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Description: During a naval campaign against Venice in 1501, a Turkish fleet captured a Spanish ship in the western Mediterranean. The map found its way to Suleiman the Magnificenta€™s Topkapi Palace where it remained undetected for four centuries. A long passage describes Columbusa€™ first voyage experiences, from initial difficulties in obtaining sponsorship to encounters with the natives. The Piri Reis map is drawn on gazelle hide, with a web of lines criss-crossing the Atlantic called a€?rhumb linesa€?, typical of the late medieval marinersa€™ charts. Among the mapa€™s illustrations are two lozenges, which give the scale, and beautifully drawn ships, some accompanied by inscriptions which record important discoveries. The Iberian Peninsula and the coast of west Africa are carefully drawn, in a manner suggesting the style of the practical marinersa€™ charts called portolanos. Another immediately striking feature of the map is the number of islands, most of them legendary, and some of them adorned with parrots. The most striking topographical detail, and the one that has caused the most discussion, is the chain of mountains running through South America - the mountains which Charles Hapgood (Maps of the Ancient sea Kings) identified as the Andes.
The coastline of northeastern South America indicates that information came from Ojeda, Vespucci, or one of their companions. In 1511 Piri Reis began to draw a new map of the world which was to incorporate all of the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries. In Gallipoli, where he temporarily retired, Piri Reis reduced his source maps to a single scale - a difficult task in those days - and spent three years producing his map. As for the northern part of the map, we see here how Piri Reis benefited by the new Portuguese maps and recorded on it the discoveries made before 1508 on the North American coast by Amerigo Vespucci, Pinzon and Juan de Solis.
All the principal rivers in South America are marked on the map, though the names are not written, it is remarkable that he should have shown the river La Plate on the map, when Pinzo and Juan de Solis passed by it and from all accounts, never even noticed it. An even more important argument for the Columbian origin of this part of the map is the fact that the real Cuba, as an island, is missing. Close studies of the Caribbean portion of the map confirm the idea that the map possesses all the important information that was on the map of Columbus drawn and sent to Europe in 1498 and also on the map of Toscanelli that Columbus had in hand when he first ventured out on his voyages (Book III, #252). The real Antilles are shown on the map not as islands, but as Columbus believed it to be, as a continent. Piri Reis calls the eleven islands on the southeast of Haiti a€?Undizi Vergine,a€? which shows that the number of the islands is not expressed by the word a€?onzea€? which means eleven in Spanish but by its equivalent in Columbusa€™ mother tongue, Italian.
Scattered about the map are some other entries that also enlighten us about various details in the discoveries. By a picture near the island of Santiano is a note stating that the names of these places were found and given by a Genoese sailor brought up in Portugal. Towards the north, on the map is a picture of a fish on which is drawn a woman and a man making a fire, nearby is another ship and three people in a boat.
The map in question is drawn on a gazelle skin by Piri Reis who had made a name for himself among the Western and Eastern Scholars through his detailed geographical book on the Mediterranean Sea entitled Bahriye [a€?On the Seaa€?] and which testifies to his capacity and knowledge in his profession. As the same thing will be noticed in the maps of ancient and mediaeval times, the map of Piri Reis contains important marginal notes regarding the history and the geographical conditions of some of the coasts and islands. The map in our possession is a fragment and it was cut of from a world chart on large scale. In one of these marginal notes the author states in detail the maps he had seen and studied in preparing his map.
Piri Reis, in a special chapter in his book Bahriye mentions the fact that in drawing his map he has taken note of the cartographical traditions considered international at that time. The following entry-notes begin from the northwest corner, turn southward, then proceed along the perimeter, and finally continuing in a winding fashion towards the center.
There we find the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and the newly discovered regions of North and Central America.
The pieces of land seen at the side are the peninsulas of Honduras and Yucatan, discovered in 1517 and 1519 respectively. In this second map the drawing of the coastlines shows greater improvement in technique and also close resemblance to the modern conception of these areas.
On this map, as on the previous one, there are some explanatory notes, but they are recorded more briefly. Over the second set of scales further north he says again that the distance between two sections is 50 miles and between two dots 10.
Beside place-names in the notes near Labrador he says a€?This is Baccalao, The Portuguese infidels discovered it. Another interesting term used on the map is what he calls the tropics: a€?Daya€™s Lengtheninga€?. The line drawn over Cuba should, of course have been drawn further north, and the peninsula of Yucatan should have been put entirely below it; but that much accuracy could not be expected of the cartographical technique of the period.
As it can be easily observed from this map, Piri Reis continued following the new discoveries with great interest.
In the capitals of Portugal, Marrakesh and Guinea, there are pictures of their respective sovereigns.
IV.A A  This map was drawn by Piri Ibn Haji Mehmed, known as the nephew of Kemal Reis, in Gallipoli, in the month of muharrem of the year 919 (that is, between the 9th of March and the 7th of April of the year 1513).
HIROSHIMA, Japan—President Barack Obama is set to make history on Friday as he travels to Hiroshima — becoming the first sitting US leader to visit the site that ushered in the destructive power of the nuclear age. The bombing claimed the lives of 140,000 people, some of whom died immediately in a ball of searing heat, while many succumbed to injuries or radiation-related illnesses in the weeks, months and years afterwards. Coming in Obama’s final year in office, the visit also marks seven years since he used his trademark soaring rhetoric to call for the elimination of atomic arms in a landmark speech in Prague that helped him win the Nobel Peace Prize. And while the world today appears no closer to that lofty vision, Obama is expected to use the symbolism of his presence in Hiroshima to call attention to present dangers.
Obama is expected to lay flowers at the cenotaph in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in the shadow of a domed building, whose skeleton has been left standing in silent testament to the victims of the first ever nuclear attack. He will also speak at the spot in the presence of at least three atomic bomb survivors, Japanese media reported. Some quarters of Japanese society, however, have called for such a gesture, though Obama has ruled this out and insisted he will not revisit the decisions of his predecessor Harry Truman at the close of World War II. While some in Japan feel the attack was an abomination because it targeted civilians, many Americans say it hastened the end of a brutal and bloody conflict, and ultimately saved lives. Obama, in comments published by Japan’s Asahi Shimbun daily on Thursday, emphasized the tragedy of armed conflict. TACLOBAN CITY–After a trip to the market on early Wednesday morning, a couple returned home to find their house in Barangay 78, Tacloban City, Leyte and their children gone. They went to the market to buy ingredients for the food they were going to serve at their small carenderia, but when Maribel Morales and husband Glen returned home, their house was gone and so were their four children.
Their bodies were found by firefighters in one of the rooms on the second floor, said Cabillan. SAN PEDRO CITY, Philippines—A police officer was killed while his live-in partner and child were wounded in a gun attack in Pagsanjan, Laguna, police said Friday. Inspector Roselle Orate, Laguna police information officer, said slain victim Police Officer 3 Dustin Gomez, 40, was driving his motorcycle with his partner Sheen Abadier, 24, and child Jan Daniele, 4, as passengers when they were attacked by unknown gunmen on board another motorcycle around 9 p.m. The Pagsanjan police immediately conducted pursuit operations and arrested suspects Moises Bagabaldo, Nino Flores and Brenn Collin Almario, all residents of Lumban, just hours after the shooting incident. DAVAO CITY — The National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP) said just because they were included on the list of nominees for the Duterte Cabinet does not mean that they are members of the revolutionary movement.
The military and anti-communist organizations have relentlessly tagged progressive leaders, activists and caused-oriented groups as legal fronts of the CPP, which they consistently denied.
Agcaoili said that Bello was not nominated by the NDFP and was personally selected by Duterte. Bello was also selected by Duterte to become the chief negotiator of the government with the NDFP.
The Ombudsman is set to file graft charges against two police officials for allegedly manipulating the medical examination results of applicants in the Philippine National Police (PNP).
According to the investigation by the PNP Regional Investigation and Detective Management Group in 2010, Milanes and Ambas of the Regional Health Service 3 manipulated the medical examination results of police applicants. At least 41 applicants also testified that they paid for the medical examinations and vaccines with cash without being issued any official receipts. Several police applicants were also disqualified without being given copies of the results.
The medical screenings were also done by on-the-job trainees without the supervision of the organic personnel in the PNP Health Service. The Ombudsman also included in the graft charge Eduardo Indiongco of Indiongco Laboratory, which was given undue advantage by Milanes and Ambas when they allowed the laboratory to conduct the medical exams without the benefit of public bidding. The police officials also allowed Indiongco to collect payments from the applicants which amounted to P1.8 million.
On top of the criminal charges, Milanes and Ambas were also found administratively liable by the Ombudsman and found guilty of Grave Misconduct. They were ordered dismissed from the service, and were meted with the accessory penalties of perpetual disqualification from holding public office, cancellation of eligibility and forfeiture of retirement benefits.
Villar, principal sponsor of the bill, said the law boosted the campaign against smuggling, which continues to threaten the livelihood of farmers as well as the food security in the country. The senator also expressed optimism that the process of prosecution would largely improve with smuggling now being a non-bailable charge. Under the law, she said, the amount of smuggled agricultural product subject to economic sabotage is equal or more than P10 million for rice, and equal or more than P1 million for other agricultural products such as sugar, corn, pork, poultry, garlic, onion, carrots, fish, and cruciferous vegetables. Villar said violators will face a penalty of life imprisonment and a fine of twice the fair value of the smuggled agricultural product and the aggregate amount of the taxes, duties and other charges avoided. Aside from this measure, Villar also authored seven other bills on agriculture recently signed into law by the President; namely, RA 10848 (Agricultural Competitiveness Enhancement Fund extension act), RA 10817 (Halal Act), RA 10816 (Farm Tourism Act), RA 10825 (Marine hatchery in Surigao City and Del Carmen, Surigao del Norte), RA 10826 (Marine nursery in Kalamansig, Sultan Kudarat), RA 10813 (Multi-species freshwater hatchery in Jabonga, Agusan del Norte), and RA 10787 (Marine hatchery in Lingig, Surigao del Sur).
RIO DE JANEIRO — Brazilian police say they are hunting for more than 30 men suspected of participating in the gang rape of a 16-year-old over the weekend. Police told The Associated Press on Thursday that the girl was assaulted by armed men Saturday while visiting a shantytown on the west side of Rio de Janeiro. In this June 16, 2015, file photo, Donald Trump, accompanied by his wife Melania Trump, is applauded by his daughter Ivanka Trump, right as he’s introduced before his announcement that he will run for president in the lobby of Trump Tower in New York. The moments history will probably remember from the fight for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination are a procession of rule-breaking clashes, followed by a slow-motion victory assured Thursday by a candidate no one — including himself — was sure would succeed. In the AP’s delegate count, Donald Trump surpassed the number needed to give him the nomination. Trump dominated the GOP race from the moment a gilded escalator delivered the tycoon into the mosh pit of 2016 presidential politics. Trump’s descent from his penthouse into the basement of Trump Tower to announce his candidacy on June 16 was a spectacle that foreshadowed the many ways he would break the political rules.
He scans the hall for trouble — appearing eager to find it — and sometimes he gets it, in the form of protesters who sneak into the venue and interrupt him. Trump displayed a gift for identifying supposed weaknesses of his rivals and turning them into nicknames that stuck. The Republican Party that emerged from Romney’s 2012 loss to President Barack Obama vowed to appeal to Latinos and women as a matter of survival. The fact that he was spending his own money — at least $43 million of it in the end — meant the party had zero leverage over the billionaire who refused, then promised, then wavered on whether to support the eventual Republican presidential nominee if that person was not him. As the late-night shows bubbled that the Trump jokes were virtually writing themselves, Republicans fretted. Republicans are increasingly giving Trump a chance — even if that’s because they view almost anyone as preferable to Hillary Clinton.
For many — including House Speaker Paul Ryan, who has yet to endorse Trump — it’s a close call. That was Trump’s reaction to his sweep April 26 of five state contests that he said rendered his only remaining opponents, Cruz and Ohio Gov.
In practical terms, Trump effectively won control of the race on May 3, when he defeated his rivals with 53 percent of the vote in Indiana — inspiring Cruz and Kasich to quit. After Trump’s win in an empty field Tuesday in Washington state, he still was 28 delegates short of the 1,237 needed to secure the prize.
Technically, it still isn’t over until the delegates vote at the GOP convention in Cleveland this summer. This combo shows black and white portraits taken on May 25 and 26, 2016 of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, (top L to R) Keiko Ogura, Park Nam-Joo, Sunao Tsuboi, and (bottom row L to R) Shigeaki Mori, Misako Katani and Emiko Okada in Hiroshima.The atomic blast at Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 killed 140,000 people, half of whom died quickly from intense heat, a huge shock wave, and radiation.
HIROSHIMA—With a blinding flash of light and an ear-splitting roar, the age of nuclear conflict arrived with terrifying and awe-inspiring force on August 6, 1945, changing the course of history, and killing 140,000 people.
Few could have known the dangers above them as a US B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay pierced the sky, loaded with deadly cargo in its belly, the single most fearsome weapon the world had ever seen.
After the initial searing fireball, gusts of around 1.5 kilometers (one mile) a second roared outwards, carrying with them shattered debris, and packing enough force to rip limbs from bodies.
The air pressure suddenly dropped, crushing those on the ground, and an ominous mushroom cloud rose, towering 16 kilometers above the city.
The smell of burning flesh filled the air as scores of badly injured survivors tried to escape the inferno by diving into the rivers that criss-crossed Hiroshima.
Countless hundreds never emerged, pushed under the surface by the mass of desperate humanity; their charred bodies left bobbing in the brackish water. Many died of their terrible injuries over the following hours and days; lying where they fell, desperate for help that would never come, or even just for a sip of water.
For those who survived, there was the terrifying unknown of radiation sickness still to come. Gums bled, teeth fell out, hair came off in clumps; there were cancers, premature births, malformed babies and sudden deaths.
Japanese Prime Minsiter Shinzo Abe, foreground center left, and US President Barack Obama, foreground center right, smile at photographers with other leaders of Group of Seven industrial nations, clockwise from left, French President Francois Hollande, British Prime Minister David Cameron, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, European Council President Donald Tusk, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, at the start of the second working session of the G-7 summit meetings in Shima, Mie Prefecture, Japan, Thursday, May 26, 2016. They committed to a cooperative approach in beefing up policies to stimulate and sustain growth of their sluggish economies with use of flexible spending strategies to create jobs and shore up confidence in uncertain times. In the case of the controversial plan to inter the remains of an actual dictator, the late Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, at the Libingan ng mga Bayani or Heroes’ Cemetery, this distinction does not hold. Mayor Rodrigo Duterte, the next President of the Philippines, says he will honor his campaign promise to Marcos’ family to allow the long-sought burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani, on the grounds that the former president was “a soldier.” This is a deceptive and dangerous distinction, meant to rationalize an unjust, unpatriotic act.
When the Marcos family requested permission to bring Marcos’ body back to the Philippines in 1992, the president at the time, Fidel V.
But the campaign to inter Marcos’ remains in a manner befitting a former president has never stopped, leading Vice President Jejomar Binay in 2011 to recommend burial “with full military honors,” and both Binay and Duterte in 2016 to pledge support on live national television for burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. It is true that, according to the pertinent Armed Forces of the Philippines regulation, “active and retired military personnel of the AFP” who have died may be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.
But most of these ordinary soldiers died in combat, something not even the most sympathetic of Marcos supporters can claim for him. The President-in-waiting suggests that the critics of Marcos, the enemies of martial law, must learn to “jettison their hate”—as though demanding accountability, asking for the Marcoses to show even a hint of remorse, working to recover the billions of dollars the family illegally acquired, were acts of hate.
If he wants the healing of a nation still scarred by the terrors of martial rule, he must direct his attention not to the victims but to the victimizers.
Incoming President Rodrigo Duterte will authorize the burial of the embalmed corpse of dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani, the Inquirer reports.
McCoy is an American professor of history at the University of New South Wales in Australia. US National Archives officials did not learn what the documents contained until after they were copied. Between 1945 and 1948, various US Army officers rejected Marcos’ two requests for official recognition of a Maharlika force, calling his claims distorted, fraudulent, contradictory and absurd.
In addition, the US Veterans’ Administration, helped by the Philippine Army, found in 1950 that some people who claimed membership in Maharlika had actually been committing “atrocities.” The records include no direct evidence linking Marcos to those activities. Spokespersons of his regime said he won 32 medals for heroism during World War II, including two from the US Army. The validity of Marcos’ supposed medals has been challenged by Philippine and American journalists, among others. When the Philippine newspaper We Forum published an article in 1982 questioning Marcos’ war record, government authorities shut the paper down. Like thousands of other Filipinos immediately after World War II, Marcos asked the US Army to recognize his unit so he and the other soldiers could receive back pay and benefits. In his submissions, he offered widely varying accounts of Maharlika’s membership, from 300 men at one point to 8,300 at another. Shortly after the war, the US Army did recognize the claims of 111 men listed on the Maharlika roster. It is clear throughout the records that at no time did the US Army recognize that any unit designating itself as Maharlika ever existed as a guerrilla force in the years of the Japanese occupation, 1942 to 1945.
