearby pretty worse. The high noise leads to a situation wherein a normal person lose the ability to hear properly.
Gadgets like TV, mobile , mixer grinder, pressure cooker, vacuum cleaners , washing machine and dryer, cooler, air conditioners are minor contributors to the amount of noise that is produced but it affects the quality of life of your neighborhood in a bad way. Not only is the local wildlife affected by the pollution, humans also face a number of problems due to it.


But I had a choice, whether I should be happy with what I have and made myself into or I should be sad for what I do not have or did not become.
Despite this, most studies have considered traffic noise or air pollution separately, and the study by Kalsch and colleagues2 is one of a limited number that have attempted to disentangle their effects on cardiovascular outcomes.3 Although their results are suggestive of independent effects of long-term particulate air pollution and night-time traffic noise on thoracic aortic calcification (TAC), they should be interpreted cautiously. For example, traffic noise and particulates may confound the associations of each other with TAC because they have a common source (road traffic), and because each is hypothesized to have a causal relationship with thoracic aortic calcification (Figure 1). These biases are more difficult to predict, and may be larger, when there are multiple sources of error, when the errors in two or more variables are correlated, when one variable is measured with much less error than the other, and when there are important systematic errors (e.g. Previous work has suggested that the relationship of cardiovascular mortality to both ambient air pollution and cigarette smoke is attenuated at higher concentrations,14 and that estimates of the burden of disease due to particulate air pollution are sensitive to the shape of the response of cardiovascular outcomes to the concentration of particulates.15 Secondly, adjustment for intermediate causes of TAC, including blood pressure, only ‘slightly’ reduced the magnitudes of the associations with TAC score (numerical results were not given).
In markets, you can see people selling clothes via making loud noise to attract the attention of people. Although 24-h traffic noise was not associated with TAC at the P =0.05 level of statistical significance, the CIs for these estimates are too wide to conclude that night-time noise is more important than noise at other times of day.
The associations of TAC with traffic noise and particulates are also likely to be confounded by lifestyle risk factors, such as smoking and obesity, because these factors, as well as proximity to road traffic, are associated with socio-economic position. Figure 1, analysed using the DAGitty graphing tool,10 has arrows in green to show the direction of hypothesized causal relationships of particulates and traffic noise with TAC. Without such validation, however, estimates of associations must be interpreted with caution, even when the statistical evidence is otherwise strong. Sequences of arrows in red (in any direction) show the pathways by which other variables may be confounders; confounding can be controlled for by statistical adjustment for any set of factors which block these pathways. It is again important not to overinterpret this finding, but it suggests that there could be a greater role for inflammation or other unmeasured intermediate factors, and leaves open the possibility of direct effects on atherosclerosis by respirable particulates which are small enough to enter the blood stream. Hence, the total effect of particulates (or of traffic noise) on TAC can be estimated by adjusting for traffic noise (respectively, particulates), in addition to lifestyle factors and socio-economic status.



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01.11.2013 admin



Comments to «What causes noises in the ears 900»

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