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This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes.
With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country.
By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation.
In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director.
In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L.
Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006.
22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents.
30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!). Description: The Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, constructed in 1542, is now preserved in the museum of the New York Historical Society, having been found in Madrid by Buckingham Smith. It will doubtless prove of interest to note upon this map the line running from pole to pole and cutting through the border of South America. The Ulpius globe is 15.5 inches in diameter, and is supported upon a worm-eaten stand of oak, the iron cross tipping the North Pole, making the height of the instrument three feet and eight inches.
The literal translation is as follows: Regions of the Terrestrial globe handed down by ancients, or discovered in our memory or that of our fathers.
This may be rendered: Marcellus Cervino, Cardinal-Presbyter and Doctor of Divinity of the Holy Roman Church. This work is of great historical interest, for the reason that it bears direct and independent testimony to the voyage of Verrazano in 1524, certified first by the Letter of Verrazano to Francis I, confirmed by Carli, and attested to by the map of Hieronimo da Verrazano (#347); this witness being followed by the author of the Discourse of the Dieppe Captain, in 1539. The present representation of one hemisphere of the globe, without being a facsimile, is nevertheless sufficiently correct for historical purposes, and may be relied upon.
It will be observed that Ulpius does not give the exact date of the discovery by Verrazano. In the northwest, near Alaska, is Tagv Provincia, the Tangut of Marco Polo, the coast, once again, being joined to Asia.
The Ulpius globe corrects many errors of preceding geographers, though not free from errors itself.
Perhaps the most surprising thing on the globe is to find that the portion of North America above Florida is called Verrazana sive Nova Gallia [Verrazano or New France].
The names scattered along the coast of North America in Ulpiusa€™ delineation of it, are practically all of them of Italian form and termination, though many of them are evidently adaptations of place names well known in France. In Brazil the aborigines appear in the scant wardrobe that they were accustomed to affect, and display, on the whole, what may be regarded as an animated disposition.
No true indication of the terminus of the continent of South America is given, but south of the Straits of Magellan is seen a vast continent spreading around the pole. In the more easterly portion of this continent is written, Terra Australis adhuc incomperta, being an unexplored region, while in passing around the border of this continent we come to Brasieeli, a corruption of a€?Brazil,a€? a name earlier applied to an island in the Atlantic before the discovery of America. The Old World is depicted substantial1y as it appeared in the re-constructed Ptolemaic maps of this period. Near the bank of the Nile a robed ecclesiastic sits upon a canopied throne with a triple crown upon his brow and a triple cross in his hand. The Conger eel, without much regard to the proprieties, stretches complacently over several degrees of latitude, herein following the example of the gold fish (Aurata), which puffs itself up to half the size of the whale.
The fish represented upon the globe are so well done that they might claim a full and separate treatment, evidently belonging to the earliest scientific delineations in Ichthyology. Besides the historic groups of islands, there are also many of lesser note, together with a few not found today. Bermuda is prominent, having been laid down for the first time on Martyra€™s map of 1511, and southward is Catolica, possibly an alternate name for the a€?Island of the Seven Cities,a€? which was reported in various places, the inhabitants being a€?good Catholics.a€? Near this spot, on Ruyscha€™s map of 1508 (#313), is the word Cata. It would not, however, be proper to treat all these islands of Ulpius now missing in accordance with the volcanic theory.
Turning to the Greenland section of the globe, a gratifying improvement upon Verrazanoa€™s outline is found, showing that Ulpius had consulted the maps of Ruysch, 1508 (#313), and Orontius Fines, 1531 (#356), though it will be well to remember in this connection that Behaima€™s globe of 1492 shows land in the same direction.
It will be necessary next to speak of the coast names on the North American continent, though it has been indicated previously that certain of them show an agreement with the names on the Verrazano map. In 1612 he made a seventeen daysa€™ journey into the wilderness from Montreal to find the sea upon whose shore Vignan professed to have seen the wreck of an English ship.
As mentioned above, the globe is further interesting for illustrations of many different kinds of fish that are found in the different oceans.
It also serves to show how deeply interested were the Popes and the high ecclesiastics near them at Rome in securing and diffusing the best available scientific information.
Lithograph facsimile of the Ulpius Globe, Western Hemisphere, 1542, New York Historical Society, 23 cm from Dr. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department.
They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process.
The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis.
A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know?


Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved.