For the third consecutive time, the leftist organizations in the Philippines failed in their effort to have one of their own elected to the Senate and be able to claim a national mandate. In 2010, the Left fielded then Representatives Satur Ocampo and Liza Maza of the party-list groups Bayan Muna and Gabriela, respectively, in the senatorial race, under the ticket of presidential candidate Manuel Villar’s Nacionalista Party. Although Maza and Ocampo had drawn considerable public attention for their active participation in deliberations at the House of Representatives and in street demonstrations, they did not make it. At the time the Left opted to ally with Poe, Davao Mayor Rodrigo Duterte had not yet made up his mind on running for the presidency. The alliance with Poe was forged despite questions over her giving up Filipino citizenship in favor of being a citizen of the United States (the Left’s favorite reason for street protests) and then reclaiming Filipino citizenship when she was appointed by President Aquino to a government office. To compound the Left’s woes, Bayan Muna and Gabriela were a shadow of their old selves in the party-list elections. After their two failed attempts to secure national recognition through the ballot, it would be reasonable to expect the leftist organizations to have learned their lessons and made the proper adjustments in their action plans. Their social ideology and program of government are attuned to the problems (and aspirations) of the least privileged members of our society who constitute a supermajority of the voting population. The combined votes of the D and E sectors of our society would have been more than enough to elect one of the Left’s own to the Senate, or ensure that its party-list groups would garner the number of votes needed to entitle them to three representatives each in the House.
Sadly, the Left has been unable to attract the votes of millions of Filipinos whose causes they have vigorously fought for in Congress and for whom they’ve borne the perils of street demonstrations, including the truncheons and water cannons of antiriot policemen. The apparent disconnect between the Left and the “unwashed” is difficult to explain considering that the media have been generous (sometimes to a fault) in giving leftist organizations public exposure for their activities. They get into front-page or prime-time news for their comments on the issues of the day even without the benefit of PR agencies. Besides, they have the ability and resources to engage in grassroots campaigns to make their constituency aware of their existence and the causes that they espouse.
It’s a puzzler, therefore, that, for all these years, the Left has failed or been unable to gain the national following it craves.
If the Left wants to be a political force to reckon with in our country, it has to make major adjustments in its strategy and program of action. I met recently with Health Secretary Janette Garin, who was looking remarkably relaxed and laid-back despite the heavy load of her position and the impending end of her stint in the Cabinet.
Amid information-sharing (read: chismis) on her possible successor, Garin aired a plea that she hoped would reach the Supreme Court.
And where would this leave Filipino women of reproductive age who wish to postpone or space their childbearing?
The TRO on contraceptives clearly undercuts the intent and meaning of the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Law, which ran the gauntlet of legislative procedures for over a decade until its signing into law in 2012. Women and RH advocates can take some comfort in knowing that presumptive President-elect Rodrigo Duterte is a staunch supporter of reproductive health. This is based not just on recent public statements he has made, in the course of which he also launched an attack on the Catholic Church, but also on his history as mayor of Davao City.
Let’s hope that, apart from his own braggadocio and macho posturing, especially on the issue of rape, which has earned him a reprimand from the Commission on Human Rights, Duterte will keep to his pro-RH position in defiance of conservative elements of the Church.
Why did the prolife groups which sought the TRO from the Supreme Court focus their attention on the implants? This is because, once they were introduced into the market after FDA approval, the implants proved to be highly popular in the market. Part of the reason for this was that the implants, which release a steady dose of contraceptive hormones, are good for up to three years.
Working in the implants’ favor, I must say, is that they not only provide “worry-free” protection for a woman for three years (which in the opinion of many experts is the “ideal” gap between pregnancies); also, a woman need only pay just a single visit to the health center for such lengthy protection.
The petitioners who successfully sued for a TRO on the implants cited the alleged risks associated with the method. But the implants have been in use in many other countries—some of them in poor developing countries—for many years, with no widespread reports of the alleged dangers to the health of women or their babies. Indeed, the implants and all other forms of contraception in use today, were tested and reviewed by the FDA before they were granted a license. Media coverage of a fire usually focuses on the chaos, anguish and grief as the blaze rages. In a postfire scenario, the most difficult part is explaining to people why they can’t immediately enter a gutted building. Even after the fire was officially declared controlled, we were warned that a new fire could start again.  Indeed, when the doors to the Faculty Center were opened shortly after the big fire had been put out, the oxygen rushing in from outside set off a new fire at the core—the famous Recto conference hall where, even at the height of martial law, people could speak freely without fear of being arrested. For days, too, after the fire, there were still smoldering embers, occasionally coming alive again, a kind of huling hirit—a “last hurrah,” with flames shooting up then dying down. I tell people that we have to let go and move on, but I know that’s easier said than done because Bulwagang Rizal involved so many years of our faculty’s lives, in many personal, intimate ways. Some years ago the Institute of Chemistry, better known to many as Science Pavilion 2, burned down completely. Before entering the building I playfully imagined that maybe I would see nebulous figures floating in and out of the rooms, or hearing crying or laughter.
It will be very different with Bulwagang Rizal, with literally thousands of faculty members and students nursing memories of the place, and its times. After the turnover, as the ambassador met and talked with five of our students on scholarship from the embassy, I realized how steeped he was in history and culture events and understood why he empathized so much with our loss at UP Diliman. That same afternoon, I was working when my secretary told me the Ayala Foundation had sent a van with 14 large boxes of books for some of the departments affected by the fire. I also know that the two large donations carried messages of sympathy (We’re sorry about what happened) as well as of solidarity (We want to help you move on).
Disasters are disasters because of the long-lingering effects.  After Tropical Storm “Ondoy,” one of my graduate students told his classmates and me that the floodwaters had destroyed his laptop and his thesis manuscript inside it. He said a fire would have been better because all you would have are ashes, but water-logged photographs leave you hanging. Rej Cruz, of our anthropology faculty, found in the debris metal plates that made up a precious kulintang, a musical instrument similar to a xylophone.
I looked at the eight rusted pieces on the floor and asked Rej to make sure to update me as he restored the kulintang. Every Sunday I receive the grace of patience by simply enduring the lengthy and mindless sermons of priests who think nothing of their parishioners. My pet peeves are “commentators” who order everyone, including the presiding priest, when to sit, stand or kneel, and “missalettes” distributed before Mass that distract people like myself who tend to read silently rather than listen to Scripture proclaimed orally. Just like “commentators” who tell us when to sit, stand or kneel, there is the ringing of hand-held bells during the elevation of the host that signals the kneeling congregation to look up, then down. Early this week an 800-pound, 19th-century bell named “San Pedro” was returned to the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Bauang, La Union, by the superintendent of West Point, where it had been kept since it was taken as a souvenir during the Philippine-American War. In the colonial Philippines, bells summoned people to worship, very much like the adhan (or Muslim call to prayer) is made from mosque towers, formerly with a human voice and now with a loudspeaker. So integral was the bell in the colonial Philippines that people lived bajo la campana—literally under the bell, but actually within hearing distance of the church bells. San Pedro, the bell returned to Bauang this week, must have been one of a pair because the Church is dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul. The bell was taken by the enemy in 1899 during the Philippine-American War and was shipped to the United States in 1902.
To cut a long story short, West Point, upon the request of the parish priest of Saints Peter and Paul in Bauang, has returned the bell to the Philippines. As a kid, I dreaded one thing more than monsters and math: The Great Family Reunion Kiddie Talent Show. My coperformers—my cousins—were ready with their song-and-dance numbers, but I sat in a corner, silent and drenched in cold sweat, my heartbeat so loud I could hear it.
Childhood mercifully passed without giving me posttraumatic stress disorder, as far as I can tell. So when it comes to being with friends, an introverted person would prefer meaningful conversations with a friend or two, instead of a loud and lively party.
These concepts are largely still alien to Filipinos, so much so that even parents can make a misjudgment of their introverted children. It’s understandable that parents should get worried about their children not having as many friends as “normal” kids do. Not understanding introversion may seem like a negligible matter, but it has intricate ways of preventing introverts from thriving.
In the classroom setting, for instance, a student who rarely participates in recitation is often dismissed as unintelligent. Our highly extroverted culture has led to introverts viewing themselves as inferior, as though introversion were a flaw that they need to completely eliminate.
On the other hand, introverts need to realize that it’s OK to not always be outgoing, loud or talkative. As long as we are capably communicating with others and not locking ourselves up in our own little bubble, we don’t need to be sorry about our introversion. Now, unity is radical change, but impossible to begin in a climate that has demanded change the partisan way.
A democratic framework, however, that treasures and protects freedom and human rights will need radical change from people’s attitudes as much as radical change in the ways of leadership – not only of a President but of a government bureaucracy).
Mixed messages are an anathema to great change, especially to a divided people that quickly become confused from a cacophony of slogans, allegations and accusations. Those who loudly clamored for change, going to the extent of being more aggressive and angry than Mayor Duterte himself, it is they who will have to close their eyes to questionable appointments and mixed messages.
Thank goodness that a growing number of Filipinos are distancing themselves from politics and political messiahs.
Most Filipinos are not involved in the rigodon of political personalities shifting power and positions. Incoming President Rodrigo Duterte said he will stop labor contractualization in this country. We commend Duterte’s resolve to end the practice of contractualization, which has long deprived workers not only of just wages and rights, but also of their dignity as human beings. How ironic that during the Aquino administration our GDP growth rates surpassed those of our Asian neighbors but did not result in higher incomes for our workers.
Raising wages and salaries is logical and practical: Higher incomes raise the workers’ purchasing power and, therefore, boost consumption and help the economy. We also hope that with his labor secretary, Duterte will seriously look into and curb the pervasive corporate violations of labor laws and occupational safety and health (OSH) standards that put at risk the lives of workers. So that workers can actively and consciously protect their rights from abuses and harm, participate in discourses and creative actions that will effect genuine change in the next six years of his leadership, we urge Duterte to uphold workers’ right to organize unions freely. For the past two decades, the neoliberal policies implemented by previous administrations, as well as the state-capitalist measures, have shrunk the number of workers’ unions and unionized workers, leaving workers with very little, if any, protection. Lastly, we pray that Duterte finds wisdom in the people’s demands to abandon the neoliberal policies that continue to drag the  workers and the poor deeper into poverty.
We wish the incoming president good health so that he will be able to realize his vision to lift the Filipino people from centuries of oppression. The country’s product quality regulator says the recall was ordered after Shanghai-GM received complaints about engine damage.
AUTHORITIES have arrested two more vendors in separate operations for selling fake cigarettes in violation of Republic Act No.
Operatives of the PNP-Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG) arrested store owner Kevin Co Ong of King Co Store on Speaker Perez St. The warrant for Ong’s arrest was issued by Quezon City Regional Trial Court Branch 93 Judge Arthur O. In Talavera, Nueva Ecija, NBI-Cabanatuan District Office (Cabdo) agents nabbed Jeffrey de Guzman Castro, alias Puroy de Guzman, of Esguerra Village, Brgy. Like Ong, Castro was also charged with violation of section 155 in relation to section 170 of Republic Act No. Aside from the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines, violators may also be held liable for violating Republic Act No. CIDG Chief Police Director Victor Deona said the PNP remained vigilant against counterfeiters and warned individuals and business establishments against the sale and distribution of fake cigarettes. The Department of Finance has come up with a comprehensive tax reform study for incoming Secretary Carlos G. The proposed tax reform package includes an all-in tax exemption for those earning P1 million and below yearly, lower tax rates for individuals and firms, an increase in the value-added tax or VAT rate to 14 percent and the expansion of the VAT coverage.
In a statement Thursday, the DOF said the proposed tax reform package was comprehensive, not piecemeal. Also, the tax reform package was aimed at “[empowering] our revenue-generating agencies and streamlining tax compliance for our people, making it easier for our people to pay taxes and for our tax agencies to administer the tax system” especially amid the Asean economic integration. Under the comprehensive tax reform package that the DOF was pitching, the income tax rate would be brought down on a staggered basis to 25 percent for both individuals and corporations from 32 percent and 30 percent, respectively, within the next five to six years.
The all-in income tax exemption for those earning P1 million and below a year would benefit about 11 million taxpayers. The lowering of the individual and corporate tax rates coupled with the income tax exemption would cost the government up to P224 billion in the first year of implementation, based on the DOF’s estimates.
Despite the projected foregone revenues, Purisima said the tax rate reductions would impact the country’s competitiveness as an investment destination.
To compensate for the first two revenue-eroding proposals, Purisima said the DOF was also proposing a number of measures that would shore up collections. In particular, the DOF was pushing for the removal of all VAT exemptions, except on agriculture, health, banks and education. The DOF was also pushing for the rationalization of tax perks given to investors, which would let the government keep about P5 billion yearly. Tighter rules that clamp down on tax evaders would also result in more revenue collections, Purisima said. Other tax administration reforms pitched by the DOF include removing the BIR as well as the Bureau of Customs—the two biggest tax-collection agencies—from civil service and salary standardization, while also allowing then to retain 1 percent of their revenues as budget for modernization and also fund personnel enhancement measures. If the package is implemented as a whole, the DOF estimated total revenue gains would reach up to P511 billion during the first year, resulting in a net revenue gain of up to P351 billion. Tolentino finished cum laude, Management Honors, from the Ateneo, and with distinction, Masters in Management, from the Asian Institute of Management.  She worked for a bank and taught finance, until she felt compelled to help individuals in a more direct manner. Tolentino then pursued a professional diploma in family ministry from the Center for Family Ministries, Loyola School of Theology, where she became director for a time, and where she still remains a pastoral family counselor to this day. True to her word, Tolentino recently completed the Family Firm Institute (FFI)-Global Educational Network certificate in family business advising, and became the first Filipino to garner the De Visscher & Co. Participants have access to cutting-edge information and resources for exploring the core disciplines—behavioral science, finance, law and management science—and steps for forming collaborative teams.  FFI provides multidisciplinary educational programs to advance family enterprises worldwide by enabling collaboration between family enterprise practitioners and academics, creating a global network of professionals. For several months, Tolentino and her colleagues around the world took online courses, accessing lectures and videos, doing exams and webinars, and most of all, interacting with one another.
An international group composed of 1,800 individuals and organizations across 88 countries, the FFI provides education and networking for family business advisors, educators, researchers.
VoIP systems offer more features than regular phone systems, and they cost much less than services from a typical phone service provider. Business VoIP systems add many options that more expensive phone systems can’t offer.
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Most VoIP providers offer a flat rate for unlimited calling to anywhere in the continental U.S. Long term contracts force businesses to continue working with companies that don’t provide excellent service. With so many ways to save money with business VoIP, all the customized options these systems offer may seem like an added bonus. Switching to a VoIP system provides huge savings while adding feature-filled options to increase efficiency in any business whether it’s a small start-up or a large corporation.
Today’s business world is centered around communications, and business VoIP systems are essential elements of a functional, modern office. When business owners price traditional phone systems for their small business, they often experience sticker shock when adding all the components together. Some business owners try to cut corners by purchasing a residential phone system, trying to adapt it to multiple lines and physical extension ns. Any new phone system typically comes with a list of instructions that must be explained to each employee, making implementation a long-winded process.
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The prime goal of Teliwave (Hoiio) is to introduce novel and modern methods to enable its customers to stay connected with their near and dear ones, without any hassles and without the need of any special network or tools. International call provider Localphone is helping you to celebrate Chinese New Year because customers will be able to call China free for four days.  2012 is the year of the Dragon and is a time to welcome in wealth, prosperity and longevity for the year ahead.   For those who can’t celebrate with loved ones, you’ll save money by being able to call them for free! Gizmocall service works similar like Skype, Yahoo Messenger and Gtalk, Hence the above listed technical need are essential. Verdict: Using Gizmocall is quite easy because you can start making calls from web browser itself. There are various home phone service providers out there in the United States to claim to have excellent quality and reliability.
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A VoIP reseller is basically a middleman between the VoIP service provider and the customer. Many VoIP service providers have affiliate programs and plans available to encourage you to act as a VoIP reseller. As a VoIP reseller, you get to build your own company without the worry of maintaining all of the hardware of the VoIP system. VoIP reseller programs work by giving you access to the inner workings of the VoIP service provider. Typically, the number of customers you have determines the amount of access you have to the control panel and the different features therein. That is, most customer accounts will come to you “preprogrammed.” They have the included benefits and bonuses that the VoIP service provider thinks are good for the customer, like some free minutes and 1 or more free phone lines. Twilio provides a web-service API for business to build scalable, reliable communication apps. The sad part is that each call is limited to only 4 minutes, but you can make any number of calls (even to same number) thus making it unlimited free international calls. The good part is that around 200 countries are included, which includes India, USA, Canada, UK, Mexico, Brazil, France, Australia.
You can use this service with you SIP application, iphone, computer, local numbers or any service that Localphone gives to call countries.
A well established news channel in the USA, NBC has tried to develop a VOIP application for its users.
So many people are struggling from the same problem of being unable to find the cheapest way to make a call to those loved ones who love abroad.
VoIP calls to Pakistan can be made via Internet, where the voice signals are carried over the Internet as digital signals to the other end. In order to make cheap VoIP calls to Pakistan, one needs to own a PC, laptop or a mobile with internet connection, a modem, broad band connection and finally, a microphone or a headphone or a speaker in order to speak to the other person on the other end.
There are many service providers who have considered taking up the role of offering the VoIP services. Some of the best features of making cheap VoIP calls to Pakistan are call conferencing like that of the mobile phones where a group of people can chat at the same time, call waiting, call diversion, etc. What happens when you mix the King’s signature peanut butter and banana with our critically acclaimed Pop’s Porter? Our mighty beertenders are specialist in answering all the questions you might have about the multiverse. The only thing better than a special treatment is three special treatments & the only thing better than that -> three barrel aged special treatments! Our critically acclaimed La Rubia meets the warmly sweet, slightly tart with earthy undertones characteristic of the blackberries to create one of the most awaited treatments.
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The amazing aroma with hits of malt sweetness of your favorite Pale Ale meets all the benefits of the good old Green Tea! Description: The Lenox Globe is often referred to as the oldest extant post-Columbian globe.
What is known about the provenance and acquision of this special globe by the New York Public Library was assembled by Robert W.
Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia.
There was no good indication as to when the little globe was made, but three prominent scholars in the late 19th century - Benjamin De Costa, Henry Harrisse and Justin Winsor a€“ addressed this perplexing issue before Joseph Fisher made his discovery of the WaldseemA?ller map in July 1901.
Harrisse in his landmark work The Discovery of North America (1892) concluded that the most likely date for the Lenox Globe was 1511. Prior to Harrisse, Justin Winsor in the mid-1880s was equally perplexed concerning what to make of and how to date the Lenox Globe. The scholar who provided the first and to this day still the most in-depth analysis of the Lenox Globe was Benjamin De Costa (1831-1904).
What makes De Costaa€™s scholarship in his 1879 essay so outstanding is that he is open and candid about the profound implications of dating any globe or map depicting the entire continent of South America so many years before Magellana€™s voyage of 1519-1522. This is an astonishing pattern of cartographical evidence concerning South America prior to Magellana€™s voyage in 1519. We should also observe that even before De Costa, the world famous scholar Alexander de Humboldt took seriously the proposition that there may have been more extensive exploration of South America (Portuguese in his and our view) than the conventional wisdom allowed due to the tradition, surrounding Magellana€™s famous voyage. For his part, De Costa was well aware of Cosmographiae Introductio and the small WaldseemA?ller globe gores (#310) found in the passage in the south. It is evident that the Lenox Globe must have been constructed subsequent to the discovery of the coast of South America, in 1500, by Cabral, who gave it the name Vera Cruz, which was soon changed to Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, as on this globe.
On the other hand, the almost complete lack of information betrayed by the maker of the globe concerning the east coast of North America, and the absence of the name America on South America would indicate that it antedates the map of Martin WaldseemA?ller of 1507 (#310).
Because the date of this globe could be deduced mainly from its representations of America, let us give a brief resume of the condition of geographical knowledge respecting the New World for several years subsequent to 1510. In the year 1500, Juan de la Cosa, the Pilot of Columbus, drew a map of the New World (#305), but North America does not appear, Newfoundland being represented as a part of Asia.
What has been said thus far applies only to North America, but, upon turning to South America, the representation has the appearance of belonging to a period later than 1511. In order to present the subject with clearness, it will be useful to state first, that the La Cosa map of 1500 (#305) exhibited the northern coast of South America, together with the eastern coast down to about 25A° S. On this point it may be observed that such a termination to South America was doubtless rendered probable by the argument from analogy. Sometimes the information thus derived was of great value, and it would appear that the maker of the Lenox Globe had received information of this kind.
The uncertainty of the globe-maker respecting Madagascar may be explained by the fact that it was not until 1508 that Da€™Acuhna made his exploration of the island, though it was known to Marco Polo. The SchA¶ner Globe of 1520 (#328) has an island similar in form and situation to the nameless island of the Lenox Globe, but in a reversed position, and called Madagascar. In support of the suggestion that the Madagascar and Certina of the globe are simply Sumatra and Java misplaced, we may cite the fact that the well-known islands of Sumatra and Java do not appear in their places, while the Malayan peninsula, labeled on the globe as Loac, is extended so far south as to confuse the geography of the whole region.
It is true that one of the first references to the southern coast of Australia in the 17th century was that of 1627, when a Dutch ship sailed along the shore for a distance of a thousand miles, while one of the earliest maps of that century which showed the outlines of Australia was the Montanus map of 1572. Attention has already been called to the fact that the great nameless island, with its attendant islands, is placed westward instead of southeast of the Malayan peninsula; but Sylvanus, in his Ptolemy map of 1511 (#318), moves the whole group into its proper position to the southeast, thus giving a somewhat correct view of the geography of that region. Thus far nothing has been said of the general appearance of the globe, though, if it were necessary, many details could be pointed out which indicate its ancient origin. In Asia the Himalayan range, anciently known as Imaus, had its influence upon the globe-maker's geography, who indicates Schite extraianivm for Scythia extra Imaum.
Moabio appears to be the Maabar of Marco Polo, who says that in this entire Province there is never a Tailor to cut a coat or stitch it, for the very good reason that everybody goes naked.
Beyond Newfoundland is a sinking ship, with the figure of a human being in the water, possibly an allusion to the loss of the Portuguese Cortereal. When, however, the maker of the Lenox Globe looked away toward the region now occupied by North America, he saw only a watery waste, in the midst of which the island of Bacaleos or Newfoundland, rode like some ship at anchor. In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], being close to Yucatan, whose well-known bay, first explored in 1518, has a conjectural coast line trending towards the south instead of the west. The name America does not appear upon the Lenox Globe, which fact, so far as it possesses any significance, favors the belief that the early date of 1504 assigned to the instrument is correct. Hylocomilus, while admitting the priority of the voyage of Columbus, felt no necessity for naming the New World after one who, in the most pronounced manner, declared that there was no New World to be named. Humboldt maintains that Vespucci, equally with Columbus, believed that the land discovered formed a part of Asia. The Viscount Santarem (Researches respecting Vespucci) has taken the ground, as well as some others, that the map of Hylocomilus, in the Ptolemy of 1513, was the work of Columbus. The southern coasts of Asia are drawn less correctly than on the map of Ruysch and on the TabulA¦ NovA¦ of Asia inserted into the Ptolemy edition of 1513. In the New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names: Mundus Novus, Terra SanctA¦ Crucis, and Terra de Brazil.
In the place of North America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the northwest extremity of Terra de Brazil, bears the name Zipangri [Japan], and one in the far north, but unnamed, clearly resembles the Cortereal region, as it appears on the Cantino and Caveri maps (#306, #307). Most of the inscriptions on the globe reference back to the medieval picture of Asia, combining antique sources, travel accounts, and fabulous legends.
From the standpoint of 2012, with our greater appreciation of the WaldseemA?ller world map, we can see how De Costaa€™s suspicions of a pre-Magellan discovery of the strait point to the broader cartographic issue. Either the Lenox Globe really was a post-1507 creation, which in view of its shortcomings oddly failed to take into account the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was reportedly issued in 1000 copies for sale, along with the essay Cosmographiae Introductio. De Costa did not explicitly renege on his estimation of the 1510 date for the Lenox Globe as the most probable but he waffles.
Given these facts, one has to give serious consideration to the possibility that the creator of the Lenox Globe made it before April 1507 or at least not to long after that date if one is to explain ignorance of this widely published essay.
De Costa originally prepared his analysis in 1879 without benefit of any knowledge of the large WaldseemA?ller world map discovered 22 years later.
For his part, NordenskiA¶ld in his Facsimile Atlas (1889) cited De Costaa€™s a€?estimate of 1508-1511a€? and concluded that this a€?seemed to be about righta€?. In his later work entitled Periplus published in 1897, NordenskiA¶ld dramatically asserted that knowledge of the Pacific, the isthmus and a water passage to the south a€?must have reached Europe prior to Balboaa€™s journeya€?.
Ultimately, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their 1926 work A Book of Old Maps argued that the Lenox Globe was made sometime in the 1503-1507 period.
One reason why they came to this conclusion was that the Lenox Globe lacks the sophistication of the Ruysch world map (1507-1508) with its more accurate depiction of features associated with the region of the Indian Ocean, something which troubled both De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld.
The bottom line is that the maker of this globe seems to be unaware of not only the WaldseemA?ller 1507 map, the Ruysch map of 1508, but also ignorant of others such as the Juan de la Cosa, Cantino and Caveri maps from the 1500-1504 period which do show substantial parts of the North American mainland including Florida and the Gulf coastline and also in the Caveri map the Central American coastline from Mexico to roughly Honduras. This discontinuity in cartographical conception makes it hard to know where to place the Lenox Globe on the family tree of maps and globes made during the first decade of the 16th century. This analysis, if correct, would suggest that Lenox Globe was not likely to have been based on tightly held information in the possession of Spanish navigators. Furthermore, given that Balboa did not cross the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean until 1513, it is extremely hard to imagine the maker of the Lenox Globe getting his a€?island-likea€? conception or vision of the new southern continent from Spanish sources.
There is other evidence that strongly points to the source of the Lenox Globe being Portuguese rather than Spanish.
This geographical distortion seems far too neat or convenient in political terms to have been a mere coincidence as we can see when we superimpose the Line of Demarcation established by this treaty onto the Lenox Globe. Despite this obvious manipulation of nautical data, Fite and Freeman, like De Costa before them, observed that the Lenox Globe still accurately places the southern edge of of this continent at 55 degrees south of the equator. What is amazing is that Fite and Freeman made such a bold statement based merely on their assessment of the Lenox Globe of uncertain date with no consideration of the WaldseemA?ller globe gores of 1507 which also clearly shows a southern water passage.
We would argue further that if this analysis is correct, then the Lenox Globe would represent a stepping-stone or interim intellectual stage in the evolution of geographical knowledge that made possible the more impressive and comprehensive cartographic synthesis articulated by Mathias Ringmann in Cosmographiae Introductio and shown visually in the world map and globe made by Martin WaldseemA?ller at the Gymnasium at Saint-Die. Note the same land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere as in the Jagiellonian Globe, but unlike on that globe, unnamed. The Jagiellonian Globe, dating from around 1510, held by the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, depicts a continent in the Indian Ocean to the east of Africa and south of India, but labeled America. The appearance in the mid-16th century of Jave la Grande in a series of mappemondes drawn by a school of cartographers centred on the French port of Dieppe, suggesting an early Portuguese or Spanish discovery of the eastern coast of Australia, has been called a€?one of the puzzles of European historya€?.
An ancient Map of the World has been discovered in the British Museum, which lays down the coasts of New-Holland, as described by Cooke and Bougainville.
In all the subsequent discussion of the Dieppe maps and Spanish or Portuguese discovery of the East coast of Australia in the early 16th century, it is noteworthy that there has been no consideration of the Jagiellonian Globe and the bearing it might have on the matter.
The Sydney Morning Herald of 19 January 1911 carried an article with the arresting title, a€?Australiaa€™s Discoverer: was it Amerigo Vespucci?a€?. Professor Estreicher drew attention to a globe of similar date held by the New York Public Library, known as the Lenox Globe. Ein solches Land is nur Sudamerica allein, und wir mussen annehmen, dass jene Insel Sudamerica vorstellen soll, freilich an einer ganz falschem Stelle. Estreicher proposed Louis Boulengier of Albi as having been the cartographer responsible for the Jagiellonian Globe, on the basis of similarity between it and the Tross Gores, dating from 1514-1518 (#324), of which Boulengier is known to have been the author.
An armillary clock, similar to the Jagiellonian, made by Jean Naze of Lyons in 1560 is held at the Orangerie Planetarium of the Staatliche Museen Kassel (formerly the Hessisches Landesmuseum). But the most revealing feature of this globe is that its maker was aware of Cosmographiae Introductio, because he refers to America. If it was impossible that the maker of the Jagellonian Globe with the benefit of access to Cosmographiae Introductio which invented the name America could have been that confused, why the gross mistake?
Edward Stevenson, discussing Estreichera€™s work in 1921, commented that he seemed not to have noticed that the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA possibly indicated not only an acquaintance on the part of the Jagiellonian cartographer with WaldseemA?llera€™s suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that America was actually located in this particular region.
In the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, and Seula [Ceylon], and the fourth part of the Earth, which, because Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to speak, or America. In his 1911 interview, Petherick pointed out that Thomas Morea€™s Utopia (published in Louvain in 1516) reflected this concept of the eartha€™s geography.
The representations of the east coast of a€?Jave Ie Granda€™ [sic] (Australia) delineated in those maps are, I assert, very rough representations and repetitions of the east coast of South America when that continent and our Australia were supposed to be one, before the Pacific Ocean was known. From this perspective, one might speculate that the bizarre attachment of the name America to a mythical or hypothetical island in the southern Indian Ocean was an expression of strong contempt for the Florentine navigator and an attempt to delink his name from the South American continent, which had been made by WaldseemA?llera€™s team at Saint-Die in 1507.
Catigara was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator. In claiming that Amerigo Vespucci discovered Australia Petherick may simply have been intending to make the point hyperbolically that the coastline of the Dieppe maps, taken by some to represent Australia, was the coast of the land discovered by Amerigo, misplaced into the Eastern Hemisphere. The Jagiellonian Globe demonstrates that it was possible for early 16th century geographers to depict the same coastline, that of eastern South America, in two different places on the same map. The Jagiellonian Globe reminds us that we must try to look at the early maps through the eyes and with the knowledge of their makers, free of the preconceptions arising from our current geographical knowledge.
Another four decades were to pass before another scholar addressed the question of the date for the creation of the Lenox Globe.
Why did Pohl see the creation of the Lenox Globe being linked so closely to the publication of Vespuccia€™s letters in Italy in 1505?
Levilliera€™s analysis in an essay in Imago Mundi entitled a€?New Light on Vespuccia€™s third voyagea€? was stunning in this regard. We should observe at this juncture that even prior to the so-called Italian-Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters, the famous Cantino map (#306), which is also of Portuguese-origin and which dates to no later than November 1502, also shows the eastern coastline bending abruptly (and falsely) to the southeast. Thus, in his essay for the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in 1963 Pohl was on solid ground when he pointed to the similar or parallel tampering with the text of Vespuccia€™s original letter for the Italian-Soderini edition as grounds for suspecting that the Lenox Globe dates to a period before the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507.
Nevertheless, Pohl deliberately dodged the question of the uncanny depiction of the new southern continent in his 1963 essay. Pohl went to considerable lengths in this long footnote in 1944 to dismiss any evidence -- the account in the Newen Zeytung journal, the SchA¶ner globes and Valentine Fernandesa€™ remarks in a deposition in a Portuguese court in 1503 -- that supports Magellana€™s assertion that Portuguese navigators had discovered the strait much earlier, and no later than 1506.
Pohla€™s rigid position concerning the a€?accidentala€? or a€?imaginarya€? features of the Lenox and Jagellonian Globes remains baffling given that he was prone to accept highly dubious claims of evidence for the presence of Europeans and Asians in America -- such as the stone tower in Newport, Rhode Island which has been reliably dated to after 1492. In the more than forty years since Pohla€™s essay was published there has been little attention paid to the Lenox Globe. Meridians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its surface at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the island Ferro. We believe that when all the evidence and analysis of the historical context are taken into consideration, Fite, Freeman, and Pohl presented a compelling, convincing argument that places the creation of the Lenox Globe prior to the WaldseemA?ller map and globe gores.

Furthermore, it seems more probable that the Lenox Globe was based on sensitive information that was improperly acquired directly from someone in Lisbon than it was based on information leaked from the Gymnasium at Saint-Die while the work on Cosmographiae Introductio, the world map and globe gores was still underway in 1505-1506.
Thus, there is some basis for concluding that the maker of the Lenox Globe had learned about a water passage and thus knew a lot more than Vespucci conveyed, at least more than the Florentine navigator revealed openly in Mundus Novus which entered into circulation in 1503-1504. In conclusion, we can summarize what appear to be five solid facts concerning the creation of the Lenox Globe. Second, the maker of this globe also knew from sensitive Portuguese sources a lot more about the overall shape of the entire southern continent than Vespucci conveyed (at least openly) in Mundus Novus that entered into widespread circulation beginning in 1503- 1504. When one considers all this chronological evidence, analysis of the most probable historical context points to the creation of the Lenox Globe between the publication of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus in 1503-1504 and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the large world map were printed. Whatever the truth, the Lenox-Jagellonian Globes add to a large body of cartographic evidence that points to a Portuguese discovery of the strait before 1519 which is what Magellan had always insisted, and to a clandestine exploration of the west coast of this new fourth continent as far north as what we know as Acapulco no later than 1507. Magellana€™s odd decision was illogical or counter-intuitive if he and his contemporaries believed that this new land mass was an extension of Asia. It is a reasonable conclusion that Magellan understood from extensive discussions with Spanish officials and navigators that this land mass was connected to the land region we know as Central America with which the Spanish were quite familiar by 1518- 1519.
Chauncey, Henry, a letter written on January 21,1902 to Willberforce Eames, official at the Lenox Library. Lingren, Uta, a€?Trial and Error in the Mapping of America in the Early Modern Period,a€? in America: Early Maps of the New World, editor, Hans Wolff, New York, 1992, pp. Nordenskiold, Adolf, Periplus - An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing-Directions, Stockholm, 1897, p. Pohl, Frederick, a€?The Fourth Continent on the Lenox Globea€?, Bulletin of The New York Public Library, Volume 67, Number 9 (September 1963), pp.
Stevenson, Edward Luther, a€?Martin WaldseemA?ller and Early Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World,a€? Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Volume XXXVI, Number 4, 1904, pp. Winsor, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America, Houghton-Mifflin & Company, 1884-1889, Volume III, pp. Zakrzewska, Maria N., Catalogue of globes in the Jagellonian University Museum, translated by Franciszek Buhl, Kracow, 1965. A A A  Lenoxa€™s personal library was acquired in 1911 by the New York Public Library and in the process this small, engraved globe made of copper became one of the Librarya€™s most valuable possessions. A A A  Like Martin Behaima€™s famous large globe from 1492 (#258), the Lenox Globe still shows only one ocean between Europe and Asia. This item will be sent through the Global Shipping Programme and includes international tracking. Items delivered internationally may be subject to customs processing depending on the item's declared value.
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By clicking Confirm, you're committing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. One of the prisoners taken had earlier made three voyages to the West Indies with Columbus and carried with him a set of Columbusa€™ American charts. Piri also became an admiral and is remembered as a scholar of navigational science and an accomplished linguist. In 1929 this remaining fragment was discovered when the palace was being converted to a national museum.
