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This is a€?Creating a References Sectiona€?, section 13.3 from the book Successful Writing (v.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Apply American Psychological Association (APA) style and formatting guidelines for a references section.
This section provides detailed information about how to create the references section of your paper.
At this stage in the writing process, you may already have begun setting up your references section.
To set up your references section, use the insert page break feature of your word-processing program to begin a new page. See the following examples for how to format a book or journal article with a single author. For a work with no individual author(s), use the name of the organization that published the work or, if this is unavailable, the title of the work in place of the authora€™s name.
For works with more than seven authors, list the first six names, followed by ellipses, and then the name of the last author listed. Use sentence case for all other titlesa€”books, articles, web pages, and other source titles.
Set up the first page of your references section and begin adding entries, following the APA formatting guidelines provided in this section.
If there are any simple entries that you can format completely using the general guidelines, do so at this time. For entries you are unsure of how to format, type in as much information as you can, and highlight the entries so you can return to them later. As is the case for in-text citations, formatting reference entries becomes more complicated when you are citing a source with multiple authors, citing various types of online media, or citing sources for which you must provide additional information beyond the basics listed in the general guidelines.
For book-length sources and shorter works that appear in a book, follow the guidelines that best describes your source. The previous example shows the format used for an edited book with one authora€”for instance, a collection of a famous persona€™s letters that has been edited. Include the translatora€™s name after the title, and at the end of the citation, list the date the original work was published. If you are using any edition other than the first edition, include the edition number in parentheses after the title. Follow the same process you would use to cite a book chapter, substituting the article or essay title for the chapter title. List the authora€™s name if available; if no author is listed, provide the title of the entry where the authora€™s name would normally be listed. List the entries in order of their publication year, beginning with the work published first. If two books have multiple authors, and the first author is the same but the others are different, alphabetize by the second authora€™s last name (or the third or fourth, if necessary). Treat these as you would a book published by a nongovernment organization, but be aware that these works may have an identification number listed.
In these types of journals, page numbers for one volume continue across all the issues in that volume.
At times you may need to cite an abstracta€”the summary that appears at the beginninga€”of a published article. List the first six authorsa€™ names, followed by a comma, an ellipsis, and the name of the last author listed. The idea of an eight-page article with sixteen authors may seem strange to youa€”especially if you are in the midst of writing a ten-page research paper on your own.
Treat these as you would magazine and journal articles, with one important difference: precede the page number(s) with the abbreviation p.
After the title, indicate in brackets that the work is a review and state the name of the work being reviewed. Whenever you cite online sources, it is important to provide the most up-to-date information available to help readers locate the source.
A DOIDigital Object Identifier, an identification code provided for some online documents, typically articles in scholarly journals. If you are citing an online article with a DOI, list the DOI at the end of the reference entry. Note that if the article appears in a print version of the publication, you do not need to list the URL, but do indicate that you accessed the electronic version.


