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Print design is fixed, static, and known, while web design is flexible, dynamic, and unknown. Print is fixed and static and the conditions under which a print design is viewed will generally be known in advance. Of course, the web allows us to consume additional content like audio and video and it provides a mechanism allowing consumers to interact with the design and even shape it to a degree. This responsive and adaptive behavior on the part of both the design and the viewer leads to more modular thinking in how websites are designed and built. We’ll probably discover more differences between print design and the web design as technology and the web become more than they are today.
We’ve begun to take advantage of the flexibility of the web through responsive design. We’re also beginning to take better advantage of the dynamic nature of the web by adding behaviors, interactions, and animations. The animations I’m thinking about will be more understated and serve as visual cues to inform our audience. Where we used to change the color and background of navigation items in an instant, we’ll transition these changes.
The issues we’re facing with images will ultimately lead us to use more vector based images, saving bitmapped imagery for specific cases where photographic realism is necessary. Earlier in this post I mentioned how print and the web offer different ways to build a narrative. Silent film stars needed to communicate through facial expression and so the visuals featured many closeups. I think we’re heading toward cleaner and more minimal interfaces based on an objective foundation of universal principles. To this objective foundation we’ll build layers of enhancement that offer additional cues and hopefully delight our audience.
These layers will move from the objective and universal at the bottom to the more subjective and personal at the top.
The bar of colors at the top looks like a flat design color palette and the icons at the bottom of the page are flat. The individual articles seem to exhibit even more flatness than the main section pages, though there’s still some depth and I think all the advertising throws off the flater look. The crushed stone is about 50 mm deep at the lawn edge but thickens to 75 mm after about 150 mm. You should make your own decision as to whether this is necessary based on the following information. Foundations provided immediately beneath the lowest part of the structure, near to the ground level are known as shallow foundations. Foundations constructed by increasing the are at the base of the structure by means of offsets, are called spread footing foundations. Broadly speaking, all types of shallow foundations can be referred to as spread footing foundations. This is a common and the simplest type of spread footing foundation; It consists of a number of courses of bricks, the lowest being usually twice the thickness of wall above.
In no case, the depth of the concrete bed should be less than its projection beyond the wall base.
This is the cheapest type of spread footing foundations and is largely used for walls of ordinary buildings.
Isolated footings are used to support the individual pillars and columns constructed in brick or stone masonry. These are either stepped type, slate type or slope type, having projections in the vae concrete. The combined footings are generally rectangular in shape when both columns are of same sections and trapezoidal in shape when the columns are of different sections.
The foundation which consists of one or two tiers of wooden or rolled steel section with space filled up with concrete is known as Grillage foundation.
The object of this type of foundation is to spread the load over a large horizontal area at the base of a structure. Depending upon the material used in construction, grillage foundations are further classified into two types. Over the concrete bed thus prepared, the bottom tier consisting of a number of steel I - beams of designed dimensions are placed at specified distance apart, using spacer bars. Wooden planks, usually 5 to 8 cm in thickness, are laid side by side longitudinally on the prepared bed of the trench excavated for this purpose. The planks should be arranged in a width 45 to 60 cm more on either side than the designed width of the base course of the structure. On this bottom layer of planks, rectangular timber sections of suitable size are laid at about 35 cm center to center. On the timber platform thus prepared, the structure in the form of a timber column or even a masonry wall is built. Steel grillage foundations are useful for structures like columns, piers, stanchions subjected to heavy concentrated loads and hence are employed for foundations of the buildings such as theaters, factories, town, halls etc. The whole area is dug out to the specified depth and 30 cm more wide than the area to be covered. When loads are excessive, thick concrete beams running under the columns can also be constructed.
This type of foundation is useful for public buildings, office buildings, school buildings, residential quarters etc, where the ground conditions are very poor and bearing power of the soil is so low that individual spread footing cannot be provided. For constructing this type of foundation, excavation is done into steps having short length and uniform thickness and the masonry work is done on the horizontal bed of concrete thus prepared.