The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. This important and deeply interesting instrument was discovered in the collections of a Spanish dealer in 1859, and brought to New York the same year, after the death of its owner, being purchased for the society by John David Wolfe. Ulpius, in 1542 stands as the fifth witness to the voyage by the following inscription: Verrazana sive Nova Gallia a Verrazano Florentino comperto anno Sal.
The Old and New Worlds are represented as they were known at the time, the latitude of Florida, which was too high on the Verrazano map (#347), being given quite correctly, while the excessive easterly trend of the North American coast line on that map is corrected. On the North American section of the globe various new points are indicated, and the advance of the Spaniards in New Mexico is noticeable. The peninsula of Lower California does not appear, though exploration had been extended to that region, as proved by Domingo del Castello, on his map of 1541 (Lorenzana Historia de Nueva Espana, 1770).
This is a reference to the a€?Seven Cities of Cibola,a€? which were credited with such vast wealth, it being declared that the houses were supported by massive pillars of crystal and gold.
The name of America had been reserved for South America for the better part of half a century, at least for over thirty years, from the time of Canon WaldseemA?llera€™s map in 1507 (#310), which followed the descriptions given in the notes of Amerigo Vespuccia€™s voyages. For the first time the peninsula of Florida receives a proper location and the shore of North America generally is rather well outlined.
This, it is noted, was discovered by Verrazano, the Florentine, in the year of grace (anno salutis), 1524. Breton, for instance, is mentioned, but there is a Selva de Cervi [a forest of deer or stags]; there is, of course, a San Francisco and a Porto Reale [Port Royal], and then there is a Terra Laboratoris, evidently what was later to be Labrador, but Ulpius, following Verrazano, places this very much farther south than our present-day Labrador. From the Straits of Magellan to Chinca, just north of the Tropic of Capricorn, the coast is marked Terra Incognita. A couple of Brazilians, broad ax in hand, are on the point of taking off a fellow beinga€™s head, while a third, with a knife, is artistically dressing a leg.
With respect to the East Indies, however, a clear improvement is made upon the Verrazano map.
Canton is displayed as a collection of houses, near which is a bird, in company with a couple of goats with ears that reach to the ground. Tall ships, laden with the wealth of a€?Ormus and of Ind,a€? move bravely homeward with billowing sails, while light galleys glide around the borders of the newly found lands. The Kraken of Pontoppidan, or at least what resembles the sea-serpent of Nahant, appears in the Atlantic off South Africa, corrugating his hirsute back.
The fish upon the Ulpius globe bear a close resemblance to those of Rondelatius (Lugduni, 1554).
An island that appears to be a duplicate of Cape Breton that lies eastward of that region, and is called Dobreta.
The Greenland section of Ulpius also indicates that the knowledge in possession of the Zeno family at Venice found some expression in Italy before the publication of the Zeno Voyage and Map in 1558. Along the eastern border of the Gulf of Mexico, adjoining Florida, may be seen Rio Del Gato [the Cat River], the Rio de Los Angelos, or [River of the Angels], the P.
As far northward as the coast of the Carolinas, the territory is considered Spanish, while thence to the Gulf of St. The sea and isthmus were copied from Verrazano, and the existence of a body of water in close proximity to the Atlantic was generally believed. This man, who marched before Champlain through the tangled forests, has been called an impostor, and, with a musket leveled at his head, Vignan confessed himself one; yet no doubt he was as much deceived as Champlain, having acted upon the trusted relation of another, a course which he supposed would succeed, and bring him great credit. This globe, surmounted with a cross, remains as a very definite demonstration that the too common impression of Roman ecclesiastical authorities as hampering the progress of science or keeping information away from the people, is one founded entirely on ignorance of the actual conditions. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions).
Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought.
Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law.
On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12.
Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
That nation, according to his decree, was entitled to lands discovered by them west of the line, while the Portuguese were to confine their new possessions to the region east of the line, inscribed, Terminus Hispanis et Lusitanis ab Alexando VI. The resemblance of the globe to that planned by Mercator, 1541, taken with the fact that Mercator and the Italian, Moletius, were in a sense associated, might possibly lead us to inquire whether or not Moletius had any influence in connection with the production of the work of Ulpius. The wheat or barley heads appear to have formed a device in the family arms, as they are given with his portrait, while the Deer form a proper allusion to his name.
This part of the continent is called Verrazana, sive Nova Gallia, while on the Verrazano map is found, Ivcatania.