Most scholars do not believe these lines were used to indicate latitude and longitude but were used as an aid in laying out a course. One is almost certainly an account of the expedition of Cabral in 1500; Cabral discovered Brazil when he was blown off course across the Atlantic while on his way to India.
Here many of the place names are given in Turkish, rather than being merely transliterated from Portuguese or Spanisha€”showing that the Ottomans had practical experience of their own along those coasts. The accompanying inscription tells a tale from the life of the Irish Saint Brandon, a charming medieval legend.
Maps showing islands scattered through the Atlantic were current ita€™s the later Middle Ages, and a globe made by Martin Behaim in 1492 (Book III, #258) - the same year Columbus first set off- shows a quantity of them; so does the Toscanelli map (Book III, #252), which we know Columbus used. The delineation of the coast of Brazil on the Piri Reis map is much more accurate than that of the Caribbean. The rivers that issue from their base are obviously meant to be the Amazon, the Orinoco and the Rio Plata, and the animal with two horns standing on the mountains is Hapgooda€™s a€?llamaa€?. In the map Piri Reis adopts and applies the rules of emblematic signs mentioned on page 28 in the Bahriye. In the bibliography attached to the map he claims that his map is as sound and accurate for the seven seas as the map of the Mediterranean. Some of the place names on the South American coast, like Santa Agostini, San Megali, San Francisco, Port Rali, Total Sante, Abrokiok, Cav Frio and Katenio show a close resemblance to their modern forms.
Outside the parts relating to Columbusa€™ map, the scales in miles are astonishingly accurate. And so it should be on a Columbian map, for Columbus thought Cuba was part of the mainland of Asia, and drew it accordingly. Hence Piri Reis calls Central America a€?the County of Antiliaa€?, and the North American coast a€?the coast of Antiliaa€?. This is another indication of how faithful Piri Reis was to Columbusa€™ map, keeping close to the information of Columbusa€™ map which apparently possessed all that was on the earlier Toscanelli map, Piri Reis handed down to us the oldest map of America and informed us about various aspects of the most important phase in the history of the discoveries.
Beside the picture of a ship near the Azores is written that this Genoese vessel came from Flanders, was shipwrecked, and that the survivors discovered these islands.
In anther entry close to the picture of a ship drawn near the South American coast he summarizes all the information given in a map by Nikola di Juan who was shipwrecked there. This is the story of Santa Brandon which was very popular in the middle ages, and was recorded in the a€?thousand and one nighta€? stones.
The Illustrated London News published a reproduction of it on 25th February 1932, which prompted a detailed letter by a prominent Turkish historian. Piri Reis is the son of the brother of the famous Kemal Reis who was the Turkish admiral in the Mediterranean Sea at the last quarter of the 15th century. When the photographic copy of the map is carefully examined, it will be noticed that the lines of the marginal noted [sic] on the eastern edges have been cut half away. In the marginal note describing the Antilles Islands, he states that he has used Christopher Columbusa€™ chart for the coasts and islands.
The coasts (the names of the coasts) and the islands are taken from the chart of Columbusa€?. Therefore Piri Reis had made a study of some of the charts that represented the world, and according to his personal statement, he has studied and examined the maps prepared at the time of Alexander (the Great), the a€?Mappa Mundisa€™ and the eight maps in fragments prepared by the Muslims. Such a map is not owned by anybody at this time, I, personally, drawn [sic] and prepared this map.
The cities and citadels are indicated in red lines, the deserted places in black lines, the rugged and rocky places in black dots, the shores and sandy places in red dots and the hidden rocks by crosses. Each of the roses is divided into 32 parts and the division lines are extended beyond the rose frames. Besides these, on Africa there are pictures of an elephant and of an ostrich, and on South America of lamas and pumas. It is related by the Portuguese infidel that in this spot night and day are at their shortest of two hours, at their longest of twenty two hours. On the way to the village of Hind a Portuguese ship encountered a contrary wind [blowing] from the shore. And in this country it seems that there are white-haired monsters in this shape, and also six-horned oxen. It is said that in ancient times a priest by the name of Sanvolrandan (Santo Brandan) travelled on the Seven Seas, so they say.
Unlike the first map, drawn under the influence of Columbus, the islands of Cuba, Haiti, the Bahamas and the Antilles are drawn quite accurately.
The note on the left-hand corner of the map, under the scales with the long and ornamental points, gives the signature of the author as well as the date 1528 (A. In his own words the explanation runs as follows: a€?Bu hat gun gayet uzadigi yere isarettira€? which means that these lines indicate the part of the world where the days grow longer. We should, therefore, acknowledge the greatness and value of the work among other maps of the period after pointing out briefly to its various merits and demerits. It is remarkable that, by taking into account the results of the new discoveries, he should correct in this map the inaccuracies of the first in which he was misled through his unquestioning confidence in Columbusa€™ map.
President Barack Obama arrives late to participate in a G-7 Working Session in Shima, Japan, Friday, May 27, 2016, during the G-7 Summit.
10845 or “The act declaring large-scale agricultural smuggling as economic sabotage” was signed into law by President Benigno Aquino III last May 23.
Harsher penalties are now imposed to serve as deterrent to smuggling activities,” Villar, also chair of the Senate committee on agriculture and food, said in a statement.
The attackers posted pictures and videos of the assault on the unconscious teenager on Twitter. In AP’s delegate count, Donald Trump surpassed the number needed to give him the nomination. That essentially closed out a raucous race on a quiet note, as a small number of unbound delegates put him over the top by telling AP they had decided to support him.
Inside the hall, the former reality star fuels the energy by dividing the crowd into good and bad — supporters, good; protesters and journalists, bad.
Fistfights broke out among protesters who filled a Trump rally at the University of Chicago, prompting him to cancel the event.
They had no idea how to rid the presidential field of Trump, who was alienating these groups anew by proposing to deport people here illegally and remarking on the physical appearance of women.
Also, there is no other choice — a desperate and late effort to derail Trump from the nomination fizzled. That’s what made clear that an extraordinary fight over delegates at the July convention — once seen as almost certain to happen — would be avoided.
The AP’s count of GOP delegates Thursday found he had reached the magic number, 1,237. US President Barack Obama is set to become the first sitting US president to visit one of the bomb sites when he journeys on May 27, 2016 with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to Hiroshima, hallowed ground to Japanese but, for more than 70 years, a no-go zone for 11 of his Oval Office predecessors. Housewives made breakfast for their families, children played in the sticky summer heat, and men hurried to get ready for work.
In the wake of the overpowering twin bombs, Japan surrendered less than a week later, ending World War II.
Ramos, agreed but laid down three stipulations: that the body would be given the honors of a junior officer, that it would be buried immediately, and that the burial place would be in Marcos’ home province of Ilocos Norte. Indeed, the great majority of the more than 45,000 dead who are buried at what was once called the Republic Memorial Cemetery are soldiers. By pretending to have accomplished feats of heroism on the battlefield, all of which have been debunked, he has also disgraced the dignity of the common soldier. Duterte, a lawyer and former prosecutor, must know the difference between justice and hate.
He must ask them to jettison their greed, make them understand that burying Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani is yet another act of thievery—this time, of the common soldier’s dignity, and the country’s honor. McCoy stumbled on documents while researching on World War II in the Philippines at the US National Archives. He said he worked with the records by himself until he brought them to the attention of The New York Times. Army investigators concluded that Maharlika was a fictitious creation and that “no such unit ever existed” as a guerrilla organization during the war.
Two of the medals were supposedly for his activities as a guerrilla leader, but the rest were for exploits before 1942 or after the return of US forces to Luzon in 1945.
In response, his spokespersons contend that the medals were properly earned and that the records validating them were destroyed in a fire. In his petitions, he certified that his unit had engaged in numerous armed clashes with Japanese forces, as well as in sabotage and in intelligence-gathering throughout a vast region of Luzon, and had been the preeminent guerrilla force on the island.
Mercado served as a communication officer for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Bangkok. Their candidacies got a lot of flak because they shared the campaign platform with Ferdinand Marcos Jr., the son and namesake of the dictator against whom they fought bitterly during the martial law years. They took the 25th and 26th places, respectively, in the Senate race; Marcos, on the other hand, got the seventh highest number of votes. Teodoro Casino ran for senator under the banner of Makabayang Koalisyon ng Mamamayan, and wound up 22nd in the winning list.
There was no way the Left would tie up with the administration’s Liberal Party given its strong opposition to President Aquino’s economic and social policies.
Miriam Defensor Santiago, who had Marcos as vice presidential candidate, was out of the question because, first, her presidential candidacy was a fluke, and, second, it would reprise the 2010 polls and history may repeat itself.
In spite of Colmenares’ high visibility, he was only good for the 20th slot of the senatorial list.
Unlike in past elections when they were perennial topnotchers, Gabriela was in second place and Bayan Muna in the 15th slot. Politicians will gladly give an arm and a leg to get a piece of the attention that the media routinely give them. This has to do with the existing TRO (temporary restraining order) that is about to turn a year old prohibiting the Department of Health, and by extension any public health facility, from offering to the public (read: women) contraceptive implants.
Now the Supreme Court, by sitting on the law’s full implementation, not only has thwarted the people’s will expressed by the legislators for whom they had voted, but has also put women’s and babies’ health at risk.
As mayor, Duterte encouraged his constituents to limit the size of their families, though he has since amended his position to say he favors a couple having “only” three children.
In fact, reports indicate, the number of “acceptors” of the implants, which are tiny rods inserted under the skin in the arms of users, was fast catching up with the number of users of injectables and even of the very popular pills.
Compare this with the injectables, which provide protection against pregnancy for up to three months, or the pill, which a woman has to take daily. The closest rivals for “years of couple protection” are IUDs, which prevent pregnancies for up to 10 years, and of course such permanent methods as tubal ligation and vasectomy. This is a function precisely reserved for the FDA, which is presumed to have the necessary expertise and authority to determine the safety and efficacy of drugs whose makers and marketers are seeking government permission. What happens afterwards—the hours, days, weeks, and longer—is apparently not as newsworthy. There are the forensic issues, with the site becoming off-limits as investigators come in to try to determine the cause of the blaze.
In our case, even a neighboring building was affected by air pollution and classes could not be held there for a week. This time around, the venue for the most inflammatory speeches was consumed by real flames.
At the height of the fire, there were almost 50 fire trucks deployed from throughout Metro Manila. Throughout the next weeks faculty members trooped back, accompanied by our maintenance people and with safety gear on. Yet the members of the chemistry faculty do not recall too much of grief because the pavilion consisted mainly of classrooms and laboratories, rather than faculty rooms. And I have to express, again, my thanks to people from all over, even non-alumni, who have helped us. The plates had rusted in the seven weeks or so since the fire, but he is optimistic that he can have them cleaned, and a new wooden base built. I know that after a fire, what matters is not so much what we find, or don’t find, as the way we seek closure.
Excellent homilies are available online, and all that is required is competent delivery, yet many fail even in that.
In medieval times, libraries were not the places of silence that we have today; all reading was oral, following the principle of taking mute words from a page with the eyes, and giving it life through the vocal chords. I have it on good authority that the so-called Sanctus Bell is optional, its use in earlier times resulting from the priest, with his back to the congregation, reciting the relevant Latin words inaudibly. Bells tolled to announce a birth, marriage or death by the way these were rung, the number of times, the intervals, etc.
During the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War, bells were confiscated by the enemy because they could be used to send signals far and wide in an age before the cell phone, or they could be melted down and made into weapons or bullets. The postscript to this story will hopefully be the return of one or all three of the bells taken from the church of San Lorenzo in Balangiga, Eastern Samar, during the Philippine-American War. Come Christmastime, our extended family would gather ’round a makeshift stage while the little ones each performed a “talent” for a chance to win more presents. I didn’t want the spotlight on me, and had to wear down the grownups with repeated refusals. One of the biggest characteristics of an introvert is drawing energy from solitude, silence and internal interests instead of people, activities and external stimuli. Research has revealed that all sorts of people, including introverts, feel happier when they socialize; it’s just that introverts have lower tolerance for external stimulation and thus feel exhausted after too much socializing. Or, when they do party, introverts might find themselves gravitating toward a specific place in the room, hanging with only a couple of people instead of hobnobbing with the crowd. Perhaps it is also heightened by generational differences: Our parents grew up at a time when “How to Win Friends and Influence People” was pretty much a bible for living. Worse, there are educators who try to browbeat quiet students out of their shells: We all know that one teacher who intentionally trains the attention of the whole class on the quiet student at the back, forcing the spotlight on him or her in an attempt to make him or her speak up. As with all other forms of stigma, there needs to be more understanding on this matter, an understanding that transcends cultural and generational mores. The expressed clamor for change by passionate partisans of Mayor Rodrigo Duterte signified they wanted great change. True, too, is the opposite possibility, where a dictatorship generates enough hate to unite a people to rise against it. They have to be the ones who must drum up support for the man they created into a President whatever he does in the beginning. More Filipinos go on with their lives dedicated to build a solid foundation for the future they dream of for their children. That is a powerful attitudinal buffer zone in the prevention of deep disappointment or even delicate political discontent. He said he doesn’t want companies firing workers after five months to avoid giving them the right wages and benefits.
We count on Duterte’s promise to provide Filipino workers security of tenure by repealing laws that legalize this practice and thereafter hold accountable employers making use it.
We urge the Duterte administration to work on the immediate passage of the OSH bill which seeks to criminalize OSH standards violators. It is the workers’ means to achieving social justice and it gives them some guarantee that they will benefit from economic growth.
We support his openness to address the root causes of armed conflicts by paving the way for just and lasting peace through peace negotiations.
The automaker is a joint venture between GM and state-owned Shanghai Automotive Industries Corp. Esguerra for possession of large quantities of fake Mighty Full Flavor, Mighty Menthol 100s, Marvels Filter Kings and Marvels Menthol 100s. 8293 under a warrant issued by Cabanatuan City RTC Branch 26 Judge Johnmuel Romano Mendoza. 7394, or the Consumer Protection Act, and the National Internal Revenue Code, whose penalties range from one year to 12 years imprisonment and fines of up to P200,000, or both. The DOF has been making rigorous studies with our multilateral partners like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on how to go about a holistic, revenue-positive, and equitable package,” Finance Secretary Cesar V. This meant tax collection did not increase as fast as it should to better finance a growing economy.
Increasing the excise taxes on gas, diesel, and other oil products will generate P132 billion.
For example, VAT exemptions for senior citizens or persons with disabilities can be transformed into budgetary support or subsidies such as conditional cash transfer programs, where the impact of programs is more targeted and direct. The current anti-money laundering law even has an explicit provision that prohibits the Anti-Money Laundering Council from intervening in BIR operations.
Consultants share their expertise and engage us in case discussions, which give different perspectives and therefore, more comprehensive analysis and understanding of the complexities of family businesses,” Tolentino says. Working with a business VoIP provider offers options and services that regular phone companies can’t beat.
Installation is sometimes free with VoIP, and monthly bills are much lower than businesses with traditional phone services are used to seeing. The power of digital means being able to offer a more inexpensive service, but it also means adding options that traditional phone systems can’t. Being able to take more calls translates to more sales, more leads, and more satisfied customers. Having low cost international calls means that switching to business VoIP can immediately and permanently decrease monthly expenditures. This means combining the power of the internet with the power of a phone system that does a lot more than just make calls.
With these systems, communications are always up and running, because technical support is always on standby.
When communications are so important, and money is the bottom line, it just makes sense to take advantage of everything low cost digital business VoIP services have to offer. Even the most inexpensive business VoIP systems are significantly better than old analog phone systems.
Usually laptop or desktop computers do not have high definition cameras or LCD screens, so the experience of speaking to someone on a HDTV will be much better. With the widespread use of the Internet, owners aren’t limited to old-fashioned phone lines and long distance charges on the phone bill. However, there are more headaches with a system that is not adapted to a business structure. Because VoIP was designed for the business world, it has a simplistic layout that makes it easy to understand.
When agreeing to the VoIP contract, the provider stipulates each call’s fee or charge, including any national or international fees. Customers aren’t greeted with a friendly voice and may even hear the phone ring repeatedly with no pickup. All customers call the main line, but are automatically routed to the next business line available to avoid a long wait. Managers don’t want to frustrate customers calling the main office with messages and voice mail, however. If an employee is truly unavailable, the system offers a simple voice mail to get them connected with the customer. The most interesting feature of Hoiio is that the customers can choose the mode of staying connected with the other users for placing international calls. There service can be used from a normal cell phone or landline, PC, or even WIFI from your Windows Mobile, iPhone, or Symbian phone.
This service is trying to take GoogleVoice by shock because the deals they offer are both the same. It might not be the best provider for everyone but they will have a feature that might help you. The awareness of computer and Internet technology execute VoIP world and let Internet users to make a good use of it and moreover it also attract a new users towards Internet.
This is a web based service so call you need is to visit the official site dial the number and start making calls in smart and easy way.
It’s recommended that before making calls register yourself because unregistered user will possibly suffer from limited minutes of calls duration. And next thing is it offers free calls for 10 minutes at each registration and 5 minutes for non-registered users. Residential VoIP service entails hardware being set up in your home instead of using, for example, your computer or your mobile. This policy is an agreement by the customer and the business stating that an allocated amount of minutes will not be surpassed.
PhonePower and Lingo are among the services in the world and majority of United States residents use them.
Powervoip is a new service from Dellmont Sarl and Betamax, it is the same company which owns jumblo, rynga, voipgain and voipblast. If you have been using Betamax to make international calls, then you have seen that they are not reliable. When a new VOIP service is introduced, they always offer free calls to allow people to test there service. For the company, VoIP resale is a way to sell VoIP service wholesale and make a little more money (diversify revenue streams, in corporate speak). You are still on the receiving end of a hosted VoIP system, which means that you can provide VoIP services without the cost and trouble of maintaining a lot of complicated and expensive hardware.