APA style does not require writers to provide the item number or accession number for articles retrieved from databases. Format these as you would an article citation, but add the word Abstract in brackets after the title. The ways you cite different nonperiodical web documents may vary slightly from source to source, depending on the information that is available. If the document consists of more than one web page within the site, link to the homepage or the entry page for the document.
Because these sources often do not include authorsa€™ names, you may list the title of the entry at the beginning of the citation. If you cite raw data compiled by an organization, such as statistical data, provide the URL where you retrieved the information. When citing graphic dataa€”such as maps, pie charts, bar graphs, and so ona€”include the name of the organization that compiled the information, along with the publication date. These are treated similarly to their print counterparts with the addition of retrieval information. For commonly used office software and programming languages, it is not necessary to provide a citation. Citation guidelines for these sources are similar to those used for discussion forum postings. Because the content may not be carefully reviewed for accuracy, discussion forums and blogs should not be relied upon as a major source of information. Include the producer and the type of series if you are citing an entire television or radio series. To cite a specific episode of a radio or television series, list the name of the writer or writers (if available), the date the episode aired, its title, and the type of series, along with general information about the series. Name the director or producer (or both), year of release, title, country of origin, and studio.
Use the APA guidelines provided in this section to format any entries for electronic sources that you were unable to finish earlier. If your sources include a form of media not covered in the APA guidelines here, consult with a writing tutor or review a print or online reference book. This is the "Sample APA Annotated Bibliography" page of the "Research Paper Style Basics" guide.
This tutorial is designed to assist students in setting up a paper in Microsoft Word using APA style.
Describes ways to get help with writing in APA Style, including links to tutorials, the APA Style Blog, and other learning resources. The Free Automatic Bibliography and Citation Generator Save time by creating a Works Cited page instantly in MLA, APA, or Chicago! See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
You will review basic formatting guidelines and learn how to format bibliographical entries for various types of sources. This section may consist of a single page for a brief research paper or may extend for many pages in professional journal articles. Note that the header and margins will be the same as in the body of your paper, and pagination continues from the body of your paper. For the remainder of this chapter, you will learn about how to format bibliographical entries for different source types, including multiauthor and electronic sources. The first line should be flush with the left margin, while any lines that follow should be indented five spaces. Do not use italics, underlining, or quotation marks for titles of shorter works, such as articles. The following guidelines show how to format reference entries for these different situations.
Note that when the editor is listed after the title, you list the initials before the last name.
This type of source is different from an anthology, which is a collection of articles or essays by different authors. Then list the names of the book editor(s) and the title of the book, followed by the page numbers for the chapter and the usual information about the booka€™s publisher. If the organization that issued the report assigned it a number, include the number in parentheses after the title. Use the guidelines provided to format any entries for book-length print sources that you were unable to finish earlier. For instance, the winter issue may begin with page 1, and in the spring issue that follows, the page numbers pick up where the previous issue left off.
The article in the following example has sixteen listed authors; the reference entry lists the first six authors and the sixteenth, omitting the seventh through the fifteenth.


Use the guidelines provided above to format any entries for periodicals and other shorter print sources that you were unable to finish earlier. In some cases, this means providing an articlea€™s URLA uniform resource locator, or web address. If a website is updated or reorganized, the article you accessed in April may move to a different location in May. DOIs are more stable than URLs, so they should be included in reference entries when available.
You may choose to do so if the article is difficult to locate or the database is an obscure one.
After the title, include bracketed text describing the interview as an a€?Interview transcripta€? or a€?Interview audio file,a€? depending on the format of the interview you accessed.
If the work is numbered within the database, include the number in parentheses at the end of the citation. Cite software only when you are using a specialized program, such as the nutrition tracking software in the following example.
Author(s), date of publication, title, publisher, page numbers (for shorter works), editors (if applicable), and periodical title (if applicable).
Author(s), date of publication, title, publisher or sponsoring organization, and DOI or URL (if applicable). Provide details about the creator(s) of the work, title, associated company or series, and date the work was produced or broadcast. If an electronic source is also widely available in print form, it is sometimes unnecessary to provide details about how to access the electronic version.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (47 MB) or just this chapter (5 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). This section of Chapter 13 "APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting", like the previous section, is meant to be used as a reference tool while you write. Indicate the volume number (if applicable) and page numbers in parentheses after the article title. Preliminary findings from an evaluation of the presidenta€™s physical fitness program in Pleasantville school district.
Sometimes, the authors actually did collaborate on writing and editing the published article. If it is unavailable in print (or extremely difficult to find), use the format in the example.
You may also participate in discussion forums or comment on blogs that address topics of personal or professional interest. The specific details provided will vary depending on the medium and the information that is available.
In other instances, some of the authors listed may have contributed to the research in some way while being only minimally involved in the process of writing the article. For articles whose pagination is not continuous, list all the pages included in the article. Guidelines for whether to provide a deep link within a site or a general link to the homepage or index vary depending on the type of online source., or web address. For this reason, many online periodicals, especially scholarly publications, now rely on DOIs rather than URLs to keep track of articles. Always keep in mind that when you post, you are making your thoughts publica€”and in many cases, available through search engines. Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting in early adolescence. Whenever you collaborate with colleagues to produce a written product, follow your professiona€™s conventions for giving everyone proper credit for their contribution.
For example, an article that begins on page A1 and continues on pages A4 would have the page reference A1, A4.
However, a DOI is more stable than a URL, so it makes sense to include it in your reference entry when possible. Make sure any posts that can easily be associated with your name are appropriately professional, because a potential employer could view them.
Fitness of Canadian children and youth: Results from the 2007a€“2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. An article that begins on page A1 and continues on pages A4 and A5 would have the page reference A1, A4a€“A5. Provide a link to the specific article used, rather than a link to the publicationa€™s homepage.



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