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After lunch we drove along the picturesque riverside parkway, stopping to check out the new golf course at A’SmugglerA•s Glen.A“ It had been carved out of the Pines and rock. We walked by and admired a casting of females in bronze, a tribute to the early leaders of the Canadian Suffragette movement. Behind the Main Parliament building sits an elegant Library, circular in shape and faced in brown brick. From Parliament Hill, we walked along busy Rideau Street, passing another eye catcher in stone.
If you here the name A’RideauA“ mentioned several times, it is because it is on many named places in Ottawa. Next to the VeteranA•s Monument is an architectural vision in steel, glass and gray granite. The Cathedral of Notre Dame and a seminary, both on the PLace De Armes, had been their earliest constructions. The business district has broad boulevards and many, many new glass-faced and towering office buildings. The huge complex of the Montreal hospital completes the crowded space on Rue Sherbrooke, just below the A’Mount,A“ for which Montreal is named.
We walked along the busy River front street of Rue Commune, watching the horse drawn buggies and bicycles compete with congested people and auto traffic.
We ventured into Simons and took the escalator down into the A’underground city.A“ It is a connected stretch, of all of the stores above ground, with many more food courts , coffee shops and shopping centers.
La starbucks and then climbed up to the surface, like some latter day Eloi, from the movie Time Machine. I asked the hotel concierge to book us reservations at the A’Auberge Vieux PortA“ on Rue Commune, for dinner. After the fireworks, like a huge receding tidal flow, the many thousands of visitors began to recede and exit the old port area. Gboth had to figure out the French translation for the English idiom A’to each his own.A“ It was sunny and pleasant out. The first floor contained 18th century French furnishings and a panoply of silver ware and Canadian tea services from the 1800A•s. We descended, by elevator, to the basement and walked across the street using the underground tunnel. We watched and enjoyed the street performers and the thousands of strollers as we finished lunch. It was late afternoon as we walked back to the hotel, stopping by for wine and cheese in Suite #701. If you look out your window but cana€™t see the masts because they are obstructed by other buildings then the power density will be mainly absorbed by those buildings and too low to worry about.
If the substation is immediately next to your home there is little in a practical sense you can do to reduce the magnetic fields. Unless the substation is immediately adjacent to your house the EMFa€™s from these small street substations fall to background levels within about 3 meters.
WI-FI and DECT phones are overwhelmingly the main contributors to household electro pollution with power densities far above any nearby mobile phone mast. If your internet connection is by telephone you will need the Netgear DG834 model opposite. If your internet connection is via a cable connection you would need the Linksys wired modem opposite.
These alarms use the same technology as DECT cordless phones and will continuously pulsate microwave energy throughout the babya€™s room and beyond. Best to change your old cathode-ray monitors (the ones with the deep backs) to any type of flat screen monitor as these give of far less Electromagnetic fields than the old type which thankfully you cana€™t buy any more.
In order to get your body back to its proper earth bound resonance you need to be sleeping earthed.A  Explanation of what is sleeping earthed and how you can do it is found on my website. Geobiology explores the relationship between life and the Eartha€™s physical and chemical environment. The history of geobiology in this respect dates back to 1929 when a German aristocrat Baron Gustov Von Pohl, an eminent dowser, made the extraordinary claim that cancer was caused by a€?energy linesa€™ that ran under the beds of the people that had died from the disease. Underground Streams: a€?Water will flow through any underground passage, fracture of fissure. The dark square with flashing white lines is a photographic print of microwaves radiating in the space above an underground watercourse taken in total darkness. Diagram depicts the flow of underground water and consequential chemical reactions within certain geological features that could be the origin of geopathic stress issues.
The dipolar nature of water molecules can also be part of the origin of electromagnetic fields originating from ground contained water. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.a€?These are usually sorted by the frequency. For visual explanation, NASA have a simple but useful diagram, and there is a far more detailed diagram available from thinkgeek (purchase required).
We believe that one of the main reasons that EMFs (particularly microwave frequencies) are potentially bioactive is due to the nature of the signal itself. We have evolved with the natural levels of EMFs produced by both the sun and world around us. Power frequency (50Hz in the UK) is given off by any appliance or transmission of AC (alternating current) electrity.
Childhood leukaemia has been internationally accepted as linked to powerfrequency exposure magnetic fields, with a wealth of literature finding increases in risk to this and other illnesses.
It is well documented and generally accepted that over-exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause burning and skin cancer. There are internationally accepted guidelines by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) that have been designed to limit both residential and occupational exposure to levels that are safely below those that can heat up tissue.
However, recently there has been a number of studies showing very specific biological effects far lower than these levels (see our Studies list), and as yet there is no international guidance that has taken any of these studies into effect. Powerfrequency electromagnetic fields are generated by any appliance running off AC (alternating current) power - anything plugged into a main power socket will generate them to some degree.
At the moment, health effects primarily associated with powerfrequency EMFs are due to the magnetic component - these include, but are not limited to, Childhood Leukaemia, Adult Leukaemia, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Miscarriage, and Clinical Depression. There is a fairly brief overview of health risks and evidence in the health concerns section of the electric power transmission article on Wikipedia. The last type of geopathic disturbance that I want to talk about before we have a look at man-made electromagnetic energies concerns the earth's natural geomagnetic field (the one that makes a compass needles pointA  north). The first geomagnetogram (G1) typically represents the values of the Earths normal geomagnetic field taken by me in a farmer's field near Poynings village not far from where I live.
The second geomagnetogram (G2) was taken above a sprung mattress from a lady suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depression, and has a magnetic anomaly of 22,435.4 nT. The Cliff of Tears a€?It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field a€?A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy.
Health risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields EMFa€™s in the home were first suggested in America by Wertheimer and Leeper, when they estimated the levels people were exposed to, using a€?wire codesa€™, and the local incidence of childhood leukaemia. Stress sensitive hormones such as prolactin and thyroxide have been found to be elevated in people at work in high electromagnetic environments.A  Prolactin plays a key role in moderating parts of the neuro-immune system and may also be an important precipitator of auto immune diseases.
It has been scientifically proven for the first time, with a double blind study by means of an electrocardiogram, that the detrimental effects of a€?water veinsa€? and other geopathically disturbing phenomena can cause serious health problems to persons exposed to them.
This presentation took place in March 2003 in the large auditorium of the Saint Johanns-hospital Landesklinjken SalzburgA  Germany. At locations where Geopathic stress zones are present, subsurface water plays a predominantrole, either as lakes, slowly moving underground water, or as water streams.
Technical electromagnetic fields can also drastically affect the human body, as soon as certain field strengths are reached.
The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.These are usually sorted by the frequency. The Cliff of Tears It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. 17 Mile Drive CA (1) 22S05 CA (1) Abbot Kinney CA (1) Acton CA (1) Aerial Photos CA (4) Agua Fria CA (1) Alabama Hills CA (1) Alamitos Bay CA (4) Alamitos Beach CA (1) Alamitos Landing CA (1) Alder Springs CA (1) Aliso Beach CA (1) Alta Sierra CA (2) Alturas CA (1) Amber Dubois (1) Amboy CA (2) Amboy Crater CA (1) Anaheim CA (3) Anchor Bay CA (1) Ancient Bristlecone Forest (1) Angeles Crest Highway CA (2) Angeles Forest Highway CA (3) Angeles Na (1) Angeles National Forest CA (10) Antelope Valley CA (2) Antelope Valley Wildflowers (3) Antelope Valley Wildflowers CA (2) Antioch CA (1) Anza Borrego State Park CA (11) Arcata CA (1) Arthur B.
DESCRIPTION: Although few ancient Chinese maps are extant, it is evident from various descriptions in early geographical literature and Korean copies and imitations of old Chinese maps that the Terrestrial Continent was centered around China, encircled by a large ring of water quite similar to Homera€™s Oceanus, and further enclosed by an imaginary outer continent (#105, #254, #255, #256).
The subject of this monograph is a map referred to as Yoktae chewang honil kangnido [Map of historical emperors and kings and of integrated borders and terrain], also known as the Honil kangni yoktae kukto chi to [Map of integrated regions and terrains and of historical countries and capitals], and hereafter will be simply referred to as the Kangnido. According to the preface found in China€™s Yangcha€™on chip, the map is a synthesis of two earlier Chinese maps, an early 14th century (~1330) map by Li Tse-min [Zemin] and another map from the late 14th century (~1370) by Cha€™ing Cha€™n [Qing Jun], both maps now lost however. The place to begin discussion of this very unusual map is with its preface, the crucial part of which is translated here from the text on the Ryukoku copy, with reference to the closely similar version in Cha€™A?an Chin's collected works, the Yangcha€™on chip. Takahashi Tadashi has shown that the Kangnidoa€™s Chinese transcriptions of place-names in southwest Asia, Africa, and Europe come from Persianized Arabic originals. The European part of the map, which is said to contain some 100 names, has not yet been the object of an individual study, and no details of this section of the Kangnido seem to have been published. Cha€™A?an Chin observed in his preface that the Kuang yu ta€™u had only sketchy treatment of the area east of the Liao River and of Korea. The last major element of the map to be supplied, as far as the Koreans were concerned, was Japan. It is generally assumed by Korean cartographical specialists that this map, brought back in 1401, was the basis for the representation of Japan on the Kangnido.
The northeastern coast of Africa, as well as Arabia, Asia Minor and the Mediterranean Sea with Italy and Spain were, as a whole, known to the Chinese from the 12th century, either by description, or, in the case of the African and Arabian coasts, from their own experience. Prior to the Age of Great Discoveries, the African world below the Sahara, by all indications, was essentially an enigma to geographers in Europe. From the other side, the Arabs undoubtedly possessed considerable advantages that enabled them to venture across the dry lands and beyond. While numerous places in North Africa were mentioned by Chinese authors of the 8th and 9th centuries, it is more difficult to establish a clear milestone for the advance of Chinaa€™s knowledge concerning tropical Africa. Returning to Cha€™A?an Chin and Li Huia€™s map, the delineation of the southern half of Africa is of particular interest. The fact that the names of the Chinese cities on China€™s map are all the same as on the maps from 1320, further substantiates that the basic content of the map, as a whole, must date back to the famous Chinese cartographer Chu Ssu-pena€™s own time. Whatever the emphasis of the cartographer, rivers as a rule, were the most prominent landmarks in every Chinese map; and for the inland areas (central Asia especially) China€™s map is a good example of the Korean conformity to Chinese tradition, and we see the magnitude of rivers and other water bodies greatly exaggerated. Another contributing factor in the mapa€™s remarkable knowledge of the West is that which was obtained as a result of the near conquest of the entire known [inhabited] world, or oikoumene, by the Mongols during the 13th century. The overall disposition and bulk of the different components of the Kangnido at first make an odd appearance. Little is known about how the Kangnido came to Japan, but it probably arrived there independently on three separate occasions. The graphic above illustrates a proposed hypothetical development or a€?transitiona€? of the Korean world map, beginning with the Kangnido of 1402 through to the Cha€™onhado [map of all under heaven] in the 16th century (see #231). This information permits the conclusion that the Kangnido was probably often copied in Korea during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Thus Japan is righted and put in its proper place, the respective masses of Korea, China, and Africa are brought into more accurate relation, and England and Scandinavia emerge from Europe.
Movable type printing with cast metal movable type, which Korea had pioneered among the East Asian nations in 1242, underwent considerable development and refinement under the 15th century kings; by the time Gutenberg perfected his press in 1454, hundreds of editions of books in Chinese and several in Korean had been printed in Korea with movable type. The spirit that animated all of these projects, and that marks the 15th century as perhaps Koreaa€™s greatest, was both national and international in character, and showed a high degree of independent thinking. In addition to practical administrative concerns, mapmaking served to strengthen the national prestige and royal power. The Honil kangni yoktae kukto chi to [Map of Integrated Lands and Regions of Historical Countries and Capitals, short name Kangnido] is a world map that was made in Korea in 1402, the second year of the reign of Taejong of Joseon. It is the second oldest surviving world map from East Asia, after the similar Chinese Da Ming Hun Yi Tu, part of a tradition begun in the 1320s when geographical information about western countries became available via Islamic geographers in the Mongol empire. Chin had returned from a trip to China in the summer of 1399, probably bringing the two Chinese maps with him, and both ministers had just completed reporting on land surveys of Koreaa€™s northern frontiers to the royal court. In the fourth year of the Jianwen era (1402), Gim Sahyeong and Yi Mu, and later Li Hui, analyzed the two Chinese maps and combined these two maps into a single map. The map depicts the general form of the Old World, from Africa and Europe in the west to Japan in the east although the western portion is much smaller than its actual size. Place names based on traditional Chinese knowledge and Islamic knowledge coexist separately.
Chinese Exploration: Some have used this map as evidence of early global exploration by China. It is one of the oldest surviving world maps from East Asia although the exact date of creation remains unknown.