Undoubtedly, Verrazano was the first to explore the coast behind which lies this immense geographic region, and yet very little was known of that fact until quite recently. In the distant northwest of the North American continent there is a Tagu Provincia, which is evidently a reminiscence of previous mapmakers who had used that name. The giants themselves are wanting, like Raleigha€™s men with heads in their breasts, notwithstanding we are told by Pigafetti and other voyagers that there was a plenty of giants in those days; yet, further north, the chameleon roost upon a broad-leaved plant, and still higher up, one of the tall ostriches, described by Darwin, is trying to exhibit himself, using as a pedestal the house formerly of solid gold.
Near by, two other amiable representatives of the tribe are engaged in turning a huge spit, upon which, comfortably trussed up, is another superfluous neighbor, whom the blazing fire is transmuting into an acceptable roast. Its existence was considered probable, for the reason that it seemed to be required in order to maintain the balance of land and water.
Prester John has been regarded as a king in Tibet, but the Portuguese claim that he was a convert to the Nestorian faith in Abyssinia. The whale (Balena) is not so well executed as the rest, and is attended by the dolphin (Orca), also called Marsuin by the French. On globes and maps prior to 1542 may be found a variety of intriguing marine monsters, but correct representations of fish are scarce. Roque is De Ferna Loronha, or Fernando de Noronha, discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese navigator of that name. The French were nevertheless ambitious, and would have founded New France on the central portion of our coast if circumstances had proved more favorable.
Lawrence it is French, the rest being Portuguese, as allowed by the general use of Portuguese names. Often it was represented as lying further to the south, and hence some suppose that what was referred to may have been the Gulf of Mexico. The instrument in question is a Roman production, the design of which may yet be traced to Pope Marcellus himself, who was known for his ability and skill in this kind of work. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans.
Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975.
He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel.
Da Costa, in The Magazine of American History (1879), called attention to a reference in Hakluyt to a€?an olde excellente globe in the Queena€™s privie gallery at Westminister which seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge.a€? On that globe he says the a€?coaste is described in Italiana€? and, as this is the special characteristic of many of the names to be found on this globe, it might possibly seem as though this were the one which Queen Elizabeth I frequently consulted in the privacy of the gallery at Westminster.
Everything is done in accordance with the best science of the age, and proves that the globe was intended for careful use. Hakluyta€™s reference to an olde excellent globe in the Queen's privie gallery at Westminster, which seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge, is also of interest, for, like the globe of Ulpius, it had the Coaste described in Italian, and a necke of lande in the latitude of 40 degrees. Purchas says that South America was called Peruviana, and North America, Mexicana; which explains the action of Hieronimo da Verrazano in 1529 (#347), who employs the name of Yucatan in accordance with the same principle. The wealth of Cibola eventually became the subject of sport, as was the case respecting the whole continent, at first supposed to be a part of the East Indies, and remarkably auriferous.
His brother published, in 1529, a large map, preserved in the College of the Propaganda at Rome, which outlines Giovanni Verrazanoa€™s discoveries. Curiously enough, Greenland is pictured not very far from where we know it and under a name not very different from ours, but Islandia is placed very close to the Greenland coast. Gvito, or Quito, happens to be placed nearly in the centre of the South American continent, and close by we read, Domus olim ex solido auri, [the House formerly of solid gold]. The parrot, evidently an edified spectator, gazes placidly down from its perch in the tree.
Regio Patalis, a part of this continent, lies southwesterly from the Straits of Magellan, the name perhaps having been transferred from the coast of Africa. This lonely, harborless isle, with its remarkable peak appears ready to be what it is now, the Sing Sing of Brazil; while St. An instance is found in the Isle de Fer, a reflection of which, often noticed by sailors, and called the Land of Butter [Terre de beurre], was gravely ceded by the Spanish Government to Louis Perdignon. The editor of the Ptolemy of 1482 knew of the Chronicle of Ivar Bardsen, and some of the names mentioned by him appear upon the editora€™s map; yet at the same time he assigns a false position to Greenland, which is shown as an extension of Norway, while Iceland is laid down in the sea west of what is given as Greenland. 2, 1591) represents the sea in his map, while the Virginia colonists entertained a similar idea.


Nevertheless, by whomsoever it may have been designed, this ancient globe has come to us from the Eternal City, finding a permanent resting place at last, not without a certain fine justice, in the great metropolis which looks out upon the splendid harbor visited and described by him whose name is so prominently engraved upon the portion representing the New World. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships.
