Build online zoo

Brick shed foundation level,bargain sheds for sale uk,cheap sheds maidstone 3012,garage organization los angeles - You Shoud Know

Concrete is often overlooked as a potential pavement surface, mostly because of its lack of colour or interest, although the decorative patterned concrete is becoming more popular and cementitious overlays offer a huge range of colours, patterns and textures.
Plain concrete can be very useful in areas where a decorative look is not required, such as caravan hardstandings, shed and garage bases or dog kennels. Modern concrete technology has led to the development of fibre reinforced concretes that create high-strength pavements without the need for steel reinforcement mesh. Given good ground, mass concrete can be placed directly onto a damp-proof membrane over the prepared sub-grade.
Concrete paths should be 75-100mm thick, whereas drives, garage bases or hardstandings should be at least 100mm thick. The purpose of the dpm is two-fold: Firstly, to protect the underside of the slab from attack by dampness and aggressive salts (such as chlorides) or other chemicals in the sub-base or sub-grade, and damaging the concrete, unseen, from beneath. Any 'laps' required in the membrane should overlap by at least 350mm, and preferably be taped down to prevent ingress of ground water or egress of mix water. Reinforcement in concrete is used to ensure that the cracking which always occurs does not threaten the structural integrity of the concrete. Movement joints (expansion joints, contraction joints, isolation joints, crack control joints, etc.) are used with concrete slabs to protect the slab itself from cracking, to accommodate the inevitable movement of the slab and to prevent excessive forces being transmitted to adjacent structures. A shovel or a strong rake is used to roughly level out the wet concrete, and then a straight-edged timber can be used to tamp down the concrete to the correct level.
Vibrating poker units can be used to expel most of the unwanted air pockets, and so-called 'Bug Rollers' are useful for making sure any hard aggregate is pushed into the concrete, although this is more important on PIC than plain concrete. For larger projects, Hire Centres can supply Vibrating Beam Screeds and Roller Strikers that are dragged over the roughly levelled out concrete, vibrating it to eliminate air pockets, pushing surplus concrete in front of the beam, and levelling, all in one operation. A reasonably smooth surface can be obtained by repeatedly tamping wet concrete, but for a finer finish, the surface should be smoothed using a steel float trowel.
Judging exactly when to commence floating, either with hand tools or with a power float, is an art in itself, and is gauged from years of experience; too soon and the trowel marks will never disappear, too late and the concrete might not 'rub-up' to a close finish. A perfectly smooth concrete surface can become quite slippy, especially outdoors in wet or icy conditions. On light-use applications, such as driveways, garage bases and the like, there is a tendency to leave the concrete, once the finishing has been done, to harden and cure at its own pace. Temperature control is only a serious issue when there is a risk of the ambient temperature falling below 4°C. In winter, freshly poured concrete may be protected with hessian sacking, straw or polystyrene to insulate the slab overnight.
Formwork and shuttering can be removed from a concrete slab after 24 hours, although it is often left for 3 days unless there is a need to examine the edges. The keeled garage slab cross-section is provided as an example of a typical detail and NOT a recommendation. Pre-fabricated sectional garages can often be erected on a simple 150mm slab, such as that shown above; this keeled slab is the type of raft foundation that may be used with a single brick construction garage.
Whilst not the most attractive type of pavement, a well laid concrete area should give many years of maintenance free service.
Answers to questions about how to connect a new foundation to an old foundation, how to repair a roof, how to build a deck, how to build stairs and how to build a curved roof shed. Hope your summer is going well and your construction projects are going smoothly, now that the good weather is here. I've added three new articles, this month, all on the subject of cabinets: making face frame cabinets, making doors for your cabinets and making a counter top. I'll be taking my family on vacation for two weeks starting July 3rd, boating and camping in a very isolated part of our province's coast. Yes, the foundation should be tied to the original and existing walls tied to new walls, as well.
Any chance of sending a picture or a drawing so I know what the front porch roof looks like. I also need to know how the existing roof is oriented for the new porch roof to attach to it.
You can attach a 2x4 vertically to the house by using anchors into the mortar of the brick and screw the 2x4 into these anchors.
With vinyl siding the problem is you need movement of the siding and clearances so it will move due to expansion and contraction.
With a post supporting a roof, usually we go down to below frost and put in a concrete footing and column.
If you want a 16" overhang or similar you would make an extra truss up for this, but cut the inside and outside arcs. The end walls would be made from 2x4 studs cut to length under the truss, flush on the outside. Why not rip the 2x10s in half and use both pieces for the decking rather than a 2x6 and wasting the other piece?
The finished deck should be about 2" below the finished floor of the house to keep rain from entering. Have you ever seen a sidewalk poured with new concrete and watched someone finish the concrete?
You would think replacing a cracked toilet seat is easy, but nooooo, not for a one piece toilet !
Adding a heating appliance to your home can often cost more than the price of the appliance and its installation. In this instructable I will show you how to create extra space in your home for all the things you usually stumble over scattered on the floor. I have an older home, and found a Weslock door knob on one of my doors that I wanted to swap out with a locking knob made by Defiant. This instructable will teach you how to apply cool images of your choice to your electrical switchplates. A while back we had an unexpected forced kitchen remodel, a row of upper cabinets full fell off the wall one day nearly taking my wife out with it.
It always frustrates me when I do a caulking or sealant job around the house to have to throw away a half used tube of caulk or silicon sealant or construction adhesive. The interior doors of my house have the original 1950's knobs - the old style with the long escutcheon plates and the knob-and-spindle doorknobs. Fluorescent lights from places like Home Depot look good and seem like a real bargain but the ballasts inside don't last. I recently moved into a new apartment and as a producer of electronic music, I wanted one of my rooms to have good acoustic properties. What do you do if you remove an old toilet and discover that the closet bolts are rusted out, there is no closet flange, and the waste line is made of terra cotta?
We were given a welder that has a big 240 volt plug, but our home doesn't have any 240V outlets already wired. This outdated bathroom is getting fixed up, and I decided to do it myself, gaining experience and saving money.
This is the finished bathroom I built a few years ago which includes a large walk-in shower. This Instructable will cover three ways to mix regular concrete, one way to mix glass-fiber-reinforced-concrete (GFRC), and instructions on performing a Slump Test to check the consistency of the concrete mix. This is an adventure in refinishing my hardwood staircase, told by an amateur artist and homeowner. Although, I have been told to stop buying astro-gear and I wouldn't want to prolong the bad spell of weather that we have been having! Hi Kepler, I've had a look at your link and they are on the small side but the spec looks good to me, 22mm t&g on the walls and 12mm on the roof for weight saving, plus the timbers are 2"x2" all round which isn't half bad for a 6'x6' obsy, having said this I couldn't see any mention about the spacing for the timbers which you might wan't to ask about.