The place names of China on the map reflect the political situation in 1389, or the 22nd year of the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. Relationship to other maps: Maps had for centuries played an important role in the government of such a vast country, and surviving examples on stone dating from AD 1137 (Book II, #218) but based on much earlier surveys, show great accuracy, using a grid system. By the early years of the 14th century, when Mongol domination over much of Eurasia created favorable conditions for east-west communication, Islamic maps of Europe and Africa had found their way to China, encouraging Chinese cartographers to create world maps incorporating the new information.
Scholars consider that the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu was ultimately based on a world map named Shengjiao Guangbei Tu (e???•™a»?e?«a?–). Compared to the Kangnido, the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu provides more detailed information on Mongolia and Central Asia and India. It replicates the curvature of the Earth by compression of areas furthest away from China (most obviously the extreme horizontal squeeze of Europe), their reduced size making both a geographical and a political statement. The European coverage goes only as far as the new portolan mapping, showing the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. Hunyi jiangli lidai guodu zhi tu[General map of the distances and the historic capitals]: Honkoo-ji Tokiwa Museum of Historical Materials, Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture.
Chinaa€™s towns and cities, its river systems, and the Great Wall are all shown on the map.
Cha€™A?ana€™s own role was probably important, even though he insists that he only stood in the background and a€?enjoyably watched the making of the map.a€? But he was being modest and tactful, since he was younger in age and junior in rank to the two ministers.
A A A  The European part of the map, which is said to contain some 100 names, has not yet been the object of an individual study, and no details of this section of the Kangnido seem to have been published. The rascally Americans had burned the place, during the War of 1812, to shut the British military supply line down. He was the unlucky British Subaltern who had been routed from town by the rascally Americans, before they torched everything. We enjoyed the meal and our surroundings, counting ourselves lucky to be here hale and healthy, sipping wine and enjoying a meal at a nice resort.
We walked along the River for a bit then sat in front of our rooms, admiring the visage of the River and the comings and goings along it.
Check-in was a bit hectic, as the beleaguered valet scurried to the hotel lot to retrieve exiting cars and park incoming. It sits strategically on the Ottawa River, astride the border of Ontario and Quebec Provinces. In 1867, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario and New Brunswick had been merged into the New Nation of Canada. Then we wandered a bit enjoying the spectacle of a NationA•s Capitol in Summer, tourist throngs enjoying their heritage.
The Chateau Fairmont Laurier is a turreted fairy style castle in the grand manner of the Canadian Rail Road mega hotels. The British had originally constructed the canal as a system for military transport from 1826-1832. Canada is self sufficient in its oil needs, getting most of its supply from the oil fields in Alberta. A’ (Darcy had beena founder of the Candian Republic but was assiassinated near Parliament Hill in 1867.) It sits at the end of the Sparks St.
They marched, wheeled and stood at arms in synchronized movement to the delight of the crowd.
Finally, the pipers wailed out the stirring melody of A’Oh Canada,A“ the Canadian National Anthem. For $6, we entered this stone and glass pyramid, marveling at the size and grandeur of the facility.
It is an interesting portrait of native Canadian life on the far shores of the Arctic Ocean.
Throngs of tourists were already headed up to Parliament Hill to watch the nightly sound and light show projected onto parliament Building. We walked back along Elgin to our hotel, where we settled in with our books and waited for Morpheus to claim us.
A party of 39 French Missionaries, Sulpician Fathers from Paris, under the direction of Monsignor Maisoneauve comprised the entourage.
It is a single-story collection of pricey artistA•s shops, featuring hand-made pottery, jewelry, paintings and other items for the discerning shopper.
It really is an A’underground cityA“ that frozen Montrealers can use during the harsh Winter. On etage quatre, we found an entire collection of Dutch and Italian painters from the 1600A•s and 1700A•s.
A monsoon rainstorm, the night before, had given us water in the basement, and that awful armpit smell of mold, as a return present.
Or if you are addicted to cordless phones by the low energy Eco + friendly types that only emit a signal when you are using them.A  Google Siemens Gigaset Low Radiation Phones. An example of this is a digital bedside alarm clock that only need 6 volts to operate but plugged into your 240 volt ring circuit. Click first on my a€?Studenta€™s Notesa€™ button and scroll to the end for pictures and explanation. The term was adopted many years ago by some German dowsers, a€?geobiologistsa€™ who specialised in surveying houses for both geopathic and electromagnetic stress using both dowsing and scientific instruments. To test his theory he persuaded the Mayor of the Bavarian town of Vilsbiburg to allow him to survey the town for such energies with his dowsing rod.
As it does so it produces its own electromagnetic field often high into microwave frequency. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground. As an extremely dialectic medium, water favours the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly.
Background levels of EMFs vary hugely depending on which part of the spectrum being looked for - natural light is an obvious example.
Electrical wiring creates electric and magnetic powerfrequency fields throughout houses and other wired buildings, but these levels are usually very low unless there is a wiring fault.
Most areas of science can only deal in probabilities, and that becomes clearer as more scientific studies investigating health effects are produced. There is more disagreement about ill health effects from radiofrequency radiation, which is newer for most of the population, though a well-established 'microwave sickness' has been described. As a result fortunes are spent on protective sun cream and information services as to prudent avoidance of such exposures.
Molecules in the food are vibrated by high levels of microwave frequency Electromagnetic energy, causing it to heat up and subsequently cook. This, coupled with misleading statements designed to imply that there is currently no published evidence showing a link from organisations such as WHO, are the primary reasons why this topic remains in such hotly-disputed contention. ICNIRP have set guidelines for residential and occupational exposure to powerfrequency magnetic fields, based primarily on electric shock responses and induced currents, currently set at 100 microtesla (AµT) - equivalent to 1 Gauss. The evidence on these is mixed, but the link with Childhood Leukaemia is now considered to be pretty solid, with a doubling in risk at magnetic fields above 0.4 AµT (again far below the guidelines set by ICNIRP). The bottom line is that nature neverA  intended us to sleep on such a disturbed site as shown in figure G2 which has been artificially produced by the bed being placed near to a radiator ( causing the high spike to the right of the graph)A  and the springs causing the rest of the disturbed site. As you can see the magnetic contours of this bed size area (6a€™x4a€™) are very gentle and slightly undulating showing an overall geomagnetic anomaly of 582 nT (nano Tesla). The sprung mattresses I have measured so far over the past two years have had magnetic anomalies between 4,000 and 61,000 nT.
However there are instances in nature where abnormal magnetic anomalies exist usually due to a sudden change in mineralogy or geological structure over a short distance. It appears that the exposure of a dividing cell to an inhomogeneous DC magnetic field causes a physical force to be exerted on the chromosomes or on one of the other microscopic structures associated with mitosis, resulting in structural abnormalities in the chromosomes.
Since that time, international research has increased year by year, and the potential health risks have been identified as cancer (especially childhood leukaemia, probably the most studied illness because of the original findings), depression, suicide, miscarriage, some forms of dementia, respiratory and immune system problems. Research by scientists such as Ross Adey in the USA and Dr Cyril Smith here in Britain is moving the frontier of our understanding.
Hubank of Vienna: a€?Speaking at a conference in England paid tribute to a group of Austrian researches composed of medical doctors, physicists and biochemists.
There is clear indication that a combination of technical fields and Geopathic stress zones can multiply the effect and therefore become extremely harmful to all living beings. They eat and contaminate food, damage structures and property, and transmit parasites and diseases to other animals and humans. 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This map of the world was made in Korea in 1402, the second year of the reign of Taejong of Joseon. Li Tse-min, of whom we know nothing save that he flourished around 1330, produced a ShA?ng-chiao kuang-pei ta€™u [Map for the Diffusion of Instruction]. We do not know how many tens of millions of li there are from China in the center to the four seas at the outer limits, but in compressing and mapping it on a folio sheet several feet in size, it is indeed difficult to achieve precision; that is why [the results of] the mapmakers have generally been either too diffuse or too abbreviated.
But the real cartographer, even though Cha€™A?an minimizes his role, was Li Hui, whose entire career was in rather low-ranking but often special positions. While some of Takahashia€™s matches do not command credence in early-modern Chinese phonological terms, he generally makes a convincing case. The Mediterranean is clearly recognizable, as are the Iberian and Italian peninsulas and the Adriatic, but until the place-names can be read and interpreted it will be impossible to come to any firm understanding of it. His language suggests that some image of Korea, however deficient, was on the original Kuang yu ta€™u (#227) and that this was supplemented or replaced by Li Hui. At this particular moment in time, Koreaa€™s relations with the Japanese were very difficult owing to the continuing problem of Japanese marauders, who were beyond the ability of the Ashikaga Shogunate to control.
As maps of Japan go in this period, the outline on this one is unusually good: the positioning of Kyushu with respect to Honshu is quite accurate, and the bend north of the Kanto area is indicated better than on many of the Gyoki - style maps then current.
Aside from the effect of the inhospitable barriers surrounding the region, two great retarding factors that hindered the Europeans from crossing the immense waste, or from sailing into the tropical waters, was their belief in the Ocean of Darkness [Atlantic] and the fear of extreme heat on land and in the water further south. The earliest Chinese reference to North Africa can be found in the Ching-hsing-chi [An Account of Travels and Experiences], written by Ta Huan in 762 A.D.
In the first place, the shape of the continent, which is basically triangular, and its general orientation, south, are clearly recognizable. However, the Kangnido map of the world presents a totally different emphasis from that of Chu Ssu-pen.
Similarly along the coast from China to Africa, major rivers such as the Red, Mekong, Menam, Salween, Ganges, Indus, Tigris, and Euphrates are laid out in an unmistakable sequence in order to bring forth the locations of the many states and cities between them.a€?The treatment of the western regions is also very interesting in that it includes about 100 place-names for Europe and about 35 for Africa (unfortunately, though, it has not been possible for scholars to identify many of them). And a final point of interest concerning this remarkable map is that it could not possibly have benefited from the information which the Chinese explorer Cheng Ho certainly had brought back five years later concerning the peninsularity of India.
On the one hand, there is nothing formulaic or mandated about its structure, such as the traditional European T-in-O scheme, or the wheel arrangement of the quasi-cosmographic cha€™onhado of later Korean popularity (see #231).
China and India, like a monstrous cell that had not yet divided, make up a dominating mass that overfills the entire center of the map. A map whose composition was guided by the nation's top educator and Confucian ideologist, and presided over by two ministers of state, was surely destined for display in a prominent, central place in the capital. Both the Ryukoku and Honmyo-ji copies were evidently part of the loot from Hideyoshia€™s invasion of Korea (1592-1598).
However, there are some scholars that will argue that this illustration should be reversed and that the Cha€™onhado design preceded the Kangnido world concept, at least in China. But the map as a whole, and particularly its treatment of India and Africa, strongly evokes the Kangnido. Finally, King Sejong in 1443 invented the Korean alphabet, an amazingly original and scientific system which still serves as the writing system of Korea and which is the only indigenous alphabetic system in use among the East Asian countries.
Koreans did not merely copy the Chinese culture they imported, but recast and it into forms and institutions that were distinctively different from Chinaa€™s.
At this time, Joseon needed comprehensive maps for the reform of administrative districts and a move of the capital. It depicts the general form of the Old World, from Africa and Europe in the west to Japan in the east. The map currently in RyA«koku University (hereafter referred to as the RyA«koku map) has gathered scholarly attention since the early 20th century. Since Li Zemina€™s map had problems, they added the enlarged Korea, and also appended a map of Japan. It contains the cartographic knowledge of Afro-Eurasia that cannot be found in the east in the pre-Mongol period. These areas are depicted in great detail while place names are sparsely distributed in northwestern Eurasia. The knowledge of the contour of Africa predates the European explorations of Vasco da Gama.
China began to explore the territories to the west from the embassy of Zhang Qian in 126 B.C.
The original text was written in classical Chinese, but Manchu labels were later superimposed on them. It depicts the general form of the Old World, placing China in the center and stretching northward to Mongolia, southward to Java, eastward to central Japan, and westward to Africa and Europe. Japanese scholar Miya Noriko speculated on the motivation behind it: Although the Hongwu Emperor, first of the Ming dynasty, drove the Mongol Yuan Dynasty out of China in 1368, Mongols maintained military power that posed a real threat to the new dynasty. By then the Chinese had also developed the magnetic compass, and in the 13th century western versions of that device allowed European cartography, almost abandoned after the fall of the western Roman Empire, to catch up with Chinese standards of accuracy. In Manchuria, Changbai Mountain, where the foundation myth of the Manchu Aisin Gioro imperial family was set, is overly portrayed.
Outside China, sub-Saharan Africa is depicted in a good approximation of the correct shape, complete with mountains near the southern tip. Unlike the African lake, those seas are not shaded with wave symbols, and nor is the nearby Caspian Sea, mapped in Islamic style with two islands, suggesting that the whole area is based on a single Islamic map.