The foundation consisting of inverted arches between the piers is known as inverted arch foundation.
Then the foundation concrete is laid to the required thickness and finished according to the layout of the arches to be constructed under the piers. The arch rings, usually half brick thick, are then built in cement mortar and piers are constructed. The end piers should be designed and constructed to take the outward thrust caused by arch action. This of foundation is not commonly used for buildings, but it is quite suitable for other structures like bridges, reservoirs, tanks, supports for drainage lines etc. The foundation constructed sufficiently below ground level with some artificial arrangements such as piles, wells etc, at their base are called deep foundations. A foundation ( spread footing or grillage ) supported on piles is called a pile foundation. When the soil is very soft and solid base is not available at a reasonable depth to keep the bearing power within safe limits. The official death toll from a building collapse in Dhaka, Bangladesh has surpassed 700 as more bodies were recovered on Tuesday. The Feminist Newswire has provided a daily feminist perspective on national, global, and campus news stories since 1995. I could never mix in the common murmur of the rising generation against monogamy, because no restriction on sex seemed so odd and unexpected as sex itself.
This is the sixth post in the Ballast & Bedrock series, a search for faith-strengthening truth. Indeed, I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. This is the fifth post in the Ballast & Bedrock series, a search for faith-strengthening truth.
My question, the question that had brought me to the edge of suicide when I was fifty years old, was the simplest question lying in the soul of every human being, from a silly child to the wisest of the elders, the question without which life is impossible; such was the way I felt about the matter. Or to put it still differently: Is there any meaning in my life that will not be destroyed by my inevitably approaching death? This is the fourth post in the Ballast & Bedrock series, a search for faith-strengthening truth.
But I wasn’t expecting Paul to directly connect resurrection with fleeing sexual impurity. Christ is the resurrection and the life, therefore all those united with Christ are raised to life in Christ by his power and will never die (John 11:25-26). As much as resurrection is the result of union with Christ, so too should be a flight from sexual immorality, for Christ is not to be joined to a prostitute.
This is the third post in the Ballast & Bedrock series, a search for faith-strengthening truth.
Beware of practicing your righteousness before other people in order to be seen by them, for then you will have no reward from your Father who is in heaven.
But when you give to the needy, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, so that your giving may be in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you. But when you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you. But when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, that your fasting may not be seen by others but by your Father who is in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you. Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy and where thieves break in and steal, but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust destroys and where thieves do not break in and steal. The cure we require must come through the Spirit who instructs us as Tutor, enabling us to see clearly, to value properly, and to believe wholeheartedly.
This is the second post in the Ballast & Bedrock series, a search for faith-strengthening truth.
Since all these things are thus to be dissolved, what sort of people ought you to be in lives of holiness and godliness, waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be set on fire and dissolved, and the heavenly bodies will melt as they burn! But according to his promise we are waiting for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.
I continue to search for passages of Scripture that detail God’s promises and declarations as I seek ballast and bedrock for my restless, anxious heart. And I am sure of this, that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ.
There can be no greater cure for an anxious, restless heart than to meditate on the certainties presented in the word of God.
This post begins what I hope to be a daily journey through the New Testament in search of bedrock and ballast. Only your steadfast love is better than life, Jesus—only your contra-conditional, irrepressible affection for us. Nothing else will do.
Jesus, we’re not just asking this for ourselves as individuals, but for our churches as well. Where does power for the Christian life come from? Sure, I have a dusty theological answer tucked away in the archives. How can I be satisfied and content? No sense in denying the restlessness I have felt recently.
Are Christian disciplines necessary? There are those around me who place much less emphasis on Christian disciplines than I have in the past. Late one autumn evening, Brad called me to go out for coffee, making it clear that he wanted to do it right then.
Have you ever thought you knew someone well, only to discover significant detailed that you did not know at all? Think about it. Most of the conversations you had today were mundane and rather self-protective.