Option 'B' as mentioned above is to buy a shed and convert the roof, this would allow you to get something a bit larger for less money.
I bought a slight second 10'x6' heavy duty tanalised shed from these guys I think it cost in the region of 350 pounds.
She’s our friend, Jenny, who we met many months ago when she bravely stopped by one of our salvage projects to meet us. The storyline?  Jenny Johnston has hired us to build her a little garden shed in her lovely backyard. The next time-consuming part of the project:  laying the brick in a running bond pattern over fresh sand.
Once laying the brick was mostly done, they ran underground plumbing pipe to the shed so that Jenny can have a water spigot on the side of her shed. Filed Under: Create Tagged With: shedsIf you liked this post, consider signing up to receive new posts via email!
Oh my gawd, I wish you lived closer to me – I’d hire you guys in a minute to put one of those up for me! I don’t know who is more beautiful in that photo, the women with the silver locks or that full out red camellia!
Kim, I did want to ask you tho, in going thru all the reclaimed BRICKS, have you come across any bricks marked with the word “TEXAS” on them?
Drue, to my knowledge we do not have a Texas brick, but I’ll certainly let you know if I find one! I would have never thought of using pavers for the shed base, although I’m not exactly the best handyman either.
Your local ready mixed concrete supplier will advise on the most suitable type and strength of concrete for your project.
For heavier applications, or on bad ground, it may be advisable to construct a sub-base of compacted granular material or lean-mix concrete beneath the actual concrete slab, or to lay a sub-base over a geo-textile. To calculate the required amount, simply multiply length in metres by width in metres by depth in metres to calculate a volume in cubic metres. Tamping helps eliminate air pockets being trapped in the body of the concrete and also helps to push the hard aggregate into the concrete, bringing sufficient of the matrix to the surface to make smoothing (floating) easier. 3 or 4 passes with a beam screed is usually sufficient to give an acceptable finished level, with a tolerance of ±6-10mm. This is best done when the concrete has started to stiffen as part of the hardening process, as the float trowel leaves fewer trowel marks. It is recommended that once the surface has been smoothed with the float trowel, light brush strokes be made over the surface, transverse to the direction of travel, to improve traction once the concrete hardens. It is usually checked after 10-12 hours, just in case any immediate repairs or 'rubbing-up' is required, and while this may be satisfactory for small jobs, larger slabs, especially those where the final strength is critical, require careful management of the critical first stages of curing if they are to meet their design targets. It is unusual for concrete to be poured in harsh weather conditions, that is, when the ambient temperature is below 4°C and falling, unless there are extenuating circumstances. Care must be taken when striking the formwork to avoid damaging the concrete which will still be 'green', as we call it in the trade. Although reinforcing fabric mesh is not essential in concrete slabs, it does strengthen the concrete and is something we always recommend. To tie a new foundation to an old one, you can rent a hammer drill to drill the existing foundation wall with holes to install inserts and bolts between the two foundations. You can either reinforce under the slab with additional concrete or come along side the slab with a concrete footing and column, then attach the 4x4 on top of that. If you want the post at the edge of the slab, then you should cut a hole in the slab and reinforce it. First layout the shape of the roof as shown in the drawing, on a floor or a couple of pieces of plywood. The trusses will be the same as on the plan, just make the side walls 10' long instead of 16'.
Dan and I hope you enjoy reading this newsletter and encourage you to forward it on to those who may benefit from it.
But getting a contractor to design and build you a shed or finding one on the market are both costly options.
You probably didn’t pay a lot of attention but you noticed someone down on their hands and knees with a trowel moving around the concrete surface. This is because there's no nut on the bottom side, so Kohler & others put anchors instead.
Working in my shop I realized that a window would allow me to have a breeze in the summer, and bring in sunlight in the winter. Terrible tiles, missing wall mirrors and ugly countertops had me willing to try something different and fun, as well as cheap. After mixing the first four cubic feet with a spade in a wheel barrow I decided I needed an easier solution. At the local Home Depot, the only two brands of knobs that I saw were Defiant and Keystone. We had to replace them, and all the roofing companies said to do it ourselves, because its easy.Winds of 100km, the yard was a mess, garbage, shingles, toy pools, wishing wells and leaves everywhere. My husband built this mailbox in one day, although he is a 20 year masonry veteran, we believe anyone can do this with the correct tools, materials, and planning. I found a few spots where (in the bathroom) the floor joist had gotten soaked through and rotted. Just in case you do, I hope to create a foolproof guide containing all the information you need to do so.
The lights come with a warranty but removing the light and returning it about once a year isn't worth the trouble. We can show you how to use diamond drilling kits made for the construction industry and used by professional installers, tilers, plumbers, builders, electricians and commercial shop fitters. You could pay someone $$$$$ to jack hammer out half of your basement floor and connect up to the terra cotta. Taking out the sink and vanity was very difficult, so this instructable is to help any other do-it-yourself home improver's.
Since I couldn't find a great looking replacement that didn't cost a gazillion dollars, and since my fans still worked fine, I decided to just change their look. When we moved in, the front door wouldn't open all the way; it drug the floor at about 70 degrees from full open.
This may not be how the pros would do it, but it's done for about $150 in materials and a few days of my time. By combining plain concrete with a decorative edging, such as a brick edging, it can be made to look quite attractive. On soft or unreliable ground conditions, a sub-base will help spread the load of a mass concrete slab, but in such conditions it's best to obtain a professional opinion from a civil or structural engineer. Concrete slabs intended for exceptional loads, such as commercial yards, lorry parks etc., will be at least 200mm thick and should be specifically designed as they will probably require a sub-base of at least 100mm thickness, and steel reinforcing mesh or a fibre-reinforced concrete. Builders' merchants normally carry 'visqueen' or PIFA 1200 as an off-the-shelf product, as it is much used throughout the construction industry.
Ready mixed concrete companies usually deliver in multiples of half-cubic metres, so "round-up" your calculated quantity accordingly. The ready mixed concrete supplier will understand these references, and the delivery wagon usually carries extra water that can be mixed into the concrete before pouring, if the mixture is too stiff.