It sits across the road from where we were staying for the evening, at A’The Glen House resort.A“ It is a small complex, of two story buildings, that sits along a quiet inlet of the St.
We checked into our room, #147 of the Hickory Woods section, ($170 night) and then walked down to the water to sit and enjoy the bright sunshine on the river. We sipped a glass of Cabernet, as we read our books and then drifted off to sleep for a pleasant conversation with Ozzie nelson. It is a six-blocks long string of open air restaurants, tourist shops, street performers and office workers, lolling for lunch or a break. They are an eye catching combination of London and Paris in the 1600A•s, though constructed here in the 1860A•s. It had originally been founded by ex patriate Americans, fleeing the American Revolution in the 1770A•s. I wrote up my notes as we sipped a glass of cabernet and then drifted into a conversation with Ozzie Nelson. We settled into our room, read for a time and then drifted into the welcome abyss of sleep.
After coffee, we found the A’Canadian Hall.A“ It is an interesting collection of rural and Winter tableaus celebrating Beau Canada. It is a two story , comfortable place with brick walls, wrought iron railings and lots of charm. It thrived as a fur trading center between Europe and all of the interior of North America.
The Casino, Dome and stadium stand against the skyline as markers of the cityA•s prominence.
The temp was warm and in the 80A•s out now, but in the Winter, this place is frigid, with temps falling well below zero.
We sat in dimly lit elegance in the 5 star basement restaurant.Obviously our hotel concierge had mistaken us for people of means instead of the casual types that we are.
Hebert, Suzor-Cote, Paul Peel, Helen McNichols and others were represented in a delightful gallery of oils that pleases the eye.
We cranked up the air conditioning and drove to a nearby Tim HortonA•s for soup and sandwiches, while the condo cooled off. The Mayor agreed and in January that year Baron Von Pohl accompanied by the Mayor and other officials measured numerous energy lines that ran through the streets and houses of the town.
This field will fluctuate depending on what is dissolved in it, how fast it is flowing or whether it is interacting with any other type of earth energy.
While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere. Taking its electric charge distribution in to account, turning a water molecule will result in a changed field composition. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents). The earth's magnetic fields are static fields, unlike man-made alternating current (AC), which has no natural counterpart.
Unfortunately the studies are not always well done, and the flaws in any given study (showing an effect or otherwise) are often not reported. Precautionary levels which will protect us from illness have not been agreed on, as some countries wish the levels to be lower than others. If you stood in front of an operational microwave with no door your insides would slowly be cooked.
The reason for these abnormally high magnetic abnormalities is a result of the bed springs intensifying the magnetic flux of these fields, made worse by the interaction of high magnetic fields around the bed and house from numerous electrical appliances, extension cables running under the bed and transformers placed near to the bed. One instance of this is in the USA, at a place called Gyngywamp, near Croton, Connecticut knownA  as 'The Cliff of Tears' where visitors to this site very frequently become depressed, gums start to bleed and nose bleeds occur.
Messages pass between the brain, nerves and organs and even from cell to cell by electro- magnetic signalling. In the course of several years research using classical medical methods they investigated about 1000 people for the effects of these geopathic interference zones. There were about 400 people present including numerous renowned specialists; physicians, physicists and geologists, in the all-German audience. Also, metal ions moved by water can induce small intensity broadband electromagnetic fields (EMF). Rats live and thrive in a wide variety of climates and conditions and are often found in and around homes and other buildings, on farms, and in gardens and open fields.A IDENTIFICATIONPeople dona€™t often see rats, but signs of their presence are easy to detect. CA (1) Orange County CA (1) Orick CA (1) Ortega Highway CA (3) Oxnard CA (3) Oyster Point (1) Pacific Grove CA (1) Palm Desert CA (6) Palm Spings CA (7) Palm Springs Air Museum CA (1) Palomar Observatory CA (1) Palos Verdes Peninsula CA (6) Pearblossom CA (1) Pebble Beach CA (1) Pebble Beach State Park CA (1) Pelican Hill CA (1) Perris CA (3) Petco Park CA (2) Petrified Forest CA (1) Petroglyph Point CA (1) Piedras Blancas CA (1) Pio Pico State Historic Park CA (1) Pismo Beach CA (1) Pit River CA (2) Placerville CA (1) Playa del Rey CA (1) Point Arena CA (1) Point Cabrillo CA (1) Point Lobos CA (1) Point Loma CA (2) Point Mugu CA (1) Pomona CA (1) Pomponio State Beach CA (1) Port Hueneme CA (2) Port of Long Beach CA (4) Port of Los Angeles CA (3) Port San Luis CA (1) Prather CA (1) Prisk Elementary School (2) Pyramid Lake CA (2) Quail Botanical Gardens CA (1) Quail Lake CA (1) Queen Mary CA (1) Ramona CA (2) Rancho Mirage CA (1) Rancho Palos Verdes CA (1) Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden CA (2) Randsburg Ghost Town CA (1) Red Rock Canyon State Park CA (1) Redding CA (4) Redlands CA (1) Redondo Beach CA (1) Redwood National and State Parks CA (1) Redwood National Forest (1) Redwood Trails CA (2) Redwood Valley CA (1) Ricardo Breceda CA (1) Richardson Grove State Park CA (1) Riverside CA (24) Riverside National Cemetery (2) Robert C. It easily predates any world map known from either China or Japan and is therefore the oldest such work surviving in the East Asian cartographical tradition, and the only one prior to the Ricci world maps of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The map by the Tiantai monk Cha€™ing ChA?n (1328-1392) must have been made some forty or fifty years later; it was called Hun-i chiang-li ta€™u [Map of the Territories of the One World].
His map of Korea, which was separately known, was almost certainly the basis for the Korean part of the world map. One of the more interesting correspondences is the name placed by the mountains near the Ptolemaic twin lakes that are the source of the Nile. Li is known to have produced a map of Korea, called the Pa€™altodo, [Map of the Eight Provinces], and it was probably a version of this that appears today on the Kangnido.
Diplomatic initiatives were in progress, and coastal defenses and strategies were undergoing constant development.
But for the joining of Shikoku to Honshu, the three main islands (adding Kyushu; Hokkaido, of course, not included at that time) make a very decent appearance. As a matter of fact, the first terrestrial globe ever manufactured in China (1267) owes its existence to the Arabic scholar Djamal-ud-Din.
In spite of the dangers, real and imagined, adventurers from the Greco-Roman days down to the time of Henry the Navigator persisted in probing the unknown beyond the Canaries, some passing by Cape Verde and others reaching as far as the coast of Sierre Leone. As the map title suggests, it aims at showing the locations of a€?all the countries and major cities in history in a comprehensive coveragea€?. For those areas that are identifiable, in the northern part of Africa the Sahara is colored in black, like the Gobi in so many Chinese maps (including the famous Kuang Yu Ta€™u, #227), and the position of Alexandria is indicated by the placement of a prominent pagoda-like object representing the famous Pharos. Only in a subsequent version of about 1580 (in the Imperial Palace at Peking) is India shown as a pronounced, separate peninsula between southeast Asia and Africa. The attempt here was to study the best maps available in China, Korea, and Japan, and put together a comprehensive, indeed a€?integrateda€? [honil], map that included every known part of the world, truly a breathtaking objective by the cartographic standards of any nation at that time. It was probably on a screen or a wall in some important palace building frequented by the king and senior officials.
The Ryukoku map was reportedly given by Hideyoshi to the Honganji, an important Buddhist temple in Kyoto. According to Korean historian Gari Ledyard the key element in this proposed hypothetical development is the Arabian peninsula, which with the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea forms a peninsula between the two rivers on the Cha€™onhado. It also seems conceivable that it is reflected in an interesting map entitled Yoji chondo (Yeoji jeondo) [the Complete Terrestrial Map], dated about 1775 (illustrated below). This is good evidence that the Kangnido tradition was not broken by the Hideyoshi wars, but stayed alive in Korea for two more centuries.

It is similar to the 15th century Kangnido in general structure: large Asia, small Africa and Europe, undefined India.
1419-1450) and his son King Sejo (r.1455-1468) extended Korean cartographical foundations by standardizing linear measurement and assembling detailed distance data between Seoul and the approximately 335 districts of the country. The Kangnido is a perfect example of this process: China, either as originator or transmitter, provided Korea with most of the materials for the map, but the transformation and processing of those materials into a genuine world map was conceived and executed in Korea. It was also pursuing a restoration of its northern border and relocation of its population, as well as responding to coastal raids by Japanese pirates. Although, overall, it is less geographically accurate than its Chinese cousin, most obviously in the depiction of rivers and small islands, it does feature some improvements (particularly the depictions of Korea and Japan, and a less cramped version of Africa).
The other map is the Tenri map, located in Tenri University and is called by a similar name (a¤§??Za?‹a?–). Li Hui supplemented many gaps and omissions on Li Zemina€™s map with Koreaa€™s own map, and added a map of Japan, making an entirely new map. Place names presented on the map suggest that the western portion of the map reflects roughly the situation of the early 14th century. Names based on the former were placed to the north and east of Besh Baliq even if they are actually located to the west. They correspond to the territories of Ilkhanate and the rival Golden Horde respectively, reinforcing Ilkhanate as the main source of information. In particular, the southern tip of Africa is quite clearly depicted, as well as a river that may correspond to the Orange River in Southern Africa.
The map was created in China sometime during the Ming Dynasty and handed over to the new rulers of China, the Manchus. Others maintain a cautious attitude, suggesting that what was revised in 1389 is probably a source map of the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu and that the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu itself was created much later. The situation was changed in 1388 when Uskhal Khan of Northern Yuan was killed and the Khubilaid line of succession was terminated.
Other extant maps considered to be based on Lia€™s map are some copies of the Kangnido (1402) and a pair of maps named Dongnan Haiyi Tu (??±a?—?µ·a¤·a?–) and Xinan Haiyi Tu (e??a?—?µ·a¤·a?–), which is recorded in the Kuang Yu Tu (a»?e?‡a?–)(1555) by Luo Hongxian (#227). It presents India as a peninsula while it sinks into the a€?Chinese continenta€? on the Kangnido. The use of color is particularly effective within China itself, including elegant touches like the ochre tint of the Huang He [Yellow River]. The interior of the continent is extraordinary: a river with twin sources (the common depiction in Classical and Islamic maps of the Nile) starts in the south of the continent, but enters the Red Sea, while the Nile, contrary to the information in non-Chinese maps of the era (though in conformity with a reported Arab geographical legend that farther south from the Sahara Desert is a great lake, far greater than the Caspian Sea) has its source in a vast inland sea. The original text was written in Classical Chinese, but Manchu labels were later superimposed on them. The fir trees, and the bucolic scenery of the area, much belie the horrendous snowfalls that blanket the area in Winter. Maybe that's why Indians and British soldiers, from the ButlerA•s Rangers, burned Buffalo to the ground a few months later. We listened to a musical group, watched another street actor and then browsed a few shops, buying some postcards and stamps.
The 1867 Act of Confederation, by the British Parliament, had established Canada as a separate nation. Roof lines, flourished in black wrought iron, and the cathedral shaped windows reflected the beauty of the French influence on the two flanking buildings. We looked out, from our perch on Parliament hill, and could see the twin silver spires of the Cathedral of Notre Dame and the beginnings of A’Embassy RowA“ along Sussex Street. We drove by the enormous Beau Arts Center, the huge War Museum and the much used Museum of Civilization. Noting the the waterfall on the Ottawa River, he remarked that it looked like the curtains (Rideau) in his apartment in Paris.
Americans had looked down the sights of their rifles at these men in two wars and fought alongside of them in a dozen others. It is carved from the Northwest Territories and is peopled by native Inuits along the Arctic shores of Canada. We found and entered the A’Blue Cactus Grille.A“ It is open and airy like Sloppy JoeA•s Grille in Key West.
At Darcy Mc GeeA•s Irish Pub, we stood for a time and listened to the Sons of Scotland play some stirring music on their bag pipes.
We got our tickets at the kiosk and boarded a delightful, open-air, double-decker bus for the ride.($35 each) it was 80 degrees, cloudy and comfortable out.
From 1715 through 1815 the small settlement had been surrounded by a stone wall, like cities in medieval Europe. In 1759, at the climactic battle of Montreal (fought in Quebec City) France lost all of Canada to the English.
To combat the harsh temperatures, the city had developed over 33 km of A’underground.A“ Two underground boulevards, paralleling busy Rue Ste. We climbed down from our lofty perch and sought out our chatty van driver for a ride back to the Hotel Place De Armes. The Main altar is a series of gilded carvings, on three levels, depicting various religious themes. On this end of the waterfront, sits a distinctive tower clock, It rests on a point overlooking the Cartier Bridge and the St. We stopped at a Burger King, for bottles of Eau Dasani, and let our body temperatures cool down. On Rue Francis Xavier, we found something promising called A’Cafe De Mateo.A“ It was hot and we were tiring.