All that requires is you hear 2 ads during the call and you can talk unlimited times during the day.
This program allows users to make free VOIP phone calls and free sms while being involved in NBC news broadcasts.
This was probably the purpose of the NBC Communicator, where the users will have the news in front of them and they can discuss it through VOIP. However, lately, there is a solution that has been found in order to make cheap calls and that method is known as the VoIP.
Pakistan is one of those countries that has great tourist spots and attracts many tourists. However, like all other options, there can also be fake service providers who claim to provide services for VoIP calls to Pakistan.
If you think you have what it takes to sit on the CONNECT 4 plastic throne, then prove it this Saturday 21st! Its historical significance arises from the fact that it is the oldest surviving globe from the post-1492 period and the oldest surviving globe to illustrate any portion of the New World. Thus, in this respect, the small globe does not convey the awareness that there had to be a distinct second ocean (the Pacific) as the WaldseemA?ller map (#310) clearly does. Harrisse believed that the Lenox Globe was made in France derived from a€?an Italian modela€? and he detected what he thought were some features or nomenclature reminiscent of a sketch map allegedly from the hand of Leonardo Da Vinci (#327) now kept in the Library at Windsor Castle.
He was one of the first scholars to make the astute observation about how quickly and how inevitably it was that the Europeans would connect the dots, would grasp the continuous unbroken coastline from Labrador to Argentina as seen in the Stobnicza map of 1512 (#319). He remarked in his Narrative and Critica1 History of America that a€?its date is fixed at 1510-1512, but by some as early as 1506-1507.a€? Curiously Winsor, who died in 1897, never identified which scholars favored the earlier date that would place the creation of the Lenox Globe before the WaldseemA?ller map. When he published his critical assessment in a long article for The Magazine of American History in September 1879, he was ahead of his time. There in fact are several other maps, globes, or globe gores - associated with the names Boulengier (#324), Green (#342.1), Hauslab-Leichtenstein (#310), Nordenskiold (#311), Stobnicza (#319), and the well-known globes and maps of Johannes SchA¶ner (#328) from the 1515-1520 period - which show this continent having a strait or cape like the African continent and also having a distinctive a€?ice cream-conea€? shape quite unlike Africa.
And this evidence should raise doubts and did in fact raise doubts among some late-19th century scholars such as De Costa, Nordenskiold, Varnhagen and Winsor concerning the conventional wisdom that everyone in Europe was in the dark prior to Magellana€™s famous expedition. And Humboldt based his conclusion in the 1830s, on the fact that the little essay Cosmographiae Introductio published to accompany WaldseemA?llera€™s world map in 1507 and which names for the first time the New World as America in Vespuccia€™s honor, also describes the new continent in the southern hemisphere as being like an a€?enormous island in it that it is found to be surrounded on all sides by watera€?. Therefore, unlike Harrisse who curiously was not willing to date the globe before 1511, De Costa was firm in his conclusion that the Portuguese must have found the strait no later than 1510. It seems probable that it was made after the publication, in 1503, of Vespuciusa€™ letter to Lorenzo de Medici, in which he gave an account of his third voyage, when he followed the Brazilian coast 34A° south latitude.
De Costa, Justin Winsor and Henry Harrisse have assigned a date of 1510-11, for the reason, amongst others, that, while several of its representations are in advance of the published knowledge of 1508, they are behind that of 1511-12. In 1508, on the map of John Ruysch (#313), Newfoundland also appears as a part of Asia, being marked Terra Nova. In its New World representation, South America appears as a large island having three regional names, Mundus Novus, Terra Sanctae Crucis, and Terra de Brazil. The ordinary observer must have perceived that the great bodies of land on the globe terminated towards the south in points.
The principle in accordance with which the age of this globe is to be deduced is now therefore quite clear. The globe shows very distinctly a large island, without any name, lying in the Indian Ocean. This excuse, however, cannot be offered for those who later represented Zanzibar as a great island out in the ocean. Acting, however, in accordance with the suggestion offered, it would prove an easy task to bring order out of the confusion. Nevertheless it is probable that Australia was known centuries before, when the Chinese, with the marinersa€™ compass, navigated those seas. Amongst these might be mentioned the peculiar configuration of the Asiatic coasts, the style of the lettering, the drawing of the ships, and the aspect of the marine monsters. He also puts Simarum Situs on the border of the Gulf of the Ganges, where Sinarum Situs is put by Ruysch, Sinarum, like Serica, or silk, being a name applied to China, which on the globe is called East India.
The globe-maker, however, should have placed the province where Polo and the Nancy Globe (#363) place it, on the Coromandel coast. Below South Africa is a grotesque monster, intended for a whale, the creature being delineated with much care.
He may have heard of the Vinland of the Northmen, but the story of the Cabots had already been locked up in depositories where it was destined to lie too long; while Martyra€™s map of Beimeni, or Florida, together with the publications of 1512, 1513, 1515, had not come from the press. The word Getulia and Zamor point to the influence of the Goths and Moors in Africa, while Paludes Nile show that, in common with the geographers of that period, the globe-maker had anticipated the discoveries of Livingstone and Stanley. Cuba, on the other hand, is correctly laid down as an island, being called Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabella. The name America was first proposed in 1507 by Martin WaldseemA?ller, known under the Greek pseudonym of a€?Hylacomilus.a€? It appears in his Cosmographiae Introductio, where, having called attention to the fact that the old continents were named after women, he observes that the new one should be called after a man. Hylacomilus was entirely friendly to Columbus, as was the case with Vespucci in his relations to the Genoese; nevertheless the geographer of St.
He says that three times in his second voyage Vespucci calls the country terra del Asia, but in the third voyage calls it una€™ altro mondo and Mondo nuovo. This map shows the separation of America from Asia, but we believe that the Lenox Globe is earlier. Or the Lenox Globe indeed was made prior to 1507 that would or could mean that its amazing depiction of the new southern continent was derived from highly valued geographical knowledge that also made possible the brilliant synthesis that we see in the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507. The main reason for De Costaa€™s waffling is that he remained intrigued with the notion that there was a€?some connectiona€? between the Lenox Globe that refers to the New World as Mundus Novus, and Vespuccia€™s 1501-1502 voyage. Curiously, for some reason, even though De Costa lived until 1904, there is no record of what he thought after the discovery of this map in 1901, which might well have prompted him to date the Lenox Globe prior to 1507. The Baron had no doubt that the globe was made well before Magellan since its depiction of Asia was more primitive than what one sees on the Ruysch map included the 1507-1508 Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia. The Ruysch map was inserted in the widely available Rome editions of Ptolemya€™s Geographia which published in 1507-1508, the first such edition of this work since 1490.
Instead, in sharp contrast, the Lenox Globe shows what the Cantino and Caveri maps do not show: namely, the coastline from Venezuela around Panama then upward to Honduras with no hint of a strait in the region of Panama.
Ita€™s amazing depiction of the southern continent, essentially in its entirety as a land mass totally separate from Asia and surrounded like an island virtually on all sides by water makes the Lenox Globe a strange hybrid. In Spanish maritime circles, knowledge of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, and even much of the coast north of Florida (all of which fell within the Spanish maritime zone) was fairly complete by 1502-1504. At the same time, we know that in the Spring of 1501, after Cabral had found the east coast of Brazil the previous year, the Portuguese focused intensely on exploring the eastern coastline of South America in order to determine if there was a cape and if it fell within Lisbona€™s maritime zone.
The globe reflects a pro-Portuguese political bias and here we come to what is perhaps the most astonishing and revealing feature of the globe. We can also see this same eastward twist of the coastline in the Cantino (#306) and Contarini (#308) maps both of which date to before the WaldseemA?ller map. Based on this evidence, Fite and Freeman felt compelled to conclude (again like De Costa and NordenskiA¶ld) that this a€?suggests a water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519a€?.
In any case, the preponderance of evidence and the historical contextualization seems to validate the Fite-Freeman argument that the Lenox Globe dates to sometime between late 1503 when the first editions of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novos were published and April 1507 when Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller world map and globe gores appeared. The globe illustrates how geographers of that time struggled to reconcile the discoveries of new lands with orthodox Ptolomaic cosmography. The discussion over this puzzle may be dated from 1786, when Alexander Dalrymple first drew attention to the resemblance between the shape of Jave la Grande on the Dauphin, or Harleian map (#378) and the shape of the coastline of New South Wales as it had been charted by James Cook in HMS Endeavour in 1770. This map, which is on parchment, appears from the characters, and other circumstances, to have been made about the beginning of the 16th century. This had been described in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and discussed in an article by Benjamin Franklin De Costa in the Magazine of American History.
Estreicher pointed out that the western coasts of both this continent and the MUNDUS NOVUS in the Western Hemisphere are schematic and without detail, in contrast to the eastern coasts which show bays, rivers and promontories, indicating that they are the result of actual discovery by voyagers. Diese Annahme wird zur Gewissheit, als wir auf dem Jagellonischen Globus finden, dass die Insel die Inschrift tragt: AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA.
The Tross Gores also bear the inscription AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA, but in this case placed over South America (WaldseemA?llera€™s America), and there is no continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. The depiction of the continents on the globe in this clock is similar to the globe or gores made by Louis Boulengier in 1514, indicating how globe makers could persist in using cosmographical concepts that were decades out of date. Unlike the Lenox Globe, the Jagellonian Globe has engraved on it the lines of latitude and longitude with the prime meridian passing through the island of Ferro. However, as mentioned above, he oddly applies this name, not to the new fourth continent in the Western Hemisphere but instead to an unsubstantiated mythical island in the southern portion of the Indian Ocean.
For his part, Estreicher drew the sensible and logical conclusion that the use of the name America clearly indicates that the Jagellonian Globe was made after the spring of 1507.
One distinct possibility consistent with the other indication of a pro-Portuguese political bias, is that the Jagellonian Globe was made by someone with that same bias and who was furious that Amerigo Vespucci had revealed far too much in Mundus Novus for Lisbona€™s liking and who may well have been dismissed in late 1504 from further service for Portugal for that reason. Hythlodaeus, the narrator, whose name perhaps recalls Hylacomylus (WaldseemA?llera€™s name in latinized form), is said to have accompanied Amerigo Vespucci on what, according to the perhaps apocryphal but widely read Soderini letter, was his fourth voyage (1503-1504). This analysis would suggest that the Jagellonian version of the Lenox Globe might have been a hostile reaction to what the mapmakers had done at St. The maker of the Jagellonian Globe who inserted this erroneous inscription with regard to Americaa€™s location on a globe was dependent on a prior cartographic projection that had to have originated elsewhere.
Writing of his 1499 voyage, Amerigo Vespucci said he had hoped to reach India by sailing westward from Spain across the Atlantic around the Cape of Catigara into the Sinus Magnus, the Great Gulf that lay to the East of the Chersonese Aureus [Malay Peninsula].
Johannes SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1515 (#328), like Boulengiera€™s of 1514 (#324), depicted America but, like the Jagiellonian and Lenox, showed another continent to the South West, labeled BRASILLIE REGIA. This was a cosmographical concept, not based on actual surveys, but as Stevenson pointed out, assumed because the geographers of the time such as WaldseemA?ller, ignorant of the reality of the Pacific Ocean or of North America, thought Amerigo Vespuccia€™s newly discovered land was located in the Southern Hemisphere to the eastward of Africa. As an authentic document from the early sixteenth century incorporating and demonstrating the cosmographic concepts of that time, it deserves consideration in any discussion of how the Dieppe maps came into existence. Frederick Pohl (1889-1991) accepted the Fite-Freeman position in an essay published in the Bulletin of the New York Public Library in September 1963.
Pohl drew this conclusion in part because after he published a biography of Vespucci in 1944, Pohl seems to have become aware of the observations of German Arciniegas and Robert Levillier that the Portuguese map makers were in the habit of twisting the southern coastline of South America toward the southeast so that the cape or strait would fall on Lisbona€™s side of the Line of Demarcation established by treaty in 1494. Although Pohl in his 1963 essay curiously did not mention Levilliera€™s essay or Arciniegasa€™ well-known Vespucci biography, he had already argued in 1944 that someone must have tampered with Vespuccia€™s letters to Soderini in various passages, especially that conspicuous alteration from a€?southwesta€? to a€?southeasta€? to give the false impression that the eastern coastline shifted abruptly in that direction a€“ as we can see illustrated in the Lenox Globe in a quite dramatic fashion.
This exaggerated geographical feature strongly suggests that officials in Lisbon were quite eager as early as 1502 to spread misinformation or disinformation about the true direction of the coastline below the Tropic of Capricorn at 23 degrees latitude south. We can say this because he buried a discussion of this specific issue in a long footnote on pages 225-226 at the back of his biography of Vespucci published in London in 1944.
However, the most telling observation is that if there was no European knowledge of a cape or a strait with regard to the new southern continent prior to Magellan, why do these globes a€?twista€? the southern portion of the continent to make people believe that a cape and water fall so far to the east, in the direction of, and therefore within the Portuguese maritime zone? Hans Wolff who edited and also contributed to America: Early Maps of the New World (1992) made a passing remark about how the Lenox Globe a€?is slightly older than the Brixen-Hauslab globe of 1523a€? but his suggestion that the globe dates to around 1520 is not credible. While it is neither signed nor dated, there is scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox globe; indeed, the geographical features of the two globes are so similar that they appear to be the work of the same globe maker, or copies of a common original, yet it is note-worthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is somewhat richer. At the same time, the maker of the globe evidently and curiously was still not aware of the decision at Saint-Die to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci. First, the maker of this globe accepted or echoed Portuguese cartographic propaganda after 1502 concerning the configuration of the eastern coastline which was depicted as shifting or twisting in a highly exaggerated fashion in a southeasterly direction into the Atlantic. Third, despite all the evidence that the maker of the Lenox Globe was working almost exclusively with Portuguese sources, he oddly fails to provide the more accurate depiction of South Asia that we find in the Cantino, Caveri and Ruysch maps all of which were completed in the 1502-1507 time period. Pohla€™s suspicion that this globe appeared around the time of the publication of the questionable Italian or Sodorini edition of Vespuccia€™s letters in 1505 or 1506 is a compelling argument.
Magellana€™s strange decision to turn and sail due west across the Pacific after having sailed northward to a considerable extent up the Chilean coast remains an intriguing fact. Instead, Magellan seems to have been acting on the assumption or belief that this new southern land, though quite huge, was either an enormous island or a new continent totally separate from Asia, which is precisely what both the Lenox Globe and WaldseemA?ller maps clearly suggest. And surely at that time the Spanish had abandoned any hope in a strait in that region, otherwise they would not have backed Magellana€™s expedition to reach the Moluccas.
In this letter, Chauncey conveys what he was able to learn about Hunta€™s discovery of the Lenox Globe and its later acquisition by Lenox from conversations with Hunta€™s widow who was Chaunceya€™s sister-in-law. In der Jagellonischen Bibliotek, Bulletin lnternational de la€™Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, Comptes Rendus des Seances (March 1900), a€?Resumesa€?, pp. Delivery times may vary, especially during peak periods and will depend on when your payment clears - opens in a new window or tab.
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In this fortuitous manner Kemal Reis, the famous Turkish admiral, acquired maps of great importance showing a newly discovered part of the world.
He produced charts, an important book on navigation, and a superb map of the world, which employed the Columbus maps taken by his unclea€™s sailors.
Delineated in nine colors, the map shows the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining parts of South and Central America, the islands of the West Indies, and parts of southwestern Europe and West Africa.
He also refers to information from Portuguese and Arabic sources that proved important in developing his delineation of Africa and Asia. Faithfully copied by Piri Reis from one of his source maps, it is evidence that at least one of the mappaemundi mentioned as sources by Piri Reis was a medieval European production. The relationship and distance between South America and the west African coast, for example, is much more correct than on most European maps of the time - and the place names along the coast, clearly transliterated from Italian and Spanish names, are taken from accounts of the voyages of Amerigo Vespucci and others.
Interestingly, though, the Piri Reis map is not the only early map - nor the first - to show mountains in the interior of South America.
While Guadalupe and the islands immediately adjacent in the Lesser Antilles are remarkably accurate; the island of Hispaniola [Haiti] has quite a different form here from other contemporary maps, it is more reminiscent of the contemporary shape of the East Asian island, then called Cipangu [Japan]. Thus he indicates the rocky regions with black, the sandy and shallow waters with reddish dots, and the rocky parts in the sea that cannot be seen by sailors with crosses.
From the various Turkish names on these coasts like Babadagi, Akburun, Yesilburun, Kizilburun, Altin Irmagi, Guzel Karfcz, Kozluk Burnu, Iki Hurmalik Burnu, etc., we deduce that in his drawing he made use not only of the Portuguese maps in his possession, but also of the information supplied by various Turkish sailors faring along these coasts. Except for the two entries about the name and the date of the map, all the other entries are written by a calligrapher.
In its northwest corner, for example, there is a large island labeled Hispaniola - today the home of Haiti and the Dominican Republic - which Columbus discovered on his first voyage and where he set up a colony, marked by the three towers on the map.
Most striking of all, it is almost identical to the conventional representations of Marco Poloa€™s Cipangu [Japan] on late medieval maps such as Behaima€™s and Toscanellia€™s.