Another reason we keep things causal is that we buy the lie that we are unique and struggle in ways that no one else does.
The Bible teaches that people love darkness rather than light because their actions are evil. We must not let ourselves become comfortable with the casual, where ministry is limited to offering general principles that would fit anyone’s story.
A wide variety of residential foundation types, including monolithic slabs, crawl space foundations, and basement foundations, can lose heat due to poorly detailed insulation at the concrete footings. Traditional wisdom taught builders to place footings on undisturbed soil below the frost line. In short, the weight of a concrete footing plus a concrete wall plus a two-story house isn’t going to compress the foam insulation under a footing — not by a long shot.
Building scientist John Straube points out that when rigid foam supports a load, it can suffer from “creep” or deflection.
Rigid foam is often used under the footings of buildings with frost-protected shallow foundations.
Just because rigid foam can support more weight per square inch than excellent soil, doesn’t mean that local code officials will understand the use of rigid foam under footings.
According to a blog by Linda Whaley, Dan Whitmore “had a pretty big hoop to jump through when he went to the City of Seattle for a building permit for his Passive House.
To avoid the problem of thermal bridging through concrete footings, many European Passivhaus builders are now using “insulated raft” foundation systems. Unlike many frost-protected shallow foundations, insulated raft foundations always include a continuous horizontal layer of insulation under the entire slab.
Insulated raft foundations usually have no wing insulation, depending instead on a deep layer of crushed stone to address the problem of frost heaving. Among the European manufacturers of EPS forms for insulated raft foundations are Isoquick, Supergrund, and Tomorrow’s Energy.
For energy nerds obsessed with insulation details and the problem of thermal bridging, insulated raft foundations are aesthetically satisfying.
Presumably an insulated raft design for a double-wall building would need a ring beam with a conventional footing outside the edge insulation of the raft to support the loads from the external walls and the roof ?
As long as the roof and wall loads are transferred to the concrete foundation, the foundation will work. I was concerned about the thermal bridge which would occur if the outer frame were to sit directly on the raft.
If you want to build a double stud wall with the outer wall bearing the roof load, then obviously the outer wall needs to bear on concrete. It's certainly possible to have the siding NOT be coplanar with the foundation stucco -- I've seen it.

To me, it makes more sense to have the inner stud wall bear on the concrete footing, and to use Larsen trusses or exterior rigid foam to thicken your wall. Would it be sensible to build a Thermomass dwarf wall to carry the wall loads and sit this on the insulation with the inner wythe of the Thermomass wall acting as the form for the floor slab? An aside to Interested Onlooker: I'm curious as to why Robert Riversong advises against Larsen trusses in seismic zones.
It seems to me, one of the benefits of insulation on the outside of the building foundation is moisture control.
Martin, I was thinking more along the lines of a modification to how the majority of new homes (full basement) are built in MN. I am building right now, and need foam products for a passive haus (home) which I am building. You already included some great links in the article, but below are a few more for anyone that is interested in taking a look. I look at these systems, get really excited, then realize this is impossible to protect the stud wall from termites. A couple days ago we sat down with a local ICF manufacturer and asked about having custom formwork created for footings.
We are currently working on another design to meet Passivhaus standards, this time planning on slab on grade. The physical properties of EPS are defined by ASTM C578 Standard Specification for Rigid, Cellular Polystyrene.
The EPSMA site also lists its members who can provide a custom cut form of any shape you can draw. Most EPS block molders also have the capability of incorporating a borate solution during the manufacturing process to assist in the protection against carpenter ants and termites.
I suppose you could try to find an interested researcher at the NAHB Research Center, which is responsible for the document.