It seemed that half of Montreal was in the old port area having dinner and getting ready for the fire works. This massive Cathedral holds a smaller version of the enormous, four-collumned Throne of St.
We sat for a time in the PLace de Armes, watching the interesting throngs wander to and fro. We chose the outside patio of A’Le Grande TerraceA“ and settled in for Caesar salads with Salmon. We retreated to our room, where we had cheese, croissants and finished off the Mondavi Cabernet as we read our books and awaited sleep.
Baron Von Pohla€™s energy lines were then compared with the towna€™s record of houses where people had died from cancer during the last ten years, which showed a remarkable coincidence. Dr WA?rst conducted experiments in several German towns, in the rooms of cancer patients and found unusual amounts of gamma radiation in the houses he surveyed using a Geiger a€“counter. Interference with the earths natural energy field is particularly marked by the flow of these underground streams especially where two watercourses or other types of energy line cross. If thus in a pipe a hydronamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and magnetic vortex and eddy current, are the result. Microwave frequency exposure is a relatively new phenomenon: 100 years ago the background radiation was millions of times lower than it is now, and it is as recent as the mobile phone boom (~1990's) that the modern, digitally pulsed signals have become ubiquitous in the Western world.
Because of this, microwave ovens are stringently designed against leaks, and opening the door operates a safety mechanism which disables the oven, thus removing the risk to the operator. Within our evolutionary history our bodies own magnetic field has integrated with this magnetic field which is responsible for controlling amongst other things, circadian rhythms, mood changes and certain hormone production such as melatonin and serotonin. Our forefathers sleeping on straw or feathered mattresses in houses devoid of any electrical fields or microwave energy would not have experienced such geomagnetic disturbances. Much of the research in the past 35 years into EMF health effects has concentrated on magnetic fields because they are easier to measure and it was thought they were more likely to interact with our bodiesa€™ cells. When this is interfered with by outside EMFa€™s problems begin to emerge, as the systems that control and regulate our bodies are impaired. They found that the altered electrical and magnetic field above a geographical distressed zone changed the electrical impulses passing along the nerves of the body. In California, the most troublesome rats are two introduced species, the roof rat (Figure 1) and the Norway rat (Figure 2). However, by the middle of the eighth century the overland route across Central Asia had become paralyzed, and China was compelled to reorient herself to the warm seas and thus embarked on nearly seven centuries of commercial relations with the Near East. Although it is no longer preserved in Korea itself, there are three versions in Japan; of these the copy in the Ryukoku University Library (Kyoto) is acknowledged to be the earliest, and in the best condition.
Both of these maps made their way to Korea in 1399 through the agency of the Korean ambassador, Chin Shih-Heng (1341-1407), and were combined in 1402 by Li Hui and Cha€™A?an. In the 4th year of the Jianwen era (1402), Left Minister Chin [Shih-Heng] of Sangju, and Right Minister Yi [Mu] of Tanyang, during moments of rest from their governing duties, made a comparative study of these maps and ordered Li Hui, an orderly, to collate them carefully and then combine them into a single map. Judging by Cha€™A?ana€™s description of the monk Cha€™ing ChA?na€™s Hun-i chiang-li ta€™u, it was probably an ordinary historical map of China, compiled in the late 14th century. Though not on the Ryukoku copy of the Kangnido, the Tenri University copy shows the Chinese transcription Zhebulu hama, which Takahashi identifies with Persianized Arabic Djebel alqamar [Mountains of the Moon]. All this was backed by a general Korean effort to improve the governmenta€™s knowledge of Japan, and this involved maps in particular. But this splendid effort seems to be vitiated by orienting the Japanese portion so that west is at the top. The same holds true for the western half of one of the previously mentioned sources, Li Tse-mina€™s map of ca. The source of the Nile and the actual shape of the African continent, however, remained largely subject to speculation among the Europeans.
The former treatise mentions, among other things, Mo-lin [Maghrib el Aksa, or the Western Territory] and Cha€™iu-sa-lo [Djezyret], the desert expanse between them, and the customs of the inhabitants.
The only European exceptions seem to be the world maps of Albertinus de Virga (1415, #240) and the one in the so-called Medicean or Laurentian Sea Atlas (#233), the lattera€™s presumptive date of 1351 being subject to controversy primarily because of its remarkable depiction of the continent of Africa. Hence, no names are given for the southern half of Africa and the Indian Ocean except for the area around Zanzibar that was already the key trading center in East Africa. The interior of the continent is filled in by a body of water surrounding an island that is designated as Huang-sha [desert]. The maps of this type are rightly regarded by such authorities as Fuchs as the most magnificent examples of Yuan cartography, completely over-shadowing all contemporary European or Arabic world maps. To the west, the Arabian peninsula, with a clearly delineated Persian Gulf, and the African continent, with its tip correctly pointing south (and not east, as on many early European maps), hang thinly but with assurance, as if they belonged exactly where they are. But a good understanding of its function is hampered by the fact that we know nothing of its history after its completion. This institution ultimately was divided into two branches, east and west, of which the latter (Nishi Honganji) is today associated with Ryukoku University, which explains the mapa€™s present location.
This map, while clearly influenced by some Sino-Jesuit world map, also shows a strong structural similarity to the Kangnido, as its owner, Yi Cha€™an, has pointed out. Europe and Africa are much more precisely drawn however, and it is possible to make out words such as a€?Atlantic Oceana€? (a¤§e????‹) Mediterranean sea (a?°a?­?µ·), or Italy (?„?a¤§e‡?a?z). As a result of these efforts, an excellent national map was produced in 1463, and a complete geographical survey of the nation, the Tongguk yoji sungam, was compiled in 1481.
At least since Unified Silla and Goryeo periods, Korea was actively trading with Arab nations. It has been suggested that, despite showing most of the rest of the world, the Korean officials who produced the map were less interested in portraying current images of neighboring Asian countries than in presenting an up-to-date image of Korea itself. It is presumed that the RyA«koku map was copied in Korea but it is not clear when the copy was brought to Japan. It is currently located at the Honkoo-ji Tokiwa Museum of Historical Materials, Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture in Japan.
In the East, geographic information about the west was not updated in the post-Mongol period unless Europeans such as Matteo Ricci brought Western knowledge. For example, the Talas River, which was important for the Tang Dynasty was placed to the northeast of Besh Baliq although its actual direction is northwest.
To the north of the African continent, beyond the unexplored a€?blacka€? central mass, a pagoda is represented for the lighthouse of Alexandria, and the Arab word Misr for Cairo (al-QA?hira) and Mogadishu (Maqdashaw) are shown among others.
The Buddhist monk Faxian was the first Chinese to sail into the Indian Ocean in the beginning of the fifth century AD, visiting India and Sri Lanka by ship. It has been kept in the Imperial Palace under the title Qingzi Qian Yitong Tu (??…a­—c°?a?€cµ±a?–) in some catalogs. Comparative studies of these extant maps are conducted to restore the content of Lia€™s original world map. It is presumed that India was portrayed as a peninsula on Lia€™s map but shrunk by Korean Confucians due to their anti-Buddhist policy. This is likely to be based on vague information about the several great lakes in the region of modern Tanzania, gained during the course of direct trade between China and southeast Africa. The prominent peninsula on the west coast of the Chinese landmass is Malaysia, but India is represented merely as a collection of place-names northwest of Arabia. Hand-colored woodcut map of China and the World, printed on multiple sheets and folding into later orange-papered covers decorated in lotus flower designs. It lies on the East end of Lake Ontario and gets the same A’lake effectA“ snow fall that Buffalo gets from Lake Erie. It is a marvelous Queen Anne style Inn, with rear porches, porticos and a steeply gabled roof line. The surrounding countryside is rural, with conical silos, the odd brace of horses and farm houses dotting the countryside. The green copper roofs, waving Maple leaf flags and crowds of tourists gave it a holiday flavor.
He has little actual official power, but is the ceremonial representative of Queen Elizabeth in Canada. Then, the departing troops lifted their colors and marched off down Rideau and Elgin to their barracks, pipers piping and drums drumming. We walked back to the hotel, had coffee in the outdoor star bucks and then retreated to out air conditioned room for a glass of Cabernet and a conversation with Ozzie Nelson. Historians say that at first neither knew what the land comprised, or indeed wanted to own it, but fate gave it to the English.
Catherine, have emerged as shopping centers, featuring bistros, cafes and all other forms of urban commerce. McGill University, founded in 1821, is the major presence here, with over 20,000 students.
We sat there for a bit and then retired to our room, where I wrote up my notes, and enjoyed a glass of cabernet.
Porno shops, strip joints and sleezy bars announced that this is the place to come and slum in Montreal. We wandered back to Rue Francis Xavier and stopped in the small Cafe De Mateo, that we had noticed earlier in the day.
Today would be A’une beau jour.A“ We prepped for the day, enjoying the luxurious amenities of this grand suite. Well this surprised the establishment at the time, and knowing Vilsbiburg to have a high degree on cancer victims anywayA  he was asked to repeat the exercise in the City of Stetten which had a far lower incidence of cancer thus ironing out any chance factors. StA¤ngle, who had a very good reputation of locating water bearing fissures in crystalline rock with his dowsing rod developed a stintilisation counter more sensitive and accurate than a Geiger counter and carried out a scientific survey in the French town of Moulins where a local physician, Dr, J Prichard claimed that cancer victims in the town dwelt above geological faults.
In a league table of radiation associated with biological damage, the outside line of a subterranean water course would be at the very top since it is found in association with many terminal and debilitating diseases.
You can't see, feel or hear electromagnetic fields, apart from visible light, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each static magnetic field bump or sink on geomagnetogram (G2) may speed up or slow down body fluids (blood and lymphatic) in exposed areas such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, legs etc. Most scientists believe that, although EMFa€™s do not directly cause the illness in most cases, at least, living in fields above 200 nT (nano Tesla) may make a person develop the cancer or other illness, when if they didn't live in this field level, their bodies would be able to repair themselves, or cope with the daily damage from other causes in a healthier way. This wrong or confused information resulted in the dysfunction of individual organs and also explained the high number of diseases. Ita€™s important to know which species of rat is present in order to choose effective control strategies.Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, sometimes called brown or sewer rats, are stocky burrowing rodents that are larger than roof rats.
One notable consequence of this 700-year contact was the stretching of the world in Chinese maps farther westward and southwestward, and the appearance of an ever-increasing number of Arabic place-names. The principal distinguishing characteristics of the Ryukoku copy are its generally excellent condition and its preservation of the original Ch'an Chin preface. Insofar as the area east of the Liao River and our own countrya€™s territory were concerned, Tse-mina€™s map had many gaps and omissions, so Li Hui supplemented and expanded the map of our country, and added a map of Japan, making it a new map entirely, nicely organized and well worth admiration. Cha€™ing Cha€™A?n (1328-1392) was a close advisor to the Hongwu emperor (r.1368-1398), who was the founder of the Ming dynasty and himself an erstwhile monk. All in all there are about thirty-five names indicated on or near the African continent, most of them in the Mediterranean area.
Pak Tonji, a military man and diplomatic specialist in Japanese affairs, made at least two trips to Japan, one in 1398-99, the other in 1401, and the second visit resulted in a map. Worse, the whole ensemble is positioned far to the south, so that the first impression of a modern observer is that the Philippines, not Japan, is under view. In fact, during the heyday of Arab settlement in southern China, Canton alone accounted for no less than 100,000 Arab residents. The Kangnido map, however, proves that the Chinese, via their Arab sources, at least as early as the end of the 13th century, had a more or less correct view of the southern extension of Africa, whereas its northwestern bulge had not been as yet recognized. On the other hand, its broader coverage of Africa and the rest of the known world in the same scale provides a very valuable supplement to Chu Ssu-pena€™s map of southern Africa (#227).
In contrast, the Mediterranean Sea is almost entirely shown as terra firma failing to blacken it in as he has other water areas, perhaps because he was not quite sure that it was indeed an ordinary sea.
The extent of the lead which the Yuan cartographers had, however, may perhaps best be appreciated by comparing the Korean map with the renown Catalan Atlas of 1375, which also purported to show Asia as well as Europe, or the 14th century oikoumene (for this comparison, see #235).
At the top of Africa the Mediterranean supports a less securely grasped Europe, and the entire north fades into mountains and clouds. The Ryukoku Kangnido, judging by Korean place-name indications, is a copy reflecting place-name changes made around 1460. The Honmyo-ji copy (paper scroll), which is entitled Dai Minkoku Chizu [Map of Great Ming], was given to that institution by Kato Kiyomasa, its major patron and one of the senior Japanese commanders on the Korean expedition.