On Pirs Reisa€™ map, the wedge-shaped projection on the mainland opposite Hispaniola is almost certainly the eastern tip of Cuba; the southward-trending coast below is an attempt to draw Cuba as if it ran north and southa€”as Columbus believed it did. The island of Trinidad is written as Kalerot, which probably is derived from a cape on this island that Columbus called Galera. It is true that at a certain spot quite near the North American Coast there is marked an island called the Antilia, but evidently that stood for the legendary island popularly regarded as fabulously wealthy and prosperous at the time when Columbus first started on his voyages. By recording the explanations given by the Spaniard who had taken part in the three expeditions of Columbus and was later captured by Kemal Reis, he related the story of these discoveries from an original source free from the later legendary tales that have grown about them. From another entry we learn that the sea there is the Western Sea, but the Europeans call it the Spanish Sea, and after the discoveries of Columbus the name is changed to Ovasana, i.e.
In one of the notes on the Atlantic Ocean he mentions the Treaty of Tordesillas 1599, and a certain line that divides the Spanish and the Portuguese possessions. But Piri Reis does not neglect to add that the legend comes down not from the Portuguese but from the old Mappa Mundi. History records Piri Reis Beya€™s last official post as admiral of the Fleets in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Three lines only, which from the title and head lines of the map, were written in Arabic; and this is done to comply with the usual traditional way which is noticed on all the Ottoman Turkish monuments up to the very latest centuries. He sets forth the narratives of the voyages made, by a Spaniard a slave in the hands of Kemal Reis, Pin Reisa€™ uncle, who under Christopher Columbus made three voyages to America. State Department, through their ambassador in Ankara, procured reproductions of the Piri Reis map for the Library of Congress. Each wind-rose is equal to one sea mile, as is shown in the measurements on the areas near the wind-roses. But it is reported thus, that a Genoese infidel, his name was Colombo, he it was who discovered these places. Impelled by the storm it came upon these islands, and in this manner these islands became known. There is, however, a slight distortion in the map from the true position of the continent as we know it today. In this second map Piri Reis showed only the parts of the world that had been already discovered and left the unexplored areas blank, explaining this by the fact that they were as yet unknown. Delineated in nine colors, the map shows the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining parts of South and Central America, the islands of the West Indies, and parts of southwestern Europe and West Africa.A  Many lengthy notes in Turkish appear on the map, including geographical descriptions and detailed information on the sources of the delineation. Gomez died while being transported to a hospital while his partner and child sustained gunshot wounds. Then it really happened — a white Trump supporter in North Carolina punched a black protester in the face. And this week in Albuquerque, New Mexico, a riot broke out at a Trump event among supporters and people protesting the candidate’s position on immigration. It has been 24 years since then, and the Marcoses continue to refuse to honor any of the three conditions. This would seem to qualify Marcos, because despite having faked his medals and exaggerated his exploits, there is no dispute that he did once serve as a soldier. Perhaps his supporters will dispute that description, but what should we call that state of existence where you have been forced to flee your country by a nonviolent uprising, where you have been caught entering another country with hundreds of millions of dollars in cash and jewelry, where by the time you died you have already figured in the record books for world-class corruption? Neither was it politically sensible for it to make common cause with the United Nationalist Alliance of Vice President Jejomar Binay, hobbled as he is by accusations of graft and corruption. Even more important, the high court’s TRO also prohibits the Food and Drug Administration, which had approved the implants, from issuing licenses for the distribution and marketing of any form of contraception and from renewing the licenses of contraceptives available on the market. Given the high maternal mortality and child mortality rates in the country, this is nothing less than arrogant and criminal.
Indeed, after promising at a rally that the city government would provide free family planning supplies to anyone who wanted them, Duterte had to retract his promise after some days when city health centers were inundated by women and couples clamoring for supplies and services. In effect, with the TRO on the implants and other contraceptives, the Supreme Court, which is made up of lawyers, has effectively taken over the functions and authority of the FDA, and of the DOH, which has supervision over it. They were all gone the next day, and replacing them was a tiny makeshift fire truck from Barangay UP Diliman: little David, I’ve christened it, after the biblical tale of David and Goliath. There were still chairs and laboratory equipment—for example, a centrifuge machine, now rusted, was in one corner. Last Wednesday, UP president Alfredo Pascual and I, joined by other officials, received 200 books and videos, 30 computers and 30 printers from Chinese Ambassador Zhao Jianhua.
I browsed through the long list of books and was even more touched, knowing they had been carefully selected. It was a kulintang he had since college days when, as an engineering major, he had been attracted to indigenous music forms and instruments—an interest largely responsible for his moving on to anthropology after graduation from engineering. It is unfortunate that I have not been weaned from short, sensible Jesuit homilies and the Benedictine preoccupation with meaningful liturgy. The Word was transmitted by sound, and caught by the ear to touch and transform both mind and heart.
More educators need to understand that the last thing you should do to introverts is to embarrass them. Aging itself is change, the body giving way to nature’s design and journey to a natural end or death. And these passionate partisans even convinced millions more to join the bandwagon of change, not small change, but radical change. It sounded like Philippines was the equivalent of hell itself, that everything was wrong, that nothing was working, and a massive overhaul was the only way. Visionaries can see unity and dedicate their lives to it, but ordinary Filipinos conditioned by a history of divisiveness cannot simply rise to it. A determined leader may have the stomach to whip people into line, but whipping people is not leadership.
They have to be the ones who must show extraordinary trust and determination to make the Duterte presidency deliver the promises he made. Just like the OFWs who do their thing despite government yet end up giving that same government more strength and room for growth. Our insignificance insulates us from the political dynamics that triggers in Davao City what is now called the biggest job fair in the Philippines. It will be a great service to Filipino families if a member does not have to find a job abroad to sustain his family. We call on the incoming president to heed the workers’ demand to bring wage rates closer to living standards and raise the daily minimum wage in the private sector to P750.
In the same vein, we hope that Duterte’s malasakit extends to those affected by occupational deaths—like the 74 victims of the Kentex fire, by serving justice to their families, and by holding the responsible government and company officials accountable for the deaths. We strongly urge Duterte to repeal the “assumption of jurisdiction” powers of the labor secretary that undermine the workers’ right to strike and have cost the lives of many strikers. We look forward to seeing all political prisoners embracing their families, colleagues and comrades outside their detention cells. Carag caught Ong in possession of fake Mighty Menthol soft pack and Mighty Full Flavor King Size variants through the complaint of a Mighty Corp. It will also fulfill our environmental objectives given the existential threats climate change poses to our world. This is a scenario that ties both hands behind our backs as we race to plug revenue leakages draining resources away from our people,” the DOF noted. With solutions that are reliable, customizable, and cost-effective, business VoIP services are an asset to any organization. VoIP providers that cater to small businesses usually don’t even charge for installation on these systems because of the simplicity of the VoIP system design.
The increased efficiency can mean fewer missed calls, fewer misdirected calls, and shorter wait times for callers. Because they believe in their services, and they know customers will be satisfied, they let the customer decide whether to renew their contract instead of forcing them to.
A simple interface for transferring calls can mean being able to handle higher call volumes. These routing systems also make it easy to increase productivity by providing a way to examine calling habits, and to review incoming and outgoing calls. An internet dashboard makes it easy to make lots of system changes without the help of tech support, including adding and deleting employee numbers and even moving an entire office. Huge savings means being able to spend more money on other parts of your business that could use a budget increase. Business VoIP systems help control costs, they offer tons of features, and they make life easier in the office.
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Calling the phone system service technician costs companies even more in labor, along with any necessary replacement parts. Managers can work with employees to keep them motivated and off the phones for personal reasons. When lines are completely full, managers can set the system up to take a message or simply wait on hold with a particular extension. All voice mails are password-protected, but owners can have a blanket password as a supervisor, if desired. If an employee is actively working on an email, they’ll see the notification from the customer faster than checking the voice mail. This is a good business plan for VOIP because every person will use the cheapest service if it is available. In addition to saving on the calls that you make, you will also be able to save drastically on the calls received by you. VoIP also brings a free and affordable calling rate; technically speaking it is not possible without using VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocols). There are some necessities and requirements to use this service and will be helpful if you know it well.
For the record if you are not a registered user then your call last longer to 5 minutes and if you are registered user then your free call will be for 10 minutes.
Adding this extra hardware into your home will force the service providers to give you more customer support because many people are not aware of how to operate the technology.

They cover unlimited calls in the US and 45 countries globally while providing 20 calling features at $21.95 per month. Great deals us such as the first free month are what sets mediocre services apart from top services. With this $19.95 per month deal you will also be provided with a second phone line for your home.
Also keep in mind, phone power has a shipping and handling charge of $14.95 as a one-time fee to send you the adapter that will be attached to their service. There are various other competitors such as Vonage, ViaTalk and more but they have various hidden charges that are not visible to the customer. But one issue is that they do not accept sign ups from public email addresses like Gmail, yahoo, etc. You can set up a website and a logo: basically, you do everything to establish the company, you just lease the service from another source. Using Twilio cloud system, one can make an application that is scalable without the worries of infrastructure. By only paying $1.00 per month, one is entitled to their own personal phone number on the US or Canada. We will explain how to set it up and how to do simple things like dial out or receive a call.
Lingo VOIP service provides cheap unlimited phone calls to over 100 destinations including India, Bangladesh, UK and more. All you need is to dial: 18003733411, then you will be promoted with options and choose the Free Call option.
This has always been a failure in the past where TV, Radio, and overall media communications have tried to develop VOIP applications.
But Skype will always be the best because they provide the cheapest VOIP calls from PC to Phone. So you will post an ad as and advertisers, and your friend will call that and you will be connected.
There is also a weekly limit of ads call per week, but that can be fixed easily by making more ads. VoIP in general stands for Voice over Internet Protocol and has become very popular lately.
It is also considered to be one of the most suitable places to pursue higher education as well as jobs. This option has received a large number of people and is highly popular as they not only get to talk to their friends and relatives for a cheap rate, but also to visually see the person and what he or she is doing.
There is one particular option in VoIP that comes completely free of cost known as the Ad Sense.
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The globe was first discovered in an antiques shop on the Quai Voltaire in Paris around 1854 by a New York architect named Richard Morris Hunt.
Despite this fact, what makes the Lenox globe extremely important, indeed revolutionary, is that it depicts the continent of South America as a separate island-like continent.
He argued that this globe was not part of the a€?cartographical familya€? with roots in Portuguese sources a€“ such as the Cantino (#306) and Caveri (#307) maps However, closer examination requires a major reassessment of that conclusion because the historical context and other cartogcaphic evidence imbedded in the Lenox Globe suggest that it is indeed of Portuguese origin, or inspiration, or was made to convey Lisbona€™s political perspective on discoveries in the New World. Harrisse correctly predicted in 1892 that the Stobnicza map was a derivative of the WaldseemA?ller world map of 1507 and argued that if and when it could be found, it also would show this same continuous unbroken coastline.
However, it is probable that among the unnamed scholars was the agent Henry Stevens himself who stated that he favored the date of 1506-1507 in an undated letter in the possession of The New York Public Library.
For example, Emerson Fite and Archibald Freeman in their folio-sized work entitled A Book of Old Maps published in 1921 by Harvard University Press essentially repeated much of what De Costa had said more than forty years earlier. These scholars were not entirely convinced that these maps and globes (including especially the Lenox Globe) were a€?provocative geographical cartoonsa€? as Lawrence Bergreen claims in his book on Magellana€™s famous voyage. He suggested that the Lenox Globe had a€?some connectiona€? with the voyage of Vespucci in 1501-1502 to South America in the service of the Portuguese King Manuel. The western coast of South America is drawn here, as in other maps that were constructed before the news of Magellana€™s circumnavigation had arrived in Europe, laid down not by direct observation but by estimation. Of course the simple fact that an instrument of this kind represents the condition of geographical knowledge at a certain period does not infallibly prove that it was produced at that particular period. On the Lenox Globe, however, Newfoundland appears as an island, though without any name, and at the same time no part of continental North America is laid down.
In fact, the entire continent is laid down, though apart from the Lenox Globe, no analogous representation is found before that of the SchA¶ner Globe, 1520 (#328). Nevertheless the Lenox Globe gives all of South America, the drawing alone rendering it probable that the draughtsman was not unacquainted with the configuration of Terra del Fuego. Good reasons also exist for believing that Africa was accepted as the a€?modela€? for South America.
To the northward of this island is another, called Madagascar, though the true Madagascar is laid down in its proper place without any name. This may be done by moving the great nameless island into the position occupied by Australia on the modern maps, carrying with it Certina, the so-called Madagascar, and the three islands without name. From Lelewela€™s sketch of map of Idrisi (#219) it is evident that the region including Java was perfectly well known in 1154. In fact he made too long and too sudden a stride towards the truth to be followed, though Lelewel, while severely criticizing his work, admits that some of his delineations were not equaled for many years after. The delineation of the Asian coast using the a€?Tiger Lega€? configuration carries on the tradition also employed by the Behaim Globe, and the Marlellus, King Hamy, WaldseemA?ller, Roselli, and Contarini maps. In this region, near the equatorial line, is seen Hc Svnt Dracones, or here are the Dagroians, described by Marco Polo as living in the Kingdom of Dagroian. In the work entitled Globus Mundus, printed at Strasburg, 1509, the suggestion occurs again, Hylacomilas, evidently repeating himself.
To break the force of this, Humboldt refers to the fact that Cadamosto calls the west coast of Africa Altro mondo. The separation, however, on the map in question proves that it could not have been the work of Columbus, as it has been shown repeatedly that Columbus died in the belief that there was no separation. Third: It is the oldest instrument of any kind showing the entire continent of South America.
And this connection, if correct, would suggest that a 1510-1511 date might be too conservative, especially when De Costa himself drew attention to one crucial fact.
As far as direct European knowledge of the west coast of South America which was implicit in the Lenox Globe, NordenskiA¶ld hesitated, even though in 1884 he had on his own discovered a fabulous set of globe gores very similar to the WaldseemA?ller globe gores that conveys the continenta€™s the distinctive ice cream- cone shape. The main reason that he shifted was that he was heavily influenced by the discovery in the 1890s of four copies of the WaldseemA?ller 1507 world map made by Heinrich Loritti (Glareanus).
By the time the Ruysch map appeared, the Portuguese had established a presence in South Asia (India), which this map reflects. It conveys or mixes the sophistication of the 1507 WaldseemA?ller map with respect to the southern continent, with a retarded perception of the new lands in the northern hemisphere that lay within the Spanish maritime zone. The Maggiolo world map (#316), which dates to January 1511, is the last known map to contain this curious geographical feature.
According to Robert King it offers a clue as to where Thomas More located his Utopia, and may provide a cosmographic explanation for the Jave la Grande of the Dieppe school of maps. The names are in French, and it is adorned with Fleur de Lis, but most probably has been translated from the work of some Spanish Navigator, whose discovery being forgotten, left room for the new discoveries of the English and French Navigators.
Petherick, Commonwealth Parliamentary Archivist, historian, collector of Australiana and bibliographer, whose name is commemorated in the Petherick Reading Room of the National Library of Australia.
It is five inches in diameter and made of copperplate, manufactured probably in France to form the central feature of an astronomical clock or armillary sphere, like the Jagiellonian Globe.
WaldseemA?llera€™s America referred to what later became known as South America, as the continental extent of the lands later known as North America was not understood in 1507.
The formula AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA would indicate a common authorship, and therefore a French origin, for the Tross Gores and the Jagiellonian Globe. The relevant phrase on the Jagellonian globe is America novitert reperta [America, land newly discovered]. However, there is no way such a mistaken attribution to a island in the Indian Ocean could have been made if the maker of the Jagellonian Globe had in his possession the world map or globe gores made at St. Amerigo set out from Lisbon in May 1503 in an unsuccessful attempt to reach Malacca (Melaka) by sailing westwards. In sum, the Jagellonian borrowed directly from the Lenox Globe which does not refer to America. On the earliest of the Dieppe maps, that of Jean Mallard of c.1536-1540, La Catigare is located on that part of the Terre Australe occupied on later Dieppe maps by Jave la Grande.
SchA¶ner said that his source of geographical information was the Newe Zeytung auss Presillg Landt [New Tidings from the Brazilish Land], printed in Augsburg, probably in 1514 and compiled from reports on the recent discoveries sent back to the Fugger banking house in Augsburg from their agents in Madeira.
Pohl went further and also argued that the globe in all probability was made in the immediate wake of the publication in Italy in 1505 of Vespuccia€™s letters concerning his four voyages ostensibly addressed to the Florentine leader, Piero Soderini. Despite his personal fascination with European, especially Norse or Viking expeditions to the New World prior to 1492, Pohl declared in that footnote that while he was impressed by the accurate placement of the endpoint of South America at about 56 degrees latitude south in both the Lenox and Jagellonian globes, he concluded that this was a€?accidentala€? and that the depiction of a west coast was a€?imaginarya€?. Another contributor to this volume, Professor Uta Lingren (University of Bayreuth) preferred the 1511-1512 date. We do know that Lenox Globe reflects the island-like conception or model for the new continent that in fact was articulated in Cosmographiae Introductio, in sharp contrast to Vespuccia€™s remarks in Mundus Novus.
Again, when we take all the facts into account, the analysis continues to point to the time period between 1503 and 1507 for the creation of the Lenox Globe. Fourth, the maker of the Lenox Globe was still not aware of the Spanish and also English exploration of significant coastline of the North American continent which we already find reflected in the Cantino and Caveri maps made by 1504 (#306 and #307).
We believe that he made that decision based on inside knowledge which suggested to him that if he took the clearly safer route and followed closely this largely barren, mountainous coastline further northward, then he was not going to reach Asia and the Moluccas.