As usual with these types of discussions, many subjects get involved and ideally will all be integrated to get the best overall performance. I am currently working on a passivhaus design in Michigan and looking at all these considerations with the architect. Some very interesting research from the manufactured home industry is worth mentioning here. It shows us that the "wing insulation" discussed in the FPSF guidelines can be ignored, you don't have to dig down at all, (except to remove organic material), and any gravel intended to drain water away is unnecessary. Depending on the type of soil, frost heave will only occur when the moisture content is above roughly 15%. Since the wing insulation is only to keep the soil below the shallow footing or slab edge warmer than 32F, if the footing or edge rests on on dry soil, you don't need to keep it warm.
If all the perimeter surface water is directed away from the house, no water gets underneath to freeze.
This approach also means you don't have to rely on the heat from inside the home to prevent foundation freezing. Note that you should still completely insulate the bottom and sides of the slab for energy reasons. Here's the press release for the report, but I guess you have to pay for the actual report. Lot's of "ifs" in your post, I like gutters on all of my projects with long extensions to get rainwater away from the building. Luckily, there are people like you who show the right way to go: "passive house once, passive house for ever" as our austrian friends from Vorarlberg say. Merci aussi pour cette perspective historique: "En outre, nos amis americains ont ete semble-t-il, impressionnes par l’equipe allemande lors du dernier Solar Decathlon. Under the SBRA guidelines, water management maintenance remains extremely import for long term success. Wing insulation may have helped deflect that water out a couple more feet and prevented the damage. Another advantage of a raft-style slab is that it is high up on the site, above the mud that might occur from long-term bad drainage.
Well, I'm sold that the load bearing capacity is no problem for foam, but how about lateral behavior? Well, it's too late to consider foam under the footings for our 18X21' bump out addition, we poured them about two weeks ago.
The foundation wall has conventional damproofing applied to the exterior (Premier brand masonry coating applied with a roller) and of course footing drains on both sides of the footings (exterior and under slab).
Lots of people have insulated the interior of basement walls with Thermax, and found that the walls perform very well.
You are right, we can likely get an engineer to approve it, but that does not address the economics and energy efficiency of the idea. I have 15 years field experience in the pest management industry as well as owning my own pest management business. Focus has shifted from skeuomorphic details like reflections to the basics of type, layout, and color. We might use both to display similar content and we often treat them the same way, but they’re clearly not the same thing.
The web is flexible and dynamic and the conditions under which a web design is viewed will generally be unknown in advance. For the most part when looking at a print design, we’re looking at text and images on the page. Viewers of both designs are essentially the same and we can create designs that make clear the hierarchy of information and control visual flow from most to least important. You can employ flashbacks and other non-linear devices, but in print you generally start at the beginning and work your way in a straight line to the end.
In return, the design can respond to these interactions and the conditions under which it’s viewed in order to adapt itself. What we build on top of the flat design foundation will take advantage of the strengths of the web.
We’re learning to design mobile first with a minimalist base and then progressively enhancing our designs as we sense more capable devices.
Through whatever sensors we have available we’ll put logic in place to adapt these chunks and modules and deliver the best experience based on the context and conditions.
Think of a progress bar that does nothing to change progress, but makes it clear something is happening and can even be designed in a way to make that change feel quicker or slower. Soon enough designers will bring back depth to web design, though I suspect it’ll come about more through layering in the z-axis than through overuse of gradients, shadows, and reflections.
Much of what we build on top of the foundation will take advantage of the strengths of the web. I’m currently self learning design and have been attracted to flat design and minimalism because of their focus on design fundamentals. I wouldn’t consider the USA Today site flat design, though it does seem to be doing some things typical of flat design.
There is a shadow behind the main content container and other depth cues throughout the design.
If you compare the USA Today design to the gallery site itself or any of the designs included in the gallery, I think your first impression of USA Today would be it’s not a flat design. In a lot of ways the design is definitely in line with the flat trend, but there are enough non-flat elements that I wouldn’t consider it flat design. Such foundations are mostly placed on the first hard and firm strata available below the ground level. In such foundations, spread is given under the base of a wall or a column by providing offsets.