During the 1430a€™s Sejong built an astronomical observatory and a variety of astronomical instruments and clocks. One claims that it was purchased by A?tani KA?zui and others assume that it was obtained during the invasion of Korea (1592-1598) and given to the West Honganji temple by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The most important difference is that the place names of China have been updated to those of the Ming Dynasty while the original showed administrative divisions of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. Based on two Chinese maps from the 14th century, the Shengjiao guangbei tu [Big map that shows the pronunciation of place names] and the Hunyi jiangli tu [General map of the distances also showing historical capitals [of China]].
Similarly, India and Tibet are based on traditional Chinese knowledge, mainly gained by Buddhist pilgrimage up to the Tang Dynasty. Afterwards, China engaged heavily in sea travel, especially following the expansion of Islam on the continent in the eighth century.
It is currently kept in protective storage at the First Historical Archive of China, in Beijing. The Da Ming Hun Yi Tu is especially important because Luoa€™s copies dropped most place names except for coastal areas and islands and the Kangnido was influenced by Korean cartography. Africa and Arabia on the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu resemble those on the Kangnido while Europe is considerably different.
Another manifestation of the same problem, dependence on external sources for geographical information, can be seen to the south of Korea, at the far right side of the map, where Japan, over-sized and misshapen, confusingly meets the much more correctly sized and positioned Taiwan.
The texts taken from the Chinese original are particularly interesting: the legend on the right gives details of the 29 strategic border crossings, and that on the left describes 33 foreign countries, with the European and African place names taken from Jesuit sources such as Riccia€™s 1602 map. Even today many of the settlements, along the 120 miles canal, are peopled by descendants of the original diggers in distinctive irish conclaves.In Winter, the canal is drained to a depth of two feet. Two of the A’toy soldiers,A“ with their red jackets and black bear helmets, stood guard at the gates of the home.
The Rideau Canal, the Ottawa River and the government complexes and embassies all create a tapestry of forested urban beauty. It is spacious, airy and luxurious, befitting the arm and the leg that they charge you to stay here. Much of the old Brownstone mansions, from those who had made it in Montreal, had been converted for college use. It looks like city officials allow A’Le BumsA“ to sleep and congregate on this far stretch of the waterfront.
Laurent and then walked up and into the small but distinctive area known as A’China Town.A“ The requisite signs, in neon red and yellow announcing the lord knows what in Chinese characters, caught our attention. A perusal of the menu, in French, told us that this was going to be a $300 dinner, with few choices for Vegetarians. Whilst WA?rst and StA¤ngle thought that gamma radiation from fissures could be a significant cause of cancer, more recent studies suggest that this is unlikely as gamma radiation tends to whiz straight through the body rather than causing direct hits on DNA. Sleep time exposure to the same sharp variations of magnetic fields for years may induce some chronic health effect. Indeed, in the town nearby, doctors and nurses are familiar with this sudden onset of illness in visitors to this old Indian sacred site.
They proved a weakening in the immune system, which interacts with the wrongly programmed nervous system in persons who had been exposed. Using a randomized double blinded trial*, it has been scientifically shown that Geopathic stress zones do cause chronic stress and therefore can weaken the body's defence systems. Finally, this stress, in combination with a possible suppression of certain functions of the immune system.
Their burrows are found along building foundations, beneath rubbish or woodpiles, and in moist areas in and around gardens and fields (Figure 3). While the Terrestrial Continent remained intact until the Jesuit era in Chinese cartography with Fr. Painted on silk and still preserving its colors well, it is a very large map, nearly square at 171 x 164 cm (5 x 4 ft).
Apart from its use as a source for the Kangnido, nothing is known of Cha€™ing ChA?na€™s map. A later report quoted his statement that in 1402 he had been given a map by the title: Bishu no kami, Minamoto Mitsusuke.
A possible explanation for this is that the cartographers had run out of space on the right (east) edge of the Kangnido, and so had to place Japan in the open sea to the south. It too must go back to an Islamic prototype that, like the globe, belonged to the later 13th century.
Through the ensuing long period of Sino-Arab trade and intellectual exchange, the Chinese, on their part, were able to accumulate a good deal of this valuable information concerning the Indian Ocean and the continent of Africa.
Also his statement concerning the a€?Giant Birdsa€™ there that could swallow camels, appears almost identical to the description by Marco Polo a century later.
It is hardly believable that such a representation should be casual or the result of mere speculation. The relief features and an additional stream flowing westward in South Africa roughly corresponding to the Orange River, indicates that Cha€™A?an Chin was not entirely negligent on the least inhabited part of that continent.
On the eastern side of the map, a relatively massive Korea, easily occupying as much space as the whole African continent (which, to be sure, is unduly small) identifies itself as a very important place, while Japan, as if randomly flipped off the fingers into the ocean, floats uncertainly in the South China Sea. Nothing is reported concerning the provenance of the Tenri University copy (silk scroll, no title), but according to a study by Unno Kazutaka, it is a a€?sister mapa€? to the Honmyo-ji scroll; his persuasive analysis of the place names indicates that both maps were copied in Korea about 1568, from a version already cartographically distant from the Ryukoku copy. This provided a foundation for continued research and observation in the reigns of his successors. To the west of the a€?olda€? India, contemporary place names of India such as Delhi, Badaun and Duwayjir Duwayqir (Persianized form of Devagiri) are shown. The Maghreb and the Iberian peninsulas are depicted in detail, while Genoa and Venice are omitted.
The Tang Dynasty writer Duan Chengshi, along with other writers, wrote detailed descriptions of Africa, its coastal commerce, and slave trade. It is also distinct from the Kangnido in the depiction of the source of the Yellow River, which looks very similar to that in Luoa€™s Kuang Yu Tu (#227).
Far to the South, across the St.Lawrence, we could see the dim flashes of lightning illuminating the sky.
Only the dull, matte finish of the lethal looking M-16 rifle, that they carried, alerted you to the actual reason for their presence. They were to stand in pairs, in one hour shifts as guards, at the gate of the Governor GeneralA•s house on Sussex street.
Just across from the Cathedral sits the large VeteranA•s Monument, a tribute to CanadaA•s fallen. Tourists were already strolling the small pedestrian walkway, browsing the ducks and other things you usually find in the windows of Chinese restaurants. Eatons, Simons and a score of other big name Canadian retailers were drawing them in by the hundreds. Harger, chairman of the city's medical scientific association, declared that all such a€?deadly earth currentsa€™ ran beneath the beds of all the 5,348 people who had died from cancer during the last 21 years. The culprit is thought to be the more pernicious alpha radiation from Radon which is found with high levels of gamma radiation.
The World Health Organization in a health criteria report recognizes interactions between variations in static magnetic fields in cellular tissues to include an induction of electrical potentials and magneto hydrodynamic effects in the circulatory systems and by direct stimulation of nerve and muscle cells even under extremely weak thresholds. The causation seems to be that within a few meters the geomagnetic DC field varies from 330 milligauss at an 80 degree dip to 700 milligauss at a 59 degree dip. Confirmation of these experiments continue to appear and links have been, formed with the onset of cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Miscarriages, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other diseases of the central nervous system. It was first brought to scholarly notice by the Japanese historical geographer Ogawa Takuji, in 1928. By looking at maps one can know terrestrial distances and get help in the work of government. Its chief contribution to the latter is believed to have been the Chinese historical dimension, the indication of the areas and capitals of the earlier dynasties, which was accomplished by a combination of textual notes and cartographic devices.
But since Japan had always appeared east of southern China on Chinese maps, there was some earlier cartographic basis for its placement there. This being the case, the picture of Africa as given on the lower left of the reproduction is of particular interest. That China was indeed a beneficiary of this Arab monopoly can be evidenced by several Chinese world maps such as those by Chu Ssu-pen ca. Chao Ju-kuo, commissioner of the maritime trade office at Cha€™A?an-chou (Marco Poloa€™s Zaiton) which had extensive contact with the Arab merchants, and author of Chu-fan-chih (1226), provided the first account of the products from the East African coast, Somalia to Zanzibar, including an elaborate description of the ostrich and the giraffe. Most scholars such as Walter Fuchs are inclined to assume that the cartographic heritage of the Arabs had been transmitted to the Chinese, albeit incompletely and probably did not always reflect the actual experiences of their seafarers. To the left of it lies Spain, and to the southeast Arabia is outlined as a long protruding peninsula.
The relative size and disposition of the three major East Asian countries reflects a plausible Korean view of the world in the early 15th century: Korea projecting itself as a major East Asian state, refurbishing its traditional view of China as the major center of civilization, and playing its eternal game of keeping Japan as far away as possible.
Many projects were also carried out in meteorology and agronomy which not only led to new scientific understanding in Korea but which provided for rationalized administration and taxation. The most obvious feature distinguishing this later version from the original Kangnido map is the more correct size and orientation of Japan. There are over 100 names for the European countries alone, including Alumangia for the Latin word Alemania [Germany]. Wang Dayuan was the first Chinese ship captain to sail into the Mediterranean Sea (by Mamluk Egypt) and as far as Morocco in North Africa during the 14th century.
Matteo Ricci in the late 15th century, it is clearly evident that by the middle of the 15th century, Chinaa€™s own centrality in her concept of the world had been substantially reduced. It doubtless would have been includedA in the tomb as a part of the group of documents mentioned. Nearby are the home of the Canadian Premier, Stephen Harper, at 24 Sussex, and several other magnificent mansions, housing various embassies and officials. A film, depicting the early founding of Montreal and its religious history was projected upon the sheets. Research in this field continues with an increasing number of sophisticated environmental measuring instruments coming on the market to aid the geobiologist in identifying causative factors to illness and disease. The very high electric fields associated with high voltage overhead power lines also cause air ionization, charging toxic aerosols so that they become even more dangerous.
The entire land area was on it, all but the islands of Iki and Tsushima, so added them and doubled the scale.a€? In 1420, this report states, he formally presented this map to the Board of Rites, which was the branch of the Choson [Korean] government that handled foreign affairs. 1320 (#227), the nautical charts from Cheng Hoa€™s expedition of 1405-1433, preserved in the Wu-pei-chih (1621), and, of course, the present map under consideration, Cha€™A?an China€™s. This north-south extension and shape of Africa can be seen in the cartography of the Arabs as early as the 13th century on Ibn Saa€™ida€™s world map (Book II, #216). The large, round island east of Arabia is simply named Hai-tao [island], which apparently represents Sri Lanka (Ceylon). On the other hand, Koreans were telling themselves that theirs was not just an East Asian country, but part of the larger world.
The geographical knowledge represented in the map beyond China and Korea seems mainly a result of 14th century trade connections within the Mongol Empire. These were not preserved "instead ofA the more usual Book of the Dead" but probably interred in addition to it.
It was a 30 minute version of A’La Belle Canada,A“ featuring, in light and sound, the considerable bounty of the Canadian Republic. Actions in India, South Africa, and other venues of the British Raj, had been supported by Colonials from all members of her Common Wealth.
An eccentric monk, Brother Anthony, had taken as his life's work, the task of raising money and building this huge complex in honor of St.
Our French wasnA•t good enough to understand much of the rapid fire patter on the French stations.
To varying degrees the health consequences of staying above one of these geopathically stressed locations can be replicatedA  in our own homes by the choice of mattresses we use.A  The bottom line is, if you suspect your sleeping site is being disturbed by an unusually high magnetic anomaly then buy a bed that has a wooden base and place there upon a mattress that has no springs and make sure it is not placed near a radiator or other heavy metal object.
In the 1930a€™s a French engineer Pierie Cody who lived in the sea-port of Le HavreA knew of local a€?cancer housesa€™ in the port where many people had died from cancer over the years. Li is mentioned by the Ming cartographer Lo Hung-Hsien (1504-64) as a contemporary and possibly as an associate of Chu Ssu-Pen (see #227). Interestingly, the Korean makers of the Tenri and Honmyo-ji copies corrected the orientation to the north, even while substituting more conventional Gyoki-style outlines. These cartographic portrayals of the continent of Africa pre-date the Portuguese exploratory efforts by nearly a century.
It should also be mentioned that the southern tip of Africa is shown in almost the same form on Chu Ssu-pena€™s atlas Kuang YuA? Ta€™u, preserved in a copy dated 1541 - 1555 (#227) the original edition of which, the YuA?-Ta€™u, again, is dated 1320, i.e. To the east of Sri Lanka, India betrays its triangular shape only by a river, obviously the Ganges.
After the 30 minute film, the sheets dropped and we got to spend 15 minutes wandering around this beautiful edifice.
This equipment known as the Genitron Felix - 3 detects ultra short and radio microwave frequencies with the ability to print them out on a [UKW- Spektrometer und Linienschreiber] This equipment is used in German universities and research institutes that confirms dowsable energy above subterranean water lines. Effects central nervous system and the brain in the ways which effect powerful hormonal mechanisms.
While generally found at lower elevations, this species can occur wherever people live.Roof rats, R.