The knowledge that the region associated with the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean was a vast a€?cul-de-saca€? or a gulf - il grand golfo as both Peter Martyr and Vespucci described it - supplied the prime motivation behind Magellana€™s attempt to reach Asia in the alternative fashion that he proposed. A copy of this letter is in the possession of the Rare Book Division (Reserve Room) of The New York Public Library. It is now a prized possession of the New York Public Library, of which the Lenox Library now forms a part. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. For example, new shoes (with absolutely no signs of wear) that are no longer in their original box fall into this category. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. Although fragmentary, this work and the Zorzi sketches (#304) are the only world maps with a direct Columbus delineation for part of America. The Nicold de Caveri map (#307), now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, and the WaldseemA?ller chart both show the east coast of South America, though schematically drawn, and a chain of mountains adorned with trees.
In his drawing of the coastline and in his marking of the sites of importance on it we again notice his remarkable accuracy.
Evidently this part of the map is drawn in accordance with the Ptolemaic idea of the world. Immediately below Hispaniola is Puerto Rico, and to the northeast is a group of 11 islands labeled Undizi Vergine [The Eleven Virgins]. It is interesting that Behaima€™s globe and other maps influenced by Marco Poloa€™s description of Cathay show a very similar wedge-shaped projection opposite the island of Cipangu; if Columbus thought he was off the coast of Asia he may have drawn the mainland this way to correspond to its then conventional representation. Puerto Rico is named here San Juan Batichdo, and on its eastern coast is drawn the picture of a fortress.
It is to be noted, however, that beside the island is a note that states that, contrary to the common fallacy, the island is not prosperous.
This shows that the Turkish geographer made use of many sources and did not neglect the latest information nearest to his age, and that he was very careful about his bibliography. These three lines in Arabic testify that the author is the nephew of Kemal Reis, and that the work was written and compiled in Gelibolu in the year 1513.
He also states, in his marginal notes regarding the South American coast that he saw the charts of four Portuguese discoverers. The Library of Congress was particularly anxious also to obtain a copy of Columbusa€™ maps upon which Piri Reis claimed in part to have based his own map. On both the lands and the seas there are entries sometimes relevant, sometimes irrelevant of the pictures. For instance, a book fell into the hands of the said Colombo, and he found it said in this book that at the end of the Western Sea [Atlantic] that is, on its western side, there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones. For this reason the Portuguese infidels did not land on these shores and these are also said to be very hot. They traveled from the western land to the point of Abyssinia [Habesh] in order to reach India. They thought it dry land and lit a fire upon this fish, when the fish's back began to burn it plunged into the sea, they re-embarked in their boats and fled to the ship. On his map it is written that these rivers that can be seen have for the most part gold [in their beds].
They have made an agreement that [a line] two thousand miles to the western side of the Strait of Gibraltar should be taken as a boundary.
Up to now it was known by these names, but Colombo, who opened up this sea and made these islands known, and also the Portuguese, infidels who have opened up the region of Hind have agreed together to give this sea a new name.
This error was committed, due to neglect in not taking into consideration the ten to thirteen degrees of difference in angle on the contemporary compass.
Today we know that the Portuguese explorer, Gaspar Corte-Real, discovered Terra Nova in 1500, and his brother, Miguel Corte Real, a year later in 1501, discovered Labrador.
Thus, Piri proved, once again, how he observed the principles of scientific methods in drawing this map. The people eat the flesh of parrots and their headdress is made entirely of parrots' feathers. He’s spent the year bragging about how rich he is and not pretending to have ever identified with the struggling Americans he wants to lead. Are the justices claiming that they have more scientific and medical knowledge than the authorities, scientists and doctors of the FDA and DOH? I’m sharing some of our experiences to help people understand what’s involved, and to help readers incorporate some of the lessons we’re learning into your own disaster preparedness plans. Walls, posts, even stairs, may survive the fire and people want to rush in, unaware that the structural integrity may have been destroyed. The Chinese Embassy offered the donation on its own, for the departments affected by the fire.
As an historian I can’t help but look beyond rubrics, tracing origins to understand how and why liturgical movements and conventions are the way they are today.
Today, priests face the congregation, the liturgy is in the vernacular, churches have microphones and LCD projectors—yet bell-ringing remains as tradition. Thus, San Pedro is also known as the “Berry Bell.” It remained in storage until it was rediscovered in 1959, when the chapel was renovated.
Not many Filipinos even recognize the inherent differences in our temperaments—that while a great deal of us are sociable, lively extroverts, there are those who are just naturally quiet and introverted. But it’s also an ill-informed opinion to consider someone “not normal” or “not OK” when he or she is merely introverted. Not even about—with due respect to my more vivacious relatives—refusing to participate in family talent shows.
They did not mind the thought of summary termination or imprisonment of suspected corrupt officials or government personnel (wow, hundreds of thousands could be affected, and their families, of course); they did not mind the possibility of summary executions of suspected drug pushers or drug lords (tall order whether six months or six years). Federalism was a battle cry, a change of the Constitution a foregone conclusion, and even a revolutionary government was not objectionable. They usually begin at the top but can cascade rather rapidly to their followers comprising the base of the pyramid.
Unless maybe China attacks us, or tsunamis, typhoons and earthquakes hit us in rapid succession. His appointments at the highest, second highest and third levels of government must reflect it as well. Because if they do, then others may follow and give the new president enough room to prove himself.
Like call center agents and other BPO employees who simply go through different time zones in pursuit of their own ambitions—and end up enhancing the economic strength of government. For all we know, if we had enough basis through expertise or connection, we might be applying for a position, too, or haggling to keep our slot in government.
We also urge Duterte to remedy the dire working conditions in factories and workplaces across the country.
Similarly, we call on Duterte to increase the salaries of government employees, the very same people who implement his plan for the people. Retailers and vendors are warned not to sell or distribute these contraband because we are ready to charge them and throw them in jail,” Deona said.
Expanding the VAT base and increasing the tax rate from 12 percent to 14 percent will result in revenue gain,” he said. This VAT reform will generate P162 billion: expanding the VAT base by removing exemptions will generate P80 billion, while increasing the VAT rate will generate P82 billion,” the DOF said. Smart business owners understand the importance of keeping costs low and productivity high, and business VoIP helps companies do exactly that.
Being able to check voicemail through email, and being able to redirect calls to a series of phone numbers instead of just one are just of few examples of how VoIP can greatly simplify things when away from the office. Options like customizable hold music can provide customers a pleasant experience while they wait. Flat rates offer stable, predictable phone expenses that leaves money for other things a business needs.
This is a significant savings compared to the ridiculous rates traditional phone companies charge. For a business that already handles high call volumes, being able to organize them more easily, and look over incoming and outgoing calls can help understand where productivity could be increased. Understanding where time is being spent within an organization can help with prioritizing and troubleshooting inefficiencies. Having excellent support for their business VoIP system is just one of the things businesses love about making the switch to VoIP. A business VoIP provider offers crystal clear, cost-effective services that are filled with features and addons to make business communications easier.
Skype is coming on the scene of HD by partnering with Panasonic to provide the Skype experience on HDTV’s.
Although this technology may sound intimidating and expensive, it’s actually less expensive than almost any other communication system for small businesses. Multiple extensions are supported with an effective layout that allows all calls to phone in seamlessly.
It’s a contract agreed to with the provider, essentially locking in rates for the length of the service. For example, customers call the office and it’s automatically transferred to a cell phone after four rings.
Unlike mobile phone contracts, VoIP does not bound the customer to one provider which is perfect because you will be able to switch if you encounter any issues.
The adapter that you will be given by them will be capable of handling PhonePower pricing is far less than Lingo but they do not provide international calling. This would adapter is also provided by Lingo which resembles a wireless router but only usable for calling.
For Lingo the amount of minutes that cannot be surpassed totals 5000 minutes per month as well. These two providers have passed the test and have always been honest of the charges that they will put on your bill. We do not recommend this service as a main provider, if your looking for a trustworthy service then we recommend uVOIPit. They are able to get the word out about there service while we get the cheapest VoIP calls. So if you have a official email address such as for your university or office then use that. This service can mostly be used from the US but small tricks can allow you to use this service from abroad to make free phone calls. If you look around the Amazon and Newegg listings you might be able to find something for yourself.
Another provider that gives something close to this is Truphone with free calls for 12 hours on Thanksgiving day. VOIP is hard to maintain and should only be used or a sole purpose of making the cheapest VOIP calls. Even though none of you might be advertisers this is a small hack to get free VoIP phone calls. It is the advanced telecommunication technology that makes international calls much cheaper. Therefore, the increase for making cheap VoIP calls to Pakistan increases drastically, in order to keep in touch with all people who come there for the purpose of vacation, studies or work.
There are many interesting facts that can be learnt online regarding the features of the VoIP. In the late 1860s Henry Stevens, an agent for James Lenox and other collectors of rare books and other historical artifacts, became aware of this special globe and recognized its historical significance. We can even detect the suggestion of a cone-shape in the lower latitudes below the equator and a cape or water passage at the far southern end. Given his perspicacity, it remains odd that the Lenox Globe with its distinct image of the South America as a real a€?islanda€? - totally disconnected from other landmasses - and with no depiction of North America at all a€“ was still not enough to persuade Harrisse to date the globe prior to 1507.
Stevens must have taken this position by the late 1870s, because an entry under a€?Globesa€? in the Encyclopedia Britannica edition of 1879 quotes him as assigning the date of 1506-1507 to the Lenox Globe.
This total separation from Asia is exactly the cartographic projection we find on the Lenox Globe.
And De Costa astutely pointed to Vespuccia€™s repeated assertion in Mundus Novus that he had reached 50 degrees below the equator which means the Italian navigator would have fallen just short of the strait by only two degrees on this voyage.
Under peculiar circumstances, it would be possible for an instrument like this to possess many of the marks which indicate an early origin, simply through the failure of the designer to incorporate the results of the latest explorations, concerning which he might have been ignorant; but this suggestion, in order to have any weight in the present case, should be supported by some proof of such ignorance.
In Peter Martyra€™s work (Legatio Babylonicd) of the following year, Florida appears as Beimeni, while the Stobnicza map in the Ptolemy of 1512 (#319), gives a rough view of North America, similar to that found in the Ptolemy of 1513 (#320).
This circumstance might, therefore, lead some to conclude that the globe originated at a late period. How, then, could the globe-maker have known that South America terminated in such a form near latitude 55A° S.? But it is by no means unreasonable to suppose that the termination of South America was known in 1510, even though its circumnavigation had apparently not been accomplished. Perhaps it is not too much to believe that this globe has some connection with the third voyage of Vespucci, which brought him to the latitude of the Straits of Magellan. When this is done, the student will have before him a tolerable indication of the geography of that region. In the 13th century Marco Polo traveled with a map of the world in his hand, by the aid of which he appears to have described Madagascar. The a€?Tiger Lega€? is Catigara which was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator.
These people, as once charged against the Irish, feasted upon the dead and picked their bones. That country is called TERRA SANCTO CRVCIS, as upon the Ruysch map, and MVNDVS Novvs, a name given by Sandacourt, a Canon of St.
The name occurs in SchA¶nera€™s Luculentissima, etc., 1515, but the idea that it was generally used is a mistake. It is probable that he had resolved upon this course before Columbus died, while there is nothing whatever to indicate that Vespucci took any action to secure the honor awarded to him, or even that, any more than Columbus, he was solicitous upon the subject. This, however, he confesses is a mere adaptation of the old classic use, the alter orbis of Pomponius, Mela and Strabo. The Genoese, at the end of Cuba, on his second voyage, required his companions to declare on oath that Cuba was not an island the person maintaining the contrary being liable to a fine of ten thousand maravedis, and to have his tongue cut out.
Fourth: It is the oldest instrument showing that the discoveries of Columbus formed no part of the Asiatic Continent, and that America was absolutely Mvndvs Novvs, or the New World.
That fact is the absence of America on the globe as a name for the new continent - a name which caught on quickly at least in Italy and northern Europe after Cosmographiae Introductio was published in many editions following the first edition in St Die in eastern France in April, 1507. Glareanus states that he had followed the projections of WaldseemA?ller whose large map still had not been found but whose globe gores were well known since the early 1870s. The other crucial factor that Fite and Freeman cite as in favor of an earlier date prior to 1508 is the fact that the Lenox Globe does not show any portion of the North American mainland - meaning, as observed earlier, that the maker of the little globe was still wedded to the Ptolemaic concept of only one ocean separating Europe and Asia.
Although there is in fact a curl in that direction, it is quite exaggerated on the globe which is a strong hint that someone wanted to be sure that others would conclude that the cape or strait fell inside the Portuguese maritime zone as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. In the interview, Petherick referred to the work of Tadeusz Estreicher, a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. On both globes South America is shown, bearing the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL.
This conclusion becomes a certainty when we find that on the Jagiellonian Globe the island bears the inscription: AMERICA-NEWLY-DISCOVERED]. The fact remains, the Lenox Globe and the Jagiellonian Globe are evidence that there was an authoritative map made around 1507-1508 that showed, albeit mistakenly, a continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Having gone with Amerigo as far as the farthest point he reached (ad fines postremae navigationis) on the coast of the new continent, Hythlodaeus left the expedition and after passing through unknown lands proceeded on to the Portuguese base at Calicut in India by way of Taprobana (Ceylon, present day Sri Lanka) discovering the fabulous island of Utopia on the way. The reverse sequence - the notion that a€“ the Lenox Globe could appear after the Jagellonian Globe, the WaldseemA?ller map and also the many editions of Cosmographiae Introductio a€“ and deliberately drop the name America - makes no sense whatsoever.
On the Harleian mappemonde, CATIGARA is not to be found on the western coast of IAVE LA GRANDE but, as noted by Petherick, is located on the western coast of LA TERRE:DVBRESILL, indicating a pre-Magellanic lack of knowledge of the existence of the Pacific Ocean and the notional character of IAVE LA GRANDE. And last but not least, he refused to follow or more likely did not know of the decision at St. All the foregoing analysis means that Magellana€™s main claim to fame as a navigator rests not with the discovery of the strait - an achievement which he disavowed - but to his bold decision like that of Columbus in 1492 to cross an ocean whose real breadth was unknown. The small globe is composed of two copper-engraved hemispheric sections closely fitted along the equator, as in the case of the Ulpius Globe (#367), and pierced for an axis. Presumably he referred to both the novelty of its delineation and the profuse depictions of people and animals that violated the customary Islamic prohibition against portraying living objects in artworks.
The de Caveri map was drawn between 1502 and 1504, long before the eastern coast of South America had been explored. This unusual chart with its complicated and fascinating history includes the only surviving delineation by Columbus of his discoveries. Another reason for this may easily be the inadequacy of the Arabic script then in use, for expressing Turkish words.
Eight years later, when he had finished the preface to the book he affirms that, further south it is not land but sea, which shows that he was following later discoveries with careful attention. The fact that this name is in a recognizable form of Italian, as opposed to Portuguese, is evidence, as Kahle pointed out, of its Columbian origin.
Probably because Columbus was convinced, on his first voyage at least, that he had found the fabled Cipangu, and he may have drawn Hispaniola in this shape to support his claim.
There is, however, another island to the west of Trinidad, again with a picture of a parrot near which is written San Juan Batichdo.
From about twenty charts and Mappae Mundi, these are charts drawn in the days of Alexander, Lord of the Two Horns, which show the inhabited quarter of the world; the Arabs name these charts Jaferiyea€”from eight Jaferiyes of that kind and one Arabic map of Hind, and from the maps just drawn by four Portuguese which show the countries of Hind, Sind and China geometrically drawn, and also from a map drawn by Colombo in the western region I have extracted it. The Portuguese do not cross to that side but the Hind side and the southern side belongs to the Portuguese. From the notes beside them we gather that the distance between the divisions stand for 50 miles, and that between two dots for 10 miles.
Beside the measurements there is a note indicating the mileage, where he says that the distance between two sections is 50 miles and between two dots 10 miles. Brendan, the legendary Irish monk who in the sixth century supposedly discovered an island in the North Atlantic called the a€?Promised Land of the Saints.a€? Long sought by sailors, St. Hilario Calica A su Yglesia de Bauang (Given to the church of Bauang in 1883 by the Gobernadorcillo Mariano Balancio and Lt. But no matter how gentle, aging disrupts the status quo because disruption is the very nature of change. If his values and standards differ substantially from those he appoints, he will be so busy firing them. Or small farmers and fisher folks who are the most threatened by climate change but keep feeding their families and us no matter what.
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In 1869, he persuaded Hunt to permit the Coast Survey Bureau in Washington DC to make an accurate facsimile projection which has been used by many subsequent scholars. Unfortunately, we have not been able to find any explanation from Stevens as to why he chose this date. For all these reasons, De Costa at several points in his essay conveyed his strong suspicion that the Portuguese learned a great deal more about the continenta€™s configuration in the years that followed and well before Magellana€™s expedition.
Respecting the points on which the globe gives no light, information was, nevertheless, so wide-spread in 1511 as to render it difficult to believe that any globe or map maker of the period could have failed to know of its existence. The very early map attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (#327) shows Florida as an island, but since the map was not published, no inference can be drawn from it. If, however, it were to be argued that the Lenox Globe belongs to a period subsequent to SchA¶ner, it might be necessary to assign its date to the 16th century.
How, in fact, could he have known that it terminated at all, especially since sketches later than 1515, with one or two unimportant exceptions, represented Terra del Fuego as joined to a great continent, supposed to cover the entire region around the south pole?
Peter Martyr, writing to the Pope in 1514, seems to have a definite view of the shape of South America quite in advance of published maps. Since, however, this part of the Indian Ocean contains no such vast island, and since Australia does not appear in its proper place, it has been suggested by De Costa that, though we do so with extreme diffidence, that Australia is represented by the great island in question, which was misplaced; while the so-called Madagascar and Certina are simply Sumatra and Java. Borneo and Celebes (called Java Minor by Ramusio), having their proper place, New Guiana, without any name, also appearing.