In this type of foundation, the base width of the wall is increased by providing 5cm (one-fourth of brick length) offsets on either side of the wall.
In the case of footing for store walls, the size of offset is slightly more than that of the brick wall footing. The thickness of this lean concrete bed is usually kept 15cm and its width is kept 20 to 30 cm more than that of the bottom course.
For foundations over firm soil or compacted ground, the concrete bed below the brick wall footing may be dispensed with. They are stepped down in the wall footing after providing 15cm offset of foundation concrete on all the sides. This is so called because the bed constructed in this type of foundation is called grillage. On the grillage bed thus prepared, the structure in the form of a steel stanchion, column, pier is built. Timber grillage foundations re usually provided for timber columns subjected to heavy concentrated loads. In this type of foundation, the load from the piers is transferred to the soil by constructing arches in inverted position at their at their base. A pile foundation usually consists of a base of spread footing or grillage supported by piles at their bottom. It is the country’s worst industrial disaster and the worst disaster in the history of the garment industry.
An initial investigation found that the top four floors of the eight story building had been constructed illegally without permits. To be allowed, like Endymion, to make love to the moon and then to complain that Jupiter kept his own moons in a harem seemed to me (bred on fairy tales like Endymion’s) a vulgar anticlimax.
The effectiveness of Christ’s sacrifice, our forgiveness of sins, and eternal life hing on this one event. Our belief in the resurrection of Christ and our union with him underpins the whole of our Christian life and battle with sin. For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life.
Our perception of value is so skewed we are incapable of accurately evaluating spiritual rewards. If the value of the ultimate reward is diminished, so is our willingness to make current sacrifices in order to achieve the reward. Our most significant,  deep-rooted struggle is to fully embrace the reality of the resurrection of the dead and everlasting life. He calls our wandering hearts to refocus, knowing with certainty that this world will be set on fire and dissolved. You have created a gospel-shaped vacuum in our hearts—a screaming empty place that fits only you. Forgive us when we get so organized, creative and “right” that we no longer miss your presence. In all honesty, Jesus, how much of what we do in our churches doesn’t require the Holy Spirit at all? We want to lift our hearts, voices, hands and whole lives to you, as a sacrifice of praise. I am less interested in an argument about legalism and more interested in highlighting whatever it takes to have a real relationship with the Living God.
Their presence was so central to the life of our church that no gathering seemed official without them. I guess I should have done this a long time ago, but I kept thinking that we could work things out.
Brad went on, “A few years ago Betty was making supper and was very angry that I couldn’t help her on a project that night. Have you ever started to share a story from your own life and been interrupted by someone who said, “I know exactly what you mean!” – but clearly didn’t? There are things we know about each other, but they fool us into thinking that we know the human beings who live within the borders of those details.
We spend most of our time talking about things that are of little personal consequence – the weather, politics, sports, and entertainment.
One is that, in our busyness, we despair of squeezing ten dollar conversations into ten cent moments. We get tricked by people’s public personas and forget that behind closed doors they live real lives just like us.
The genius of personal ministry is that it is personal. It can take the grand themes of the Great Story and apply them with utter specificity to the particulars of an individual’s life. With the foundation wall at room temperature, the footing acts as a thermal bridge that allows heat to flow from the concrete block wall to the soil. Whether the amount of heat leaking through a concrete footing is enough to worry about depends on your climate and your performance goals; if you hope to achieve the Passivhaus standard, such a thermal bridge is clearly a no-no.
If footings are properly designed for the soil at your building site — an exercise based on either soil testing and engineering calculations or rules of thumb and local knowledge — then such undisturbed soil should be able to support the weight of the building, with a healthy margin of safety.
So logic doesn’t support the traditional assumption that foam is squishier than undisturbed soil.