The scholar Aoyamaa€™s careful study of the Chinese place-names on the Kangnido shows them in general accord with those on Chua€™s map, as preserved in Loa€™s Kuang yu ta€™u, but with variants that would indicate place-name changes made in 1328-1329; this suggests that the Kangnidoa€™s source map was made around 1330. They also represent the culmination of an era of Sino-Arab exchange of geographical information long before the Jesuit scholars, beginning with Matteo Ricci, ushered in another era in the late 16th century. The long river emerging to the south is the Hei-shui [Salween], and the great lake in the upper center combines the Black and the Caspian Seas.
The notion that a civilization developed and maintained a complex writtenA language based on a system of pictures holds a fascination that is undiminished today.
After checking large numbers of these dwellings, Cody concluded that the air in these a€?Cancer Housesa€™ were ionized to an unusual degree. Important areas to be aware of are bedrooms, especially where pillows are on beds, because EMFa€™s affect an area of the brain, called the pineal gland, which works to protect the body against illness overnight. Since Chu explicitly excluded most non-Chinese areas from his map, Aoyama and others have reasoned that Li Tse-min must have found his cartographic sources for these areas elsewhere, the only plausible source being Islamic maps, which made their appearance in China under Mongol rule. Thus the cartographic expression manifested in this map of China€™s reflects the last phase of traditional Chinese cartography that, again, was conceptually based upon the idea of one single Terrestrial Continent of which Africa became considered as an arm. In the utmost northwest, Germany and France are marked phonetically, A-lu-mang-ni-a and Fa-li-si-na; here, in the West, the Azores are also shown. AlthoughA there were numerous examples of carved hieroglyphic inscriptions in the collection, for manyA years the DIA lacked an important example of ancient writing on papyrus. We sat for 90 minutes as they went through the whole extensive A’customs procedures.A“ We had grown up on the Canadian border and always resented the A’thorough look overA“ by overly officious knuckleheads. From various other tests Cody concluded that the ionization radiation consisted of positively charged Alpha Particles.
It is also a good idea to look at places like a favourite armchair, or in front of a computer or TV. This knowledge, presumably acquired from first-hand experience and Arab contact, not only manifested itself in the emerging world concept of Chinese cartography, but also served to facilitate the spurt of maritime activities in the Indian Ocean and along the coast of East Africa in the early Ming Dynasty (late 14th, early 15th centuries). This representation of the Atlantic island group is indeed remarkable, especially on a map produced in the Far East at such an early time, when comparable detail of the Far East is scant on European maps of the same period.
In the Kyujanggak Library of Seoul National University there is a modern Korean hand copy done during the 1980s, considered highly researched and beautifully executed. A few fragmentaryA pieces of text of late date, in terms of the history of Egypt, were all the museum had to show forA this important medium for the transmission of art, commerce, and religion. A large and ornate complex, that now is a functioning gambling Casino, had been the French Pavilion at the WorldA•s Fair. The only known source of alpha particle emission in dwellings was from a radioactive gas called Radon. It is important that places like these where you are sitting or lying still for a longish period of time should have low EMFa€™s; cells tend to cope better with external fields if the person is moving around.

Roof rats are agile climbers and usually live and nest above ground in shrubs, trees, and dense vegetation such as ivy. But for the missing or incomplete detail in the eastern areas of Manchuria, Korea, and Japan, that map bears a very close resemblance to the Kangnido.
Of the two largest capitals in the world, as judged from the selection of symbols adopted by Chin, one is obviously Pyongyang in Korea, and the other is a European city of apparent equal importance, the position of which would suggest the city of Budapest.
Based on a legend of the temple, it has been believed naively that the HonmyA?ji map was given to KatA? Kiyomasa by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in preparation for the Korean campaigns.
When you are sitting still and particular cells keep being interfered with by EMFa€™s, there is an increased risk that the damage may become unrepairable. In buildings, they are most often found in enclosed or elevated spaces such as attics, walls, false ceilings, and cabinets. However, the Seonjo Sillok of Korea reports that in 1593 the son of a Korean official who had surrendered to KatA? copied and offered map(s) of China and Korea to him. It has amply been demonstrated in the literature on the history of EgyptianA art that linear abstraction and the necessary skill in draftsmanship were the underlying principlesA and the basis for all of the visual arts in Egyptian civilization.In 1972 Richard A. The roof rat has a more limited geographical range (Figure 4) than the Norway rat, preferring ocean-influenced, warmer climates. This map was discovered in the HonkA?ji temple of Shimabara, Nagasaki in 1988 and is much larger than the RyA«koku map. If you are unsure of the species, look for rats at night with a bright flashlight, or trap a few. It is worthwhile taking particular precautionary action with regard to childrena€™s living environments. Figure 5 illustrates some of the key physical differences between the two species of rats, while Table 1 summarizes identifying characteristics.While rats are much larger than the common house mouse or meadow vole, a young rat is occasionally confused with a mouse. In general, very young rats have large heads and feet in proportion to their bodies, whereas those of adult mice are proportionately much smaller (Fig.
They have poor eyesight, but they make up for this with their keen senses of hearing, smell, taste, and touch. The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition. Rats constantly explore and learn, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter, and features of their environment.
The hope persisted that a better-preserved and typical ink drawing or painted section from a Book of the Dead might be found for the collection, but it wasA not until 1988 that this was realized in a manner as welcome as it was totally unexpected. The object that was offered to the museum, the Book of the Dead of Nes-min, was a virtually complete example of a papyrus replete with carefully executed drawings of high artistic quality.To many people today, the Book of the Dead is considered the classic example of anA ancient Egyptian religious document.
Thus, they often avoid traps and baits for several days or more following their initial placement.
It is a text that is easily accessible to the general publicA because it has been translated and published in a number of versions, the most popular probablyA being that of Sir E. While both species exhibit this avoidance of new objects, this neophobia is usually more pronounced in roof rats than in Norway rats.Both Norway and roof rats can gain entry to structures by gnawing, climbing, jumping, or swimming through sewers and entering through toilets or broken drains. While Norway rats are more powerful swimmers, roof rats are more agile and are better climbers.Norway and roof rats dona€™t get along. The Norway rat is larger and the more dominant species; it will kill a roof rat in a fight.
A far better modern comparison would be with the older formA of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, which was also a compilation of texts and prayers andA contained spells to ward off evil influences. When the two species occupy the same building, Norway rats may dominate the basement and ground floors, with roof rats occupying the attic or second and third floors. Surprisingly, nothing ofA the kind is preserved in the most famous of all the pyramids from earlier in Dynasty 4 (26tha€“25thA centuries).
During a period of decline after Dynasty 4, the kings of Egypt sought to insure theirA immortality through the addition of engraved prayers and spells to their tomb-pyramids.
If the door is made of wood, the rat might gnaw to enlarge the gap, but this might not be necessary.Norway RatsNorway rats eat a wide variety of foods but mostly prefer cereal grains, meats, fish, nuts, and some fruits. When searching for food and water, Norway rats usually travel an area of about 100 to 150 feet in diameter; seldom do they travel any further than 300 feet from their burrows or nests. The daily recitations to be made on behalf of the king's spirit in the temple associated withA his pyramid are also included.Later, during the Middle Kingdom, particularly Dynasties 9 to 11 (22nda€“21st centuries), many of the prayers and spells originally reserved for royalty were somewhat "democratized" and were allowed for the use of members of the nobility.
The average female Norway rat has 4 to 6 litters per year and can successfully wean 20 or more offspring annually.Roof RatsLike Norway rats, roof rats eat a wide variety of foods, but they prefer fruits, nuts, berries, slugs, and snails.
Rather than being carved on the walls of tombs, these texts were written or painted on the inside walls of box-shaped coffins for the deceased, giving these the appearance of small tomb chambers (fig.
Roof rats are especially fond of avocados and citrus, and they often eat fruit that is still on the tree. When feeding on a mature orange, they make a small hole through which they completely remove the contents of the fruit, leaving only the hollowed-out rind hanging on the tree. Theya€™ll often eat the rind of a lemon, leaving the flesh of the sour fruit still hanging. 65.394The original Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom were supplemented with other material, often including spells to ward off hunger and thirst as well as specific evils or dangers that the spirit might encounter.
Residential or industrial areas with mature landscaping provide good habitat as does riparian vegetation of riverbanks and streams.
These painted compilations of text and spells, for obvious reasons, have been named Coffin Texts.
Roof rats prefer to nest in locations off the ground and rarely dig burrows for living quarters if off-the-ground sites exist.Roof rats routinely travel up to 300 feet for food.
In their number and variety, the texts also add a great deal to our knowledge of the development of Egyptian religious thought, particularly concerning the rising importance of the god Osiris as the protector of the dead.Beginning during the New Kingdom, as a part of the development of religious beliefs, the new and expanded corpus of texts became available to a larger segment of the population, dependent, however, on what an individual was able to afford. This last major phase in the development of funerary texts is the collection of prayers and spells popularly called the Book of the Dead (the proper title was something along the lines of the book of "going forth [from the tomb] by day"). It was traditionally written on papyrus, although selected passages are found on tomb walls and on some specific funerary objects, as will be discussed below. They have an excellent sense of balance and use their long tails to steady themselves while traveling along overhead utility lines. It was often augmented by a series of illustrations or vignettes mainly related to the various "chapters" (more properly, "spells"). They move faster than Norway rats and are very agile climbers, which enables them to quickly escape predators. There exist a number of forms or compilations, varying considerably in completeness, that make up the Book of the Dead. The average number of litters a female roof rat has per year depends on many factors, but generally it is 3 to 5 with 5 to 8 young in each litter.DAMAGERats eat and contaminate foodstuffs and animal feed.
Some examples were produced in the expectation of purchase, with the name and titles of the deceased to be added in designated blank spaces. Both rat species cause problems by gnawing on electrical wires and wooden structures such as doors, ledges, corners, and wall material, and they tear up insulation in walls and ceilings for nesting.Norway rats can undermine building foundations and slabs with their burrowing activities and can gnaw on all types of materials, including soft metals such as copper and lead, as well as plastic and wood. In various forms, the Book of the Dead was in use in ancient Egypt for almost 1,500 years.It is a common misconception that the numbering system used in modern publications to designate the spells is ancient. If roof rats are living in the attic of a residence, they can cause considerable damage with their gnawing and nest-building activities.
On the contrary, it was devised by Richard Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, in the early nineteenth century.
They also damage garden crops and ornamental plantings.Among the diseases rats can transmit to humans or livestock are murine typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis (food poisoning), and ratbite fever. The names assigned to the various spells are generally derived from the titles or labels used to designate them in the text.
These were typically written in red pigment to set them off from the rest of the text, which was written in black ink, an example of the most ancient application of a visual differentiation that has come to be called "rubrics" (deriving from the Latin word for the color red) to designate headings in a religious text.The religious matter dealt with in the Book of the Dead is the result of a long evolutionary process and is extremely varied. If sanitation measures arena€™t properly maintained, the benefits of other measures will be lost and rats will quickly return.
It includes hymns in praise of Re, the sun god, as well as other hymns or prayers addressed to Osiris, the ruler and judge of the spirits of the deceased. Good housekeeping in and around buildings will reduce available shelter and food sources for Norway rats and, to some extent, roof rats. There are several sections that deal with the concept of the spirit acquiring the freedom and ability to leave the tomb "by day" or in "triumph over enemies" and in various magical forms or manifestations. Neat, off-the-ground storage of pipes, lumber, firewood, crates, boxes, gardening equipment, and other household goods will help reduce the suitability of the area for rats and also will make their detection easier. Collect garbage, trash, and garden debris frequently, and ensure all garbage receptacles have tight-fitting covers. They also guard against dangers, as exemplified by serpents and crocodiles.We know the Book of the Dead mainly from examples written on papyrus, the most familiar material, but two of the spells were regularly inscribed on specific funerary objects.
Where dogs are kept and fed outdoors, rats can become a problem if there is a ready supply of dog food.
One of these is spell 30b, which is found engraved on a special class of amulet called a heart scarab.
Feed your pet only the amount of food it will eat at a feeding, and store pet food in rodent-proof containers.For roof rats in particular, thinning dense vegetation will make the habitat less desirable.
This was traditionally made of green stone and intended to be wrapped on the mummy over the heart, which, unlike the other internal organs, was left in place in the body (fig.
Climbing hedges such as Algerian or English ivy, star jasmine, and honeysuckle on fences or buildings are conducive to roof rat infestations and should be thinned or removed if possible, as should overhanging tree limbs within 3 feet of the roof.
Coarse steel wool, wire screen, and lightweight sheet metal are excellent materials for plugging gaps and holes.
73.81 The text of the heart scarab addresses the heart of the deceased and pleads that it not rise up and witness against the spirit and influence the weighing of the heart in the balance of judgment. Norway and roof rats are likely to gnaw away plastic sheeting, wood, caulking, and other less sturdy materials.Because rats and house mice are excellent climbers, openings above ground level must also be plugged.