Hand floats, also known as Bull Floats, are fine for small areas where a near-perfect finish is not essential. Additional space heating may be provided in such situations to keep the ambient temperature above the 4° threshold. In most cases, a concrete slab should be kept completely free from all traffic for the first 48 hours. Fibre reinforcement may be used in place of, or in addition to, the steel mesh in the plain slabs.
In your case I would cut a neat hole in the slab and enlarge a hole below it about 12" to 24" deep, depending on frost depth. Use sheathing on the outside of the wall to help hold the studs to the truss with nails or screws, that is nail the studs and truss well at each intersection. The regular Varathane will yellow the finish a bit, this doesn't and you can apply a couple of coats on in a short time period. Put the landing at the height of one of the risers, this makes the risers above and below the landing the same height. We'll just start at the beginning and soon enough you will have a shed growing in the backyard. A much cheaper idea would be to build the shed yourself and you might be surprised to find out that it’s not that difficult.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. This one is a good sample, when I need to crimp a CAT5 network cable in a Bank here in Brazil, but I haven't my crimper tool with me. Enough to squeeze by it, and you could force it all the way open, but it was rubbing the floor pretty good. If the area of the paving is troubled with weeds, it may be necessary to treat the excavated sub-grade with a general weedkiller such as Sodium Chlorate, but it is unlikely any weed will be able to penetrate the upper layers. However, bear in mind that adding further water to the prepared mix can affect the cured strength of the finished concrete and may invalidate the strength guarantee of the supplier, leaving the contractor responsible for any remedial work. Long-reach floats can be used on larger areas, and for that perfectly smooth finish, a power float is the tool for the job. After that, foot traffic can be allowed onto the slab, with care, but it should not be open to heavy foot traffic or slow-moving vehicles until 5 days after pouring. The 100mm thick slab normally has a single sheet of mesh, while 150mm and thicker slabs will have two layers of mesh, "top and bottom", each with at least 50mm of cover. You can use this feature at the top right of every page: a blank box in which to insert the keyword, then click on Find. Just click on the link Newsletters on the Index Page, left column, to sign up and view the archives.
Check with the supplier of the roofing and he should be able to tell you what the centers should be. If it is in the middle of a long run, you are better off cutting through the vinyl and attaching the 2x4 for handrail right onto the sheathing and fastening into the framing.
Form a 8"x8" concrete column about 8" above the slab to create a concrete column projecting up above the slab. If the corrugated will conform, strap it first with 1x4 every 12" or 16" depending on the guage of the material. All you have to do is follow a series of steps.View in galleryPick a typeDepending on the nature of the items you plan on storing in there, there are various different types of sheds you can choose from.
They're vented to the outside air in the summer (and in the winter if you neglect to close your vents) which can be very humid and this defeats the purpose of venting. These are awkward, heavy machines, available from Hire Centres, but are not recommended for use by DIY'ers. For heavy usage, such as highways, runways, ports or commercial yards, it may be 10 days before the slab is ready to take traffic. These 2x4s will be flush on the outside with the rafters so that when the new sheathing comes down it will come to the existing sheathing.
A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. Using a pencil on the other end of the strip scribe the arc as it swings through the 180 degree as shown. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak.
Sometimes I surprise them with an immediate answer, sometimes I go on holidays like most of us, and if I have access to a computer, I will get off a quick answer or explanation of why I can't answer them right away. Divide the 180 arc into two 90s then divide the two 90s into 4 45s by determining the distance half way between them. This step is important because it allows you to be certain your shed will be strong and durable.
She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season.
I figure the walls at 3' high will give about 7' clearance at the first junction and about 8' at the center. You should also check the local building regulations and make sure everything is in order before starting the project. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. In circumstances like this, I leave a message on my computer which answers every email coming in with an automatic reply. Membership of our website has a nominal fee to help us pay for what we are trying to accomplish here and we appreciate your support. It has to do with the type of design you’ve chosen but also with your personal preferences. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson.
He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. Accurate measurements simplify your work a lot and also help you pick the right fittings and accessories.If you want your storage shed to blend well into your garden or backyard, you can also build it with a small deck.
It would look like a miniature house and you can decorate the window sills with flower boxes.
Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young.
He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain.
Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before.
One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way. 5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland.
By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis.
She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae.
She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out. I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic.
Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets.
By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall. When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities. Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure.
A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found.
Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons.
A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help.
It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication.
Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work.
He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr.
Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt. 13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time. Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic.
14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet). The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues.
During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums. Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation.


Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier. The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number.
Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work".
A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator. It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.
I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England.
When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive". A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement.
Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find.
Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II.
The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England.
When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus.
20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds. He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum. The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time.
The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig.
At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected. A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III.
21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered.
The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design.
In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose. A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games.
For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity. The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site. She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her.
Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation. The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance. By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier. With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding. Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high.
The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written.
23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits.
A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple.
In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner.
It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight.
It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed. This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple. Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut.
Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler. The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it.
A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple.
Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel".
This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls.
In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse. Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.




Ideas for outdoor sheds
Plans for jigsaw puzzle table plans
Woodworking hand tools magazine luiza
Wood furniture finials glass
Author: admin | 14.07.2014 | Category: Shed Prices


Comments »

  1. lilyan_777 — 14.07.2014 at 19:39:19 Step-By-Step Straightforward-To-Observe Plans With Detailed Illustrations. but the cluttered.
  2. Nigar — 14.07.2014 at 17:25:58 Constructing and anchor your shed for completion fences.
  3. 1 — 14.07.2014 at 18:40:40 Doing the repairs lot to have the unique designer or a new.
  4. Simpoticniy_Tvar — 14.07.2014 at 16:42:52 Given how simple and comparatively inexpensive it's sell Easily A child's bed.
  5. Posthumosty — 14.07.2014 at 18:57:58 The cats can transfer & nonetheless get.