For example, Thorsten Chlupp, an Alaskan builder and author, has installed as much as 12 in. For example, the NAHBNational Association of Home Builders, which awards a Model Green Home Certification. Several architects and builders have had to engage in negotiations over the issue with local code officials; among those who have been successful are several in Washington state, including architect Rob Harrison of Seattle, Tessa Smith of the Artisans Group in Olympia, and Dan Whitmore of Blackbird Construction and engineer Carissa Farkas, both of Seattle. There is a continuous horizontal layer of rigid foam under the entire slab, as well as vertical insulation at the slab perimeter; all of the foam locks together.
I am envisaging a construction in which the outer frame carries all the live and dead loads on (and of) the roof, the exterior walls and the windows. If you are choosing an insulated raft foundation, it only makes sense to plan your walls so that the load paths are well supported.
That means that your siding won't be coplanar with the stucco coating used to protect the foundation foam, unless you install rigid foam of the same thickness on the exterior side of the outer stud wall. I have accepted Robert Riversong's advice against using Larsen trusses in seismic areas (the house is destined for Cascadia) and have followed his suggestion of using independent load paths for roof+exterior wall and floors+interior wall. There are hundreds of ways to build foundations and walls, and each way has advantages and disadvantages.

Isolation of the building from the damp earth would help greatly in controlling humidity in an airtight building. I understand the warm side (inside of the foundation wall) and under the slab, rigid insulation system for a full basement, my question is on exterior foundation wall insulation. We are currently awaiting city approval on an EPS "raft foundation" for an ADU in the Portland, OR area. I live in Oklahoma, one of those crazy mixed climate areas, that needs termite protection and could really benefit from slab edge protection on our monolithic edge foundations, but the termites keep us from doing it.
When I was a kid, one of the bible songs I learned was about the three guys who built three houses, with the foolish man building his on sand. However, in an air-tight and super-insulated home, the heat loss through an uninsulated slab or perimeter thermal bridge could easily match or exceed the heat loss through the roof of wall system.
XPS for the walls simply because of the higher R-value, and to keep any atmospheric derived vapor (e.g. I have seen amazing infestations in XPS in contact with wood framing (flat roof used as balcony). For EPS, I believe that advertised number is at 10% compressive resistance, ie, deformation. The listed capacity on foam is usually not a design value-- it is the load the foam can take right before it fails or deforms to an unacceptable limit. Much of this shift can be seen in the recent trend of flat design, which I think signals a new foundation for web designers. If what we’ve learned from print is serving as the foundation, what we get exclusively from the web will likely sit on top. Each comes with it’s own advantages and disadvantages that suggest how best to design for them. We’re still mostly looking at text and images on the web, though on a screen instead of a page. This leads to a less linear narrative or at least an ability to absorb web content in non-linear ways. In the future we’ll likely have more ways to sense the environment and deliver more refined experiences based on what we sense. We’ll use these things to delight much the same way we used skeuomorphs to delight the last few years. My hunch is the narrative will change to one controlled more by those consuming the content than those creating it. After laying the concrete for constructing the concrete bed, it should be properly compacted and cured before laying the base course of the wall.
This type of construction avoids deep excavation and provides the necessary area at the base of the structure to reduce the intensity of pressure within the safe bearing capacity of the soil. This type of grillage foundation can also be safely used for light buildings where the soil encountered is soft and is permanently water-logged. The rise of the inverted arches is about one - fifth to one - tenth of the span and they are usually build in half-brick rings.
Piles distribute the load of structure to the soil in contact either by friction alone or by friction combined with bearing at their ends. Survivors of the eight story building collapse that housed five garment factories and other garment workers blocked a major highway to demand compensation and better working conditions.
And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up. We place a blinding emphasis on physical that diminishes the value of spiritual as a result of the fall.
Make us so faint that unless you hydrate our hearts with the gospel, we will surely perish.
It’s a deceitful thing to be satisfied with correct theology about you, without experiencing rich communion with you. Forgive us when we try to cram human love, creature comforts, or anything else into that place. I am pretty sure that if I stop trodding in the same self-absorbed circles, there is great joy in adopting the priorities of God as reflected in His promises. I arrived first and as I saw Brad enter the diner, I knew that something was seriously wrong.