At that period the great island of Australia, lying close to well-known islands, could hardly have remained unknown to geographers. At the same time the maker of the globe, in common with Sylvanus, in forming the outline of what we venture to offer as Australia, appear to have made a certain use of those outlines characteristic of the Java Major of the Fra Mauro map and the Behaim Globe (#249 and #258), which lay on the east coast of Asia. Loac is the Locac of Marco Polo, and Seilan is the Borneo of our day, the former name having been taken from its proper place near India to make room for Taprobana, which was often applied to Sumatra.
568), believes it necessary to refute what Sebastian Munster said in his Cosmography, to the effect that it sometimes falleth out that Mariners, thinking the Whales to be Islands, and casting out ankers vpon their backs, are often in danger of drowning. Die, when he framed the title of the Latin version of Vespuccia€™s letter, which described Brasil.
The name was first published on a map made by WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (#310) and later by Appianus, 1520 (#331), in the work of Gamers, but the Ptolemy of 1513, in a legend on the map made by Hylocomilus himself (#320), attributes the discovery of the new world to Columbus.
He then shifts the argument, and shows that Peter Martyr in 1493-4, while speaking of the novis orbis, did not recognize its separation from Asia, and that this use was long continued. And the date of April 1510 on one of these Glareanus copies made it impossible for the Baron to support von Wiesera€™s attempt to push these maps to the 1520s.
This strange level of ignorance on both points seems puzzling for any map or globe made as late as 1510- 1512, and defies a good explanation.
Professor Estreicher described a globe which he dated to between 1509 and 1511 held in the Library of the University.
De Costa noted a large land mass depicted in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere, unnamed on the Lenox Globe and suggested, a€?with extreme diffidencea€?, that this land represented Australia, misplaced to this location. The Jagiellonian Globe shows that its maker believed this continent to have been the New World discovered by Amerigo. Is it possible that this globe-maker was simply confused because he did not have the benefit of the world map and only had a copy of Cosmographiae Introductio in front of him? This placed the land discovered by Amerigo and the island of Utopia which lay contiguous to it to the south of Taprobana and India. When we also note that the Lenox Globe was made by someone who amazingly still seems to be in the total dark about basic geographical knowledge concerning North America a€“ well-known by 1507 to many scholars, not just those involved with WaldseemA?ller - then this would lend considerable weight to the conclusion that the Lenox Globe should date to a time period prior to or no later than Cosmographiae Introductio and the WaldseemA?ller map - namely, to the 1503-1507 period as Fite and Freeman argued in 1926. In other words, the Brazilish Land, Presillg Landt, was differentiated from Brazil proper, otherwise known as America. Given her exclusively technical approach to this globe, she complained about the bending of the tip of the continent towards the east, but it never occurred to her than this feature might have been part of an attempt to deceive, an effort to spread disinformation to make persons think that a cape would fall on the Portuguese side of the maritime demarcation line established in 1494.
Die that became widely known after April 1507 to baptize the New World as America in honor of Vespucci who had re-entered Spanish service in early 1505. The map was not only unusual in Turkey, but few people in any country, including Spain and Portugal, had access to a chart of the world incorporating the new discoveries.
As there is a striking similarity between this map and the Piri Reis map, it is therefore possible that one of Piri Reisa€™ source maps was based on that of de Caveri. And yet, from the point of view of the historical importance of these geographic discoveries, this map is particularly significant for Central America. Drawing various islands on the South American coast opposite Trinidad shows the influence of Columbus, who believed this newly discovered continent to be a group of islands. So confident was Columbus in this that while he was near the coast of Cuba in 1494 he had his conviction recorded by the notary public on the boat, Fernand Perez de Luna, and asked all the crew to sign it, as we can now see from the document signed on the 12th June, 1494, which declares that, since it is quite evident that this is a continent, thereafter whoever attempts to contradict this statement shall be fined to 10.00 Maravedis pieces and also his tongue shall be cut out. It was not widely recognized fifty years ago that Columbus died in the belief that he had discovered Japan. Its vapor is full of darkness.a€? The above-mentioned Colombo saw that no help was forthcoming from the Genoese, he sped forth, went to the Bay of Spain [king], and told his tale in detail.
Before this it was thought that the sea had no end or limit, that at its other end was darkness. Among the legible words are San Cilormi, Monte Krago, Detonos, Die Sagram, Ponte Sogon, Didas and Sare.
Brendana€™s island was widely believed to exist in Columbusa€™ time and appeared in some form and location on most early European maps.A  According to Piri Reis himself, the map was based upon eight Ptolemy maps, an Arabic map of India, four new Portuguese sea maps of Sind, Hind and China, and the map of America drawn by Columbus.
One side was accused of being self-righteous, and their critics became self-righteous, too.  It seemed like those who were not for us were against us. Presidential appointments are so critical in assuring the citizens that great change is coming, or has come. On their backs, on their resilience, often on their resigned spirit, government is allowed to commit mistake after mistake without collapsing.
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Then dial in the 1800 number and everything will be the same as above if you lived in the US. Still there will be many people who use it for a few days because of getting the news while speaking to people. At the time, Stevens hoped to conclude a purchase for the British Museum and was prepared to pay Hunt the handsome sum of A?2,000, according to Hunt's widow. To get some clue as to why that date might have made sense to Stevens we need to turn to a contemporary scholar who pondered more deeply and put his thoughts in writing as to when this globe might have been made. The maps of 1511, 1512 and 1513 nevertheless must have been known to every intelligent person engaged in globe making, and if the Lenox Globe had been made during those years, or later, it would have reflected information published to the world. On his map is found a Latin legend, translated as follows: Portuguese mariners discovered this part of this territory, and proceeded as high as the fiftieth degree of South latitude, but without reaching its southern extremity. Being secretly together in a chamber with the Bishop of Burgos, Martyr says that they examined many sea charts, one of which Vespucci was said to have set his hand, while another had been influenced by both Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus. In accordance with this view, it would be necessary to conclude that, though misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, even Australia was known to the geographers of that early period.
It would appear that the Java Minor of Marco Polo, a term applied by him to Sumatra, came eventually to include the entire region. The maker of the Lenox Globe may have misunderstood his instructions, and thus pushed Australia into the Indian Ocean. In Northern India is Sacha- vvm Regno, the sugar region described in the Ptolemy of Patavino (1596). It would appear as though Milton found his own Leviathan on the page of Hakluyt, in whose works he had read the treatise signed Arngrimus Ionus.
This has been alluded to as very curious, though the course pursued by Hylacomilus was altogether consistent.
The Lenox Globe appears to have been made at a time when geographers regarded the matter with unconcern, as neither Columbus nor Vespucci have any honor awarded.
He forgets, however, that Martyr describes South America as land never known by the ancients. 145.) Pinzon on the first voyage understood Cuba to be a city, and that the land here was a continent of great size, which extended far to the north (First Voyage of Columbus, Boston, 1827). That said, NordenskiA¶ld was still content in Periplus to give the Lenox Globe a date of about 1510 that just happened to be the same year for the Glareanus copies of WaldseemA?llera€™s work. Fortunately, it has survived the vicissitudes of the 20th century and is still held in the Treasury of the Jagiellonian Library, now the Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius. If so, a€?it would be necessary to conclude that, although misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, Australia was known to the geographers of that early perioda€?. Not likely because Vespuccia€™s detailed letters concerning all his voyages were attached to Cosmographiae Introductio. This is just where Amerigoa€™s newly discovered land is shown on the Jagiellonian Globe, indicating that Sir Thomas More probably had such a globe before him when he wrote Utopia.
The Zeytung described the voyagers passing through a strait, like the Strait of Gibraltar, between the southernmost point of America or Brazil, and a land to the South West, referred to as vndtere Presill (in Latin, Brasilia inferior). In sharp contrast, Rudolf Schmidt in the 1991 reprint of Konrad Kretschmera€™s famous 1892 atlas of facsimile maps underscored the crucial question in his brief commentary where he remarked: a€?How does the unknown author of the Lenox Globe arrive at a quite good representation of South America, if we disregard the eastward kink, which after all persisted for a long time in drawings of Africa as well?a€? Schmidt at the time was the President of the International Coronelli Society that promotes the study of globes.
Undoubtedly the reason why Piri Reis, too, shows it as a continent was not because he was afraid for his tongue, but because he would not question the veracity of a piece of information given by such an authority as Columbus, who had been to those parts of the world several times. My map is as correct and dependable for the seven seas as are the charts that represent the seas of our countriesa€?. Nor was it known in the 1930s that other maritime explorers from Europe had sailed the Atlantic centuries before Columbus. So that the present map is as correct and reliable for the Seven Seas as the map of these our countries is considered correct and reliable by seamen.
After being driven by a storm in a southern direction they saw a shore opposite them they advanced towards it [illegible]. Now they have seen that this sea is girded by a coast, because it is like a lake, they have called it Ovo Sano. It is quite possible that Piri meant by that Balboa who crossed Central America and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513. Down the line, only the sustained faith and support of the people can honor the kind of change that the leader begins.
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But before Stevens could make this offer, Hunt already had already decided to give the globe as a gift to Lenox out of admiration for him.
This was the case with many of the early geographical works; but in every such instance it is easy to show that the map is not in accordance with the text, and that the map was introduced by the publisher in lieu of something better. According to this argument, this globe, therefore, takes its place in the year 1510, or the beginning of 1511. But this question is one that may be disembarrassed, for it will not prove a difficult task to show how the globe- maker may have obtained, in 1610, the knowledge which he exhibits.
Speaking of South America, he says it reaches forth into the sea even as Italy doth, although not like the leg of a man, as it does. That this was so appears from the fact that names belonging to Java and the neighboring islands are given on maps of a later period. The attention of the designer of the globe may have been directed to the subject by the voyage of Gonnville, who sailed from Honfleur in June 1503, for the East, and fell upon a great country, not far from the direct route to the Indies, which they called Southern India. Near Persia is Carmenis, the Kermann of Marco Polo, who does not refer to the neighboring Calicut, or Calcutta.
The history of this name, however, is not quite so clear as the others, though Navarrete calls attention to Muratoria€™s notice of the fact that brazil, signifying a red dye-wood, was an excisable article at Ferrara and Modena in 1193 and 1306. The really curious thing remains to be stated, and for the special consideration of those writers who have had so much to say about the ingratitude shown to Columbus by early geographers.
Certainly Vespucci never gave the impression in these letters or in the earlier publication known as Mundus Novus that he was sailing in the Indian Ocean. A very similar globe, belonging to an astronomical clock and apparently of about the same age as the Lenox Globe, is in the library of the Jagiellon University at Cracow in Poland. Cuba is shown as a continent also in the map of Columbus dated 1498, which formed the basis for Piri Reis later on; in the rough sketch drawn by Christopher Columbusa€™ brother, Bartholomew, in 1503 (#304), in the map of the world made by Ruysch in 1508 (#313), and even in the marine map by WaldeesmA?ller in 1507 (#310). If a better deal comes up with a VoIP competitor, owners can price check quickly with the current contract. Because the provider wants to keep the business owner as a loyal customer, they’ll check, maintain and repair the PBX well before it can fail completely.
Employees also remain in the loop during crucial sales negotiations, staying one step ahead at all times. Owners can access this information at any time to help improve the phone system as businesses grow and expand. Hunt had a close relationship with Lenox because Lenox had hired him to design a large mansion in Manhattan to house his private collection. After passing this year, and reaching 1520, the newly found lands are so well known as to be celebrated in an English poem, entitled the Four Elements. 7) calls attention to the fact that in the fourteenth chapter of the work, in which the map of Ruysch appears, there is a separate statement, to the effect that the Portuguese had surveyed the coast of South America as far as 37A° S., and that it was known as far as 50A° S.
The Globe of Ulpius (#367) illustrates this phase of the question, Java Minor appearing as a very large island, and the true Java not being laid down at all. He also quotes from Capmanya€™s Memorias sobra la antiqua marina, commercio, y artes de Barcelona, which contains references to this wood connected with the years 1221, 1243, 1252 and 1271. The point is this, that though Ferdinand, the son of Columbus, lived until 1539, and for many years was an owner and diligent reader of the Cosmographise Introductio, which he annotated and rebound, he is not known to have written or spoken a syllable, or to have caused any one else to write so much as a word, expressive of any sense of injustice done to his father by the naming of the New World after Vespucci. It has invariably been used by mapmakers to represent the coast of North America, whatever may have been its origin.
Winsor, neither of who had seen the WaldseemA?ller map of 1507, which was only discovered in 1901, fixed the date at 1508-11 and 1510-12, respectively. The globe consists of two gilded copperplate calottes, inscribed with the Eartha€™s principal features as understood at that time, including a continent inscribed AMERICA-NOVITER-REPERTA. The Zeytung said that Malacca was only six hundred miles from the western point of this Brazil. To the south of Greenland two large pieces of land are shown; the one in the north is called Baccalao.
The offering of the globe as a gift was evidently timed with the completion of the construction of this mansion in 1870. The scholar Henry Harrisse, in his Life of Fernand Colomb, also calls attention to the fact that the partisan Life of the Admiral, which has been attributed to his son, while exceedingly severe upon those who detracted from the fame of Columbus, does not mention either Hylacomilus or his book. It is the earliest surviving globe on which the name America appears, a name invented by Martin WaldseemA?ller and published in his Cosmographiae Introductio, St.
In SchA¶nera€™s 1520 globe, AMERICA had evolved into TERRA NOVA, AMERICA vel BRASILIA sive PAPAGALLI TERRA [Land of Parrots], while BRASILLIE REGIO had become BRASILIA INFERIOR (a translation of vndtere Presill). The above-mentioned slave said to Kemal Reis, he had been three times to that land with Colombo. Thus in 1508 there existed at Rome a general understanding of the coast to within about two degrees of the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
Major discusses four maps with similar characteristics, belonging to same period, in the Hakluyt Societya€™s work on Australia, and the matter is also touched upon in his Prince Henry. It would appear, therefore, that the indignation referred to is, upon the whole, a modern thing, of which the immediate friends of the famous Genoese had no experience. The Lenox Globe, though giving no lines of latitude, represents the coast as far south as about 55A° south latitude, the correct latitude of Cape Horn. SchA¶nera€™s 1533 globe showed the BRASILIAE REGIO as part of the TERRA AVSTRALIS, with an enormous peninsula, the REGIO PATALIS, attached to its southeastern part. He said: a€?First we reached the Strait of Gibraltar, then from there straight south and west between the two . In another note further down near Terra Nova he says that though these coasts were discovered by the Portuguese, all is not known as yet, and only the parts that have been discovered are shown on the map.
With such facts before him, Humboldt came to the conclusion that between the years 1500 and 1508 a succession of attempts were made by the Portuguese along the coast of South America, beginning at Porto Seguro in latitude 16A° S. Some of the geographers endeavored to set off Java, reduced to proper proportions, SchA¶ner, 1520, being amongst the number; but in the attempt Australia in some cases disappeared altogether.
Moreover, it places open water to the south of this new continent and thus suggests that the water-route around South America was known before Magellan set out in 1519. Oronce Finea€™s 1531 map exhibits this cosmography, and the Dieppe maps show its further evolution, even though it was out of date by the time they were made in the 1540s and 1550s.
Further south still one can see the peninsula of Florida drawn very much as we know it today. Brazil appears on a map of the 15th century, but the Catalan map of 1375 (#235) also shows an island in the Atlantic bearing the name. The SchA¶ner globes of 1515 and 1520 (#328), on which South America is separated from an Antarctic continent by a strait connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, give further evidence of this fact.
Still the student is not justified, with such data, in declaring precisely how far the navigators knew the region by actual observation. Perhaps, therefore, the Lenox Globe may be regarded as showing one of the earliest attempts to correct a misunderstanding.
The inference is that the navigators who passed along that region viewed the strait afterwards discovered by Magellan as an inlet, and that they learned from the natives the configuration of Terra del Fuego. It is reasonable, however, to conclude that the name was applied to South America, because the first navigator found there an abundance of desirable dye-wood.
Having advanced straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea was becalmed and the North Stara€”the seamen on their compasses still say stara€”little by little was veiled and became invisible, and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged as here. They anchored at the island which they had seen earlier across the way, the population of the island came, shot arrows at them and did not allow them to land and ask for information. The Hudsona€™s Bay Company possess at their House important sketches made by the Indians; while Balboa, called the a€?Discoverer of the Pacifica€? had the Pacific discovered for him by the Cacique of Zumaco, who, upon the arrival of the Spaniard in the Bay of Panama, figured for him the coasts of Quito, and described the riches of Peru. Seeing that they could not land on that island; they crossed to the other side of the island, they saw a boat. This was all that the Spanish and Portuguese navigators needed to have done for them by the natives of Terra del Fuego. It happened that these people were of that nation which went from island to island hunting men and eating them. They said Colombo saw yet another island, they neared it, they saw that on that island there were great snakes.
The people of this island saw that no harm came to them from this boat, they caught fish and brought it to them in their small ship's boat [filika]. It appears that he [Colombo] had reada€”in the book that in that region glass beads were valued.
And also loading their ship with many logwood trees and taking two natives along, they carried them within that year to the Bey of Spain.
But the said Colombo, not knowing the language of these people, they traded by signs, and after this trip the Bey of Spain sent priests and barley, taught the natives how to sow and reap and converted them to his own religion. The names which mark the places on the said islands and coasts were given by Colombo, that these places may be known by them.

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