The other frequently found text is spell 6, which is written, impressed, or inscribed on shawabtis, the mummy-form funerary figures intended to magically supply the spirit with workmen (fig.
Rodent proofing against roof rats, because of their greater climbing ability, usually requires more time to find entry points than for Norway rats.
Roof rats often enter buildings at the roofline, so be sure that all access points in the roof are sealed.
If roof rats are traveling on overhead utility wires, contact a pest control professional or the utility company for information and assistance with measures that can be taken to prevent this.Population ControlWhen food, water, and shelter are available, rat populations can increase quickly.
While the most permanent form of control is to limit food, water, shelter, and access to buildings, direct population control often is necessary.A For controlling rats indoors, using traps is best. When rodenticides (toxic baits) are used in structures, rats can die in inaccessible locations such as within walls or ceilings.
In hot weather, the stench of a dead rat can be unbearable and can necessitate cutting a hole in the wall to remove the carcass.
Also, ectoparasites such as fleas and mites often leave dead rat carcasses and can infest the entire house if the carcass isna€™t removed promptly.Trapping.
When it was acquired by the museum, it had been cut into twenty-four sections, generally separated at logical junctures that did not significantly harm the text or the drawings. Trapping is the safest and most effective method for controlling rats in and around homes, garages, and other structures.
Because snap traps can be used over and over, trapping is less costly than poison baits but more labor intensive. After acquisition by the museum, the papyrus was treated, some of the sections were reunited for the sake of visual clarity and continuity, and each of the parts was remounted and framed in a standard frame size.5Such rolls of papyrus have sometimes been found broken or otherwise spoiled by mishandling and unrolling without proper care. Traps can be set and left indefinitely in areas such as attics where rats have been a problem in the past.
The simple, wooden rat-size snap trap is the least expensive option, but some people prefer the newer plastic, single-kill rat traps, because they are easier to set and to clean. Only one vignette, a scene of four ibis-headed figures at four doors, appears to have been intentionally mutilated, as a complete figure has been removed. Snap traps with large plastic treadles are especially effective, but finding the best locations to set traps is often more important than what type of trap is used.
Otherwise, the condition of the document is generally good, although the top edge has suffered somewhat and has a ragged appearance. Generally, young rats cana€™t be trapped until they are about a month old, which is when they leave the nest to venture out for food.Nutmeats, dried fruit, bacon, or a piece of kibbled pet food can be an attractive bait for traps.
Fasten the bait securely to the trigger of the trap with light string, thread, or fine wire so the rodent will spring the trap when attempting to remove the food.
Nes-min had the title of Prophet (priest) of Neferhotep, a somewhat obscure Egyptian deity who was the object of a cult in the region of Hu (known to the Greeks as Diospolis Parva) in Middle Egypt during the late period. He was also a priest of Amun-re at the Temple of Karnak at Thebes, and he counted among his other distinctions the rank of phyle leader, responsible for a contingent (or shift) of priests.
Soft baits such as peanut butter and cheese can be used, but rats sometimes take soft baits without setting off the trap.
Thus his social status would have been such that he could afford a Book of the Dead of good quality and considerable size.
Set traps so the trigger is sensitive and will spring easily.The best places to set traps are in secluded areas where rats are likely to travel and seek shelter. It is known from the "colophon" he added to the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (discussed below) in the British Museum, London, that he had more than twenty priestly and other official titles to his credit. Droppings, gnawings, and damage indicate the presence of rodents, and areas where such evidence is found usually are the best places to set traps, especially when these areas are located between their shelter and food sources. These include priesthoods in the service of the gods Amun, Khonsu, Min, Osiris, Isis, Nephtys, Horus, and Hathor, in addition to that of Neferhotep. Place traps in natural travel ways, such as along walls, so the rodents will pass directly over the trigger of the trap.For Norway rats, set traps close to walls, behind objects, in dark corners, and in places where rat signs, such as droppings, have been seen. We know little about the man Nes-min beyond the names of his parents, the titles he held, and the choice of religious texts he took with him to his tomb, but there is one additional and important bit of evidence about him provided by one of those documents.It was not the usual Egyptian custom to include the year, month, or day in a religious text such as the Book of the Dead, in contrast to personal letters or state, legal, and commercial documents, where a recorded date might have been important. Position traps along a wall so that they extend from the wall at right angles, with the trigger end nearly touching the wall (Figure 7). The determination of a period or date for the execution of an example of a religious text is usually based on the linguistic, calligraphic, or artistic style. If traps are set parallel to the wall, they should be set in pairs to intercept rodents traveling from either direction.For roof rats, the best places for traps are off the ground in locations where rats might be coming down from their nests to find fooda€”such as on ledges, shelves, branches, fences, pipes, or overhead beamsa€”where they can be fastened with screws or wire (Figure 8). In homes, the attic and garage rafters close to the infestation are good trapping sites (Figure 9). It is generally only when an individual is not only named but also can be identified with some certainty by titles and family relationships or some genealogical notation that a more exact date can be established for a particular document. In areas where children, pets, or birds might contact traps, place the trap in a box or use a barrier to keep them away.A Use as many traps as are practical so trapping time will be short and decisive. Nes-mina€™s Book of the Dead, however, can be said to be as precisely dated as almost any funerary papyrus in existence. This individual is well known in the Egyptological literature because other papyri belonging to him have been identified and well published in the past.6 In the Detroit papyrus, Nes-mina€™s father and mother are mentioned by name7 as are some of his somewhat unusual titles, so that we can identify him with great certainty as the owner of two other papyri in the British Museum (BM10208 and BM10209), which give him some of the same titles and the same genealogy.
Furthermore, he was the author of the so-called colophon of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (BM10188).
If a rat sets off a trap without getting caught, it will be very difficult to catch the rat with a trap again.
These are the documents, consisting mainly of prayers, mentioned in the quotation at the beginning of this article. To reduce the likelihood of a€?trap shyness,a€? one strategy is to leave traps baited but unset until the bait has been taken overnight. The identification of Nes-min with this last papyrus is particularly important because it is dated to year 12 in the reign of Alexander IV, the posthumous son of Alexander the Great, or 306a€“305 B.C. The logical conclusion is simply that if Nes-min was a mature man alive in 306a€“305, his Book of the Dead was certainly made during the first half of the third century B.C. As with snap traps, for existing rodent populations ita€™s important to use enough traps to achieve control in a timely manner. These traps need to be checked frequently, and dead rodents should be removed for disposal.Dona€™t touch rodents with your bare hands, and wash thoroughly after handling traps. According to Mosher, the contents of the Detroit papyrus of Nes-min are somewhat typical for a Book of the Dead made late in Egyptian history, at the very beginning of the Ptolemaic Period. He has pointed out that this papyrus contains 148 of the 165 spells that had come to be standard in the Late Period codification of the corpus. He also observed that some of the texts are abbreviated, but that this is not to be considered a fault, because even some indication of a particular spell was deemed to be more effective than omitting it completely.The text of the document is written in hieratic script, a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, although some of the larger vignettes have texts written in a more formal hieroglyphic hand.
A major drawback with glue boards and other live-catch traps is the trapped rat might not die quickly, and you will need to kill it by delivering a sharp blow to the base of the skull using a sturdy rod or stick.
In the shape and simplification of individual signs, the cursive script shows the influence and limitations of the reed pen employed to produce it, but it was faster and easier to write and well adapted to a papyrus surface. Rats caught in glue traps can struggle for quite some time, often dragging the trap as they try to escape.
The relationship of hieratic to the formal hieroglyphic style of writing is roughly comparable to that of modern cursive writing to block printing or printed type.
Live traps arena€™t preferred, because trapped rats must be either humanely killed or released elsewhere.
Releasing rats outdoors isna€™t recommended, as they can cause health concerns to people, pets, and other domestic animals. He was a master draftsman with a command of Egyptian standard requirements and proportion and was immensely skilled in the handling of pen and ink, as is shown by the fine and consistent quality of line throughout the whole document.
Because neither the roof rat nor the Norway rat is native to the United States, their presence in the wild is very detrimental to native ecosystems.
The figures have been slightly abbreviated in a stylized manner for which parallels can be found in other papyri of the same time.The Book of the Dead of Nes-min is a rich collection of vignettes meant to accompany the various spells of the text. They have been known to decimate some bird populations.Rodenticides (Toxic Baits)While trapping is generally recommended for controlling rats indoors, when the number of rats around a building is high, you might need to use toxic baits to achieve adequate control, especially if there is a continuous reinfestation from surrounding areas.
They range in size and complexity from large, multifigured examples to the smallest drawings accompanying short spells. If this is the case, consider hiring a licensed pest control applicator who is trained to use rodenticides safely.Baits to control rodents are formulated with an attractant (generally food) and a rodenticide (toxin). A number of them are exquisite little masterpieces in their own right and show the ability of the artist to capture the look and spirit of human and animal life within the strictures of the rules of Egyptian art. Changes in rodenticide regulations went into effect in mid-2011 in an effort to prevent rodenticide hazards to wildlife and pets and to reduce accidental exposure to children. Among these, the drawings of birds should be particularly noted; the standard method of representing the various birds is adhered to but the individuality of types is recognized (see fig. These federal EPA restrictions now permit manufacturers to produce, for sale to the general public, only wax block, gel, or paste rat and mouse baits that are packaged in ready-to-use, disposable bait stations.
5).A The tiny drawings at the top edge of the papyrus, which act almost as a continuous frieze, contain many examples of meticulously detailed renderings.
Agricultural producers and professional pest control personnel are able to obtain more types of rodenticides in various formulations, some of which are restricted use pesticides.Anticoagulant Rodenticides. These include the ubiquitous images of the deceased, priests and officiants, the gods, and numerous offerings for the good of the spirit of Nes-min.Of all of the vignettes included in any version of the Book of the Dead, probably the most familiar and most often reproduced is the Weighing of the Heart scene representing the individual judgment of the deceased (fig. Anticoagulants are blood-thinning drugs that cause an animala€™s blood to lose the ability to clot, damaging capillaries and resulting in internal bleeding that is fatal. 6).A Typically, as in the Detroit papyrus, the deceased is led into the Hall of Judgment by the god Thoth, the patron deity of scribes and writing, who is represented as ibis-headed.
These active ingredients are used at very low levels and the onset of symptoms is delayed for several days, so the rodent doesna€™t avoid the bait because of its taste or the onset of illness. Nes-min is shown on the far right, accompanied by the goddess Ma'at, the female personification of truth and order, who is identified by the ostrich feather hieroglyph on her head. When prepared with good-quality cereals and other ingredients, anticoagulant baits provide good to excellent control when baits are fresh and when placed in suitable locations so as to attract rats.The various anticoagulant active ingredients currently registered for use against rats in California are listed in Table 2.
It is significant that Nes-min not only holds the same feather (twice) in attestation to his adherence to the notion of truthfulness but also wears an amulet of the goddess on a cord around his neck.
Anticoagulants fall into two groupsa€”the older a€?first-generationa€? compounds such as warfarin, chlorophacinone, and diphacinone, which require a rodent to consume multiple doses over a period of several days; and the newer a€?second-generationa€? compounds such as brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and difethialone, which can be fatal after a single feeding.
Before him he is able to witness the weighing of his heart in the scale against the feather of Ma'at. Since not all rats will consume bait when it first becomes available, bait application directions typically recommend providing an uninterrupted supply of bait for at least 10 or 15 days or until evidence of rodent activity ceases. Jackal- and falcon-headed deities assist in the process of weighing, while a baboon, an animal sacred to Thoth, perches at the top of the scale.
A rodent feeding on anticoagulant bait usually wona€™t die until 2 to 6 days following ingestion of a lethal dose.
Ammit, the devouring monster, waits atop a shrine-shaped pedestal to consume the heart if it is found wanting in the balance.
This slow action is a safety advantage, allowing accidental poisoning to be treated before serious illness occurs.The recommended strategy of bait application, which is often needed for optimum rodent control, can result in a rodent ingesting an overdose of the second-generation anticoagulants, which are more effective in part because they persist longer in the rodenta€™s body than do the first-generation anticoagulants.
Thus, they also have the potential to be hazardous to predators and scavengers, which may consume poisoned rodents.
He is accompanied by images of the "Four Sons of Horus," who emerge from a lotus blossom, symbolic of rebirth.
This secondary hazard from anticoagulants, as well as the primary hazard of nontarget animals directly ingesting rodent baits, is substantially reduced when baits are applied and used properly, according to label directions.Table 2. The whole action takes place under the attention of forty-onea€”or forty-two, the standard number, when Osiris is counteda€”assessors of the dead, each holding, again, the ostrich feather of Ma'at.
The list of transgressions is so detailed and so revealing that it has been compared to the morality espoused in the commandments of the Judeo-Christian tradition or the moral strictures of other religions.