There is nothing wrong with this expect that it allows us to hide who we really are. A person may be terribly distraught about her marriage, yet when people ask how she is, she will quickly answer, “Fine, how are you?” The person asking doesn’t really want to know and the person answering doesn’t really want to tell. There are times when we would like to tell our story, but there doesn’t seem to be an opportunity to do so. We forget that life for everyone is fraught with disappointment and difficulty, suffering and struggle, trials and temptation.
True friendship calls you out of the darkness of personal privacy into the loving candor of mutual concern.
In the busyness of life it seems intrusive to ask questions that cannot be answered without personal self-disclosure. Yet there is a way in which we all hunger for relationships of that quality.
For example, steel studs in an insulated wall dramatically reduce the overall energy performance of the wall, because of thermal bridging through the steel. However, as long as the creep is consistent, the building sitting on the foam shouldn’t suffer harm.
Research Center publication, “Revised Builder’s Guide to Frost Protected Shallow Foundations,” recommends the use of XPS under the footings of unheated buildings. After the concrete is placed, the foam forms stay put, just like the forms of an ICFInsulated concrete form.
On subsequent projects we've moved to a stud wall bearing conventionally on the foundation, structural sheathing as air barrier, with Larsen trusses blown with cellulose hung off the exterior. Seattle is zone 3, and almost all Passivhaus building designs I've seen in this area use we we're calling Larsen trusses.
If a conventional footing and foundation wall is used, would one have to wrap the footing with rigid insulation?
I like to insulate with rigid on the outside of the foundation wall and under the basement slab, could this system be improved by wrapping the footing with rigid insulation from a thermal and moisture control standpoint? Has anyone really determined a good way to address this on a shallow frost protected foundation?
In the Midwest we have had some hellish rains in the last few years so I would say whatever foundation type you choose, install gutters with 3" x 4" downspouts and extensions.
Car le mouvement vers plus d’efficacite energetique a ete amorce au USA a la fin de annees 1970 et au debut des annees 1980, grace a des pionniers tel que William A. Beyond 5% compression is where you start to get out of the elastic limits of the foam, and by 10% the foam will not rebound. However, I did not ask about the consequences of putting the vapor barrier right under the slab. With a full basement and interior foam on poured concrete walls that is continuous with sub slab foam, would there be any reason to be concerned? In a sense this is another way in which the web contains more dimensions than print as each connected document forms another layer. The change the industry went through involved more than simply adding sound to the visuals. The position of arches may be either along the row of piers or across the row of piers in both the directions depending upon the nature of soil and the type of land to be taken by them.
Approximately 80% of the garment factory workforce in Bangladesh are women who are often responsible for providing for their families.
To complain that I could only be married once was like complaining that I could only be born once. So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, and especially to those who are of the household of faith. I had assumed I knew them, so I had never asked anything that would give them an opportunity to say anything about the true state of their personal lives.
They are co-conspirators in a casual relationship. Whether it is over the back of a pew, in passing at a school function, or over the phone, we are skilled at newsy but personally protective conversations.
No one is from a perfect family, no one has a perfect job, no one has perfect relationships, and no one does the right thing all the time. Because we tend to believe our own arguments and buy into our own excuses, we are often unaware of how great our need for help really is. It is the careful ministry of Christ and his Word to the struggles of heart that have been uncovered by good questions from a committed friend. Highly insulating, water-resistant rigid foam insulation that is widely used above and below grade, such as on exterior walls and underneath concrete floor slabs. The concrete thickness and the rebar schedule are designed to support the loads imposed by the perimeter walls and any interior bearing walls. Hollow insulated forms, usually made from expanded polystyrene (EPS), used for building walls (foundation and above-ground); after stacking and stabilizing the forms, the aligned cores are filled with concrete, which provides the wall structure. North American builders who want to build an insulated raft foundation can choose from two approaches: they can purchase components from Bygghouse in New Jersey or Legalett in Canada, or they can cobble together foundation forms using ordinary XPS or EPS panels held in place by conventional removable foundation forms. Shurcliff ou encore de la construction du Rocky Mountains Institute par Amory & Hunter Lovins. Perhaps below-grade, against concrete, is no issue, and way below-grade even less of an issue.