The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Table 3. In essence, it gives the modern reader a clear idea of what would have been considered a moral and correct way of life in ancient Egypt. The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Because of the potentially greater hazard of second-generation anticoagulants to children and household pets, these active ingredients are no longer allowed to be manufactured for sale to the general public. The rubric preceding this lengthy passage tells us that it is to be uttered upon the spirit's arrival at the hall of justice, at the time of the weighing of the heart or the individual judgment.The drawing style in the Book of the Dead of Nes-min is well exemplified by the execution of this vignette of the Weighing of the Heart. The individual figures appear to be tall and graceful and exhibit an inner coherence of form that tended to gradually weaken during the following Ptolemaic Period, although the treatment of some anatomical parts here prefigures the later style, particularly in some apparently awkward combinations. The linear delineation of figures and parts of figures is done with great care, subtlety, and accuracy and in considerable minute detail. Some of the second-generation rodenticides now labeled for use by only by agricultural producers may be restricted to applications in and around agricultural buildings.Anticoagulants have the same effect on nearly all warm-blooded animals, but the sensitivity to these toxicants varies among species with larger animals generally requiring a larger dose of toxicant than smaller animals. One rather curious peculiarity of the drawing style is the use of an "overlap" in which lines cross or intersect in a manner that almost suggests inadequate prior planning and the consequent necessity for overdrawing.
Dogs are more susceptible to anticoagulant poisoning than are many other mammals, and small to medium-sized dogs that seek out and consume rodents or rodent carcasses could be at greatest risk.
This can be seen particularly in the arms of the figure of Nes-min as they cross his torso and in the detail of the column capitals of the architecture framing the scene of judgment.
Symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning in mammals include lethargy, loss of color in soft tissues such as the lips and gums, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, or intestinal tract. The overall design and arrangement were carefully thought out; the composition is well balanced, with adequate space allotted to each of the participants in the drama. Vitamin K1 is the antidote for anticoagulant rodenticides, although in cases of severe poisoning, whole blood transfusion is also used.
This distinguishes it from other examples of the Book of the Dead where text and figures vie for space in a crowded format.In most Books of the Dead of the Late Period, there are only a select number of vignettes done on a large scale. These include the Weighing of the Heart scene discussed above and a few other formulaic images. Three other active ingredients are registered and used as rodenticides to control rats and house mice in California: bromethalin, cholecalciferol, and zinc phosphide. A further example of such emphasis in the Detroit papyrus is the composite scene in which Nes-min is depicted carrying out a variety of agricultural activities in the two center registers (fig. 7).A On the right he cuts grain with a curved sickle and on the left drives cattle, which will tread on and thresh it. These two materials are formulated to serve as chronic rodenticides so that rats will have the opportunity to feed on exposed baits one or more times over a period of one to several days. Bait acceptance is generally good when fresh, well-formulated products are used.Zinc phosphide differs in that it is an acute toxicant that causes death of a rodent within several hours after a lethal dose is ingested.
In the next lower register an earlier part of the cycle is depicted in which Nes-min plows the field and sows the grain. Because zinc phosphide baits often require prebaiting to get adequate bait acceptance (offering rats similar but nontoxic bait before applying the zinc phosphide bait), ita€™s not commonly used against rats and is infrequently available to consumers. The accompanying text reads (in paraphrase), "I plow and I reap in the field of offerings and I am content with the gods." This is a part of the illustration for spell 110, an elaborate homage to the gods that seeks to guarantee the continued good of the spirit of the deceased. The stylized representation of farm activities was standard for this spell in the Book of the Dead and had no direct reference to the occupation of the deceased; nor were these images included to suggest that it would be his fate to labor as a common field hand in the next world. All rodenticide baits must be used carefully according to the label directions, which have become more specific and more restrictive. The agricultural cycle of plowing, sowing, reaping, and threshing was seemingly employed as a graphic image of the progression of the seasons, the cycle of beginning and completion, and the continuation of life in which the deceased aspired to participate for eternity.The variety as well as the quality of illustrations in this Book of the Dead is further exemplified by a vignette with two distinct parts (fig.
Some baits must be contained within bait stations for all outdoor, above-ground applications (Figure 10).
In addition to increasing the safety of the bait, bait stations also help the rats feel secure while feeding. The falcon-headed figure is Sokar-Osiris, a conflation of the qualities of Osiris and Sokar, a falcon-headed god of the necropolis.
The goddess next to him is the personification of the West (Imnt), the land of the blessed. Sokar-Osiris is depicted with the typical mummy form and crown associated with images of Osiris.
For Norway rats, place bait stations near rodent burrows or suspected nest sites, against walls, or along travel routes. For roof rats, place baits in elevated locations, such as in the crotch of a tree, on top of a fence, or high in a vine. One of the interesting aspects of the grouping of these three figures is the result of a standard mode of representation found in all two-dimensional art of ancient Egypt. If you place bait stations above ground level, take care that they are securely fastened and wona€™t fall to the ground where children or pets could find them.
Although the goddess is shown as if she were standing behind the god, she is actually meant to be seen as standing on his right side and thus accompanying him in a position of equality.The left-hand section of this vignette contains three separate elements that generally appear together and accompany spell 148. Because rats often are suspicious of new or unfamiliar objects, it might take several days for them to enter and feed in bait stations.Where it is impossible to exclude rodents from structures, rat control can be accomplished by establishing permanent bait stations in buildings and around the perimeters of buildings.
These are: the Seven Celestial Cows with the Bull of Heaven, the Four Rudders, and the Four Sons of Horus.
Place fresh bait in these stations to control invading rats before populations become established. Through each of these somewhat disparate agencies, an appeal for the protection of the spirit is made or implied. With the first-generation anticoagulant baits, it usually takes 5 or more days, once the rats start feeding, for them to die.
All of these elements are enclosed in an architectural framework resembling a shrine.Although this Book of the Dead was generally executed with care and skill, the artist has inconsistently treated the two ends of this shrine-like structure. Check bait stations regularly and replace bait if it gets old or moldy, because rats wona€™t eat stale bait.Baits and bait stations now have more restrictive regulations regarding locations for use.
Different designs of commercially manufactured bait stations may be required, depending on the particular situation and the bait formulation used. The right side may be unfinished, but it actually looks as if there was a change of design or a lapse of memory from one end of the enclosure to the other, so that the two ends do not match and possibly belong to different types of architectural structures. For example, some labels state a€?tamper-resistant bait stations must be used if children, pets, nontarget mammals, or birds may access the bait.a€? Certain prepackaged bait stations intended for sale to homeowners can be used only inside structures and are prohibited for use in any area accessible to pets or outdoors. This was a relatively small mistake, hardly noticeable and hardly affecting the appearance of the composition, but it does underscore the notion that such texts were executed by fallible individuals. Other baits or bait stations may also be used around the periphery of structures or within 50 feet of a structure. Seemingly the product of a careful and meticulous craftsman, the Detroit papyrus is remarkably free of infelicities of design. Because rats may not travel far from their shelter to find food, many product labels suggest making bait placements at 10- to 30-foot intervals. As such, it can take its place with other important examples of the genre representing one of the last phases in a long tradition of religious literature that has been preserved from ancient Egypt.When the Detroit papyrus was acquired for the collection of the museum from the New York art market, it had virtually no provenance provided for it other than that it had been known by some Egyptologists to have been in Europe for a number of years. Place bait boxes next to walls (with the openings close to the wall) or in other places where rats are active. In an effort to determine its recent history, a series of inquiries was made among scholars who have made a particular study of Egyptian papyri of the Late and Ptolemaic Periods, and no satisfactory information was obtained beyond a vague memory on the part of some who recalled it as being in an old German or French collection. In all cases, the user must follow label directions.Remove and properly dispose of all uneaten bait at the end of a control program. The connection provided by the "colophon" of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus may provide a suggestion of its possible modern history, if not solid evidence as to its source.R.
In addition, ita€™s wise to collect and properly dispose of any dead rodents found during the course of a rodenticide application.
You can pick them up using a sturdy plastic bag inverted on your hand, seal them in the bag for disposal with household garbage, or bury them in a location where pets or scavengers wona€™t easily dig them up.Other Control MethodsRats are wary animals, easily frightened by unfamiliar or strange noises. Faulkner takes issue with the designation "colophon" for the notation presumably written by Nes-min on the Bremner-Rhind papyrus, since it does not actually date the production of the manuscript or identify the person who wrote it, as a colophon, by definition, is intended to.
However, they quickly become accustomed to repeated sounds, making the use of frightening devicesa€”including high frequency and ultrasonic soundsa€”ineffective for controlling rats in homes and gardens.Rats have an initial aversion to some odors and tastes, but no repellents have been found to solve a rat problem for more than a very short time.
10 The date given is the year in which this additional note was made in a handwriting completely different from the original text.
There are no truly effective rat repellents registered for use in California.Smoke or gas cartridges are registered and sold for controlling burrowing rodents.
When placed into the burrows and ignited, these cartridges produce toxic and suffocating smoke and gases. The long list of sacerdotal titles associated with Nes-min and the names of his father and mother in the "colophon" are of utmost importance for the identification of the precise owner of the Detroit papyrus. Because Norway rat burrows can extend beneath a residence and have several open entrances, toxic gases can permeate the dwelling. It is this genealogical evidence, as noted above, by which the Detroit Book of the Dead can be securely connected with the Bremner-Rhind papyrus.11The Bremner-Rhind papyrus is identified by the names of former owners, as is customary in museum nomenclature. Alexander Henry Rhind was a Scottish lawyer who traveled to Egypt for his health in 1855a€“56 and 1856a€“57.12 As did many other educated Europeans who went there for medical reasons, he undertook excavations in the Theban area (modern Luxor). Through excavation or purchase he acquired a large collection of antiquities, which he eventually bequeathed to the National Museum of Antiquities, now the Royal Scottish Museum, in Edinburgh.13 Rhind was very much ahead of his time in that he recognized the importance of recording the context and the finding locations of the objects he excavated.
Often, predators arena€™t able to keep rodent numbers below levels that are acceptable to most people.
After Rhinda€™s death, Bremner sold the papyrus that jointly bears their names, with others, to the British Museum. 15 Why these objects did not go with the rest of Rhinda€™s collection to Edinburgh is not clear, but the fact that an important papyrus such as the Bremner-Rhind was not included in the bequest suggests that there may have been otherwise unrecognized material in the Rhind collection that was excluded as well. It is thus probable, but impossible to prove, that the Detroit papyrus was a part of the Rhind collection and may have been directed elsewhere, possibly to a private collector. If this is true, it has remained unidentified as such, as the papyrus for the most part has gone unpublished for more than a hundred years.
It should be noted, however, that Faulkner said, Nothing definite is known of the provenance of the [Bremner-Rhind] manuscript, but the presumed last owner, the priest Nesmin who wrote the "Colophon," appears to have been a Theban, judging by the priestly titles he bore.
Although there is no direct evidence bearing on the point, it seems probable that the papyrus came from his tomb, and it would be interesting to know in what circumstances a book which appears to have been written originally for a temple library came into the private possession of a member of the priesthood.16It would be as interesting to know where Rhind acquired the Bremner-Rhind papyrus and the other papyri related to Nes-min, since it is possible that the Detroit papyrus may have come from the same source. In 1964, in pursuit of material for her study of the two other papyri from the Rhind collection, F. In contrast to these monuments, it is to the papyri of ancient Egypt, as to the clay tablets of Mesopotamia, that we must turn to witness the earliest stages of the recording of human thought and memory in a portable form.
Alessandro Roccati has used the material from the tomb of Nes-min as an example of care and concern for important texts to the point that they were included among the furnishings for the spirit of the deceased. Limme, "Un 'Prince Ramesside' FantA?me," in Aegyptus Museis Rediviva: Miscellanea in Honorem Hermanni de Meulenaere (Brussels, 1993), 114 n. Budge, The Book of the Dead (The Papyrus of Ani), 1890, 1894, 1913 (with various additions and emendations).4For more up-to-date background material and translations of the Book of the Dead, see R.
Haikal, Two Hieratic Funerary Papyri of Nesmin, Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca 14 (Brussels, 1970).W.
Herman De Meulenare, Seminarie voor Egyptologie, Rijksuniversiteit-Gent; it was verified by Malcolm Mosher.
I offer my thanks to all of these scholars, but particularly to Carol Andrews, who was the first to point out the connection to me.12W. Uphill, Who Was Who in Egyptology (London, 1972), 247a€“4813Two instances of gifts of large collection of antiquities from Rhind are listed in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, but there is no indication about material going elsewhere.
Letter to author from the Department of History and Applied Art, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, May 26, 1999 (DIA curatorial files).14Brian M. BENSON IN EGYPT EGYPT IN TIN PAN ALLEY IMAGES OF CLEOPATRA IN FILM LESSONS FROM HISTORY MARGARET BENSON PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE RAPE OF LUXOR SONNINI PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc. The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition.

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