Assuming the poured concrete wall is sound an insect would have to descend 8' or so to reach any foam insulation.
Isolated footings are used to support the individual columns, whereas combined footings are used where projections of different columns are not possible on all the sides, due to limited space. Under grueling working conditions, workers in garment factories can make as little as $26 a month.
Feel free to leave references in the comment section or shoot me a message if you have ideas.
We had picnicked together as families, shared evening meals, and worked together on Christian school projects. I wondered how this could have gone on for so long without anyone knowing. In that moment I realized that the most personal and important parts of our lives fly under the radar of our typical relationships in the body of Christ.
Our effectiveness as ambassador is blunted because we don’t know others well enough to know where change is needed or where God is actively at work. The best relationships are built on a foundation of mutual trust-giving and truth-speaking. This means that effective, God-honoring, hear-changing personal ministry is dependent on a rich base of personal information.
If you encourage a basement wall to dry to the interior, you are inviting a lot of moisture into your home. I got info on this from the Insulfoam (EPS) web site, and by talking to a cat who does compression testing of foam.
Or, again with a full depth basement, could exterior rigid insulation be protected using a membrane such as Bituthene?
We live frenetically busy lives with activity-based friendships, punctuated only by brief conversations with each other. Now I was sitting across from a friend I did not know. Do you know where he struggles in his relationship with God or in his understanding of the Scriptures? We think we are okay but wonder how the person next to us can be so unaware of his own sin. XPS has higher density and R-value and lower vapor permeability than EPS rigid insulation.) insulation like Dow Styrofoam or Owens Corning Foamular has a compressive strength of 25 psi. For example: EPS foam with a 40 psi compressive resistance (I believe that is what is called "40 psi foam") supports 35 psi at 5% but only 15 psi at 1%.
For, as it is written, “The two will become one flesh.” But he who is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him. She responded by kicking me in the groin and we launched into the first of many physical battles. What do you know about the quality of her marriage or the struggles she experiences with her husband? This not only distorts our perspective on ourselves, but shapes the way we tell our story to others.
I'm putting insulation underneath the Advantech that will go on the slab and that's gonna have to do. Polygamy is a lack of the realization of sex; it is like a man plucking five pears in mere absence of mind. Just "bear" that in mind when you build and pick a compressive value that you are comfortable with. For the last week she has been so depressed that she hasn’t gotten out of bed, except to eat a cracker or go to the bathroom.
We have broken most of our pottery and lamps and put holes in almost every wall in the house.
Type of rigid foam insulation that, unlike extruded polystyrene (XPS), does not contain ozone-depleting HCFCs. I have hit Betty so hard that she had to stay out of sight for a week so the bruises could heal. Could your friend by fighting disintegrating relationships at work or long-term problems with his extended family?
Then a factor of safety of 5 is commonly used , leaving us with a 5 psi design value for those loads. Foam mfrs might claim the product is waterproof, but can it really withstand 10 years on moist soil? Might she harbor deep regret over a past decision or jealousy over the successes of a friend?
EPS insulation is classified by type: Type I is lowest in density and strength and Type X is highest.

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Author: admin | 08.09.2014 | Category: Shed Garden

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  1. ElektrA_CakO — 08.09.2014 at 21:58:27 All the time puzzled what to do with the 2x4's and plywood.
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  4. 220 — 08.09.2014 at 18:21:55 Roof and out of the way, and cabinets and hooks on the step can be measure the width.