At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
It would be interesting to trace, at least conjecturally, the possibilities of how the globe found its way over to England. The latitudes are found by the nicely graduated copper equator, upon which the names of the zodiacal signs are engraved; while the equatorial line of the globe itself has the longitude divided into sections covering five degrees each. What we know as Central America is called Nova Andalusia; the Pacific Ocean is named Mare Pacificum, but also Mare del Sur, which became the familiar South Sea in English, and in South America we find such names as Peru, Bresilia [Brazil], Venazola, Terra Paria, and Rio de Platta. It was doubtless from this that the detailsa€”some of them at leasta€”of the Ulpius globe were secured.
Hibernia [Ireland] has much the form we know and looks like the little dog we see on our maps, but Scotia [Scotland], much less well known at that time, does not extend far enough north, and England is much compressed in length. On a peninsula may be found the following inscription: Lusitani vltra promotorium bone spei i Calicutium tendentes hanc terra viderut, veru non accesserut, quaobrem neq nos certi quidq afferre potuimus [The Portuguese, sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope to Calcutta, saw this land but did not reach it, wherefore, neither have we been able to assert anything with certainty]. Helena, discovered on the festival of that saint, 1501, is waiting to imprison one of the worlda€™s great disturbers. To a similar origin may be assigned Jaquet Island, which came from the Jaquet Bank, a shoal near the edge of Grand Bank. The Fata Morgana is perhaps quite as unsatisfactory as the theory of satanic delusion, sometimes resorted to for the purpose of explaining the mystery. Ulpius, on the contrary, and in accordance with fact, places Iceland east of Greenland, though both are placed too close to mainland Europe. Then follow Selvi di Cervi, the Deer Park of Verrazano, and Calami, similar to the Carnavarall of the Spanish maps.
But for a head wind when off Cape Cod, sailing southward in 1605, Champlain might have reached the Hudson, and instead of planting Port Royal in Nova Scotia, he might have established its foundations on Manhattan Island, in the region where Port Royal (Porto Reale) was laid down by Ulpius. Lawrence River, a belief that led the French to attempt the colonization of that cold and inhospitable country, in preference to the sunny and fertile regions explored farther southward by Verrazano. As late as 1651 the western sea was represented within about two hundred miles of the Atlantic coast, as appears from a map of that year, found in some copies of The Discovery of Nevv Brittaine (see #472). If the history of the globe could be written, it would be found to possess the charms of romance.
Paul Jovius wrote a book on ichthyology, which was published in 1524, but it was not illustrated. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. Four distinct meridional lines divide the globe into quarters, while four more lines are faintly indicated.
The name Nova Gallia [New France] is not surprising, though that term was applied later to territory farther north than here delineated, and indeed continued to be a favorite geographic designation for Canada and the French possessions until the middle of the 18th century. The Orkney Islands, under the name of Orcades, are given a very prominent place, thus leaving insufficient room for northern Scotland. The Amazon and the La Platt Rivers appear, but Ulpius does not show any clear knowledge of the Orinoco River seen by Pinzon around 1500. There is also Insvle Tristan Dacvnha, found by the Portuguese, Dacuna, in 1506; and Insvle Formose, while in the southern part of the Indian Ocean is Insvle Grifonvm [the Isle of Griffins].
Here we might pause to remark upon the ease with which islands that have no existence are found in the sea, and the corresponding difficulty of getting rid of them.
Mayda is simply the a€?Maidasa€? of the early maps, while the Three Chimnies, if not explained by some eruption, may have originated in such peculiarities of the bottom as that known as the a€?Whale Holea€? on the bank of Newfoundland.
The waters of Greenland are represented as navigated, and nothing is perhaps more susceptible of proof than the fact that communication was never lost with Greenland from the tenth century down to the present day. Perhaps this last one was placed here in honor of Andrea Corsali, the Florentine navigator in the service of Emanuel, King of Portugal, though no record is found of any voyage made by him to this region.
This would have made the greatest city in America a French city, and, possibly, changed the destiny of the continent.
At the same time the globe, as pointed out, bears the line of Pope Alexander, by which the most of the New World was given to Spain. The Spaniards, on the same principle, as previously noted, proposed to fortify and colonize the Straits of Magellan. This error had its day, and then died though not without manifesting a remarkable vitality. This may be the very globe that, as Hakluyt said, a€?seemetk to be of Verrasanus making,a€? and which Queen Elizabeth I was accustomed to consult in the gallery at Westminster. The whale is represented as living in the distant north and is, perhaps, the poorest illustration of all. This was the year of the restoration of Catholicism in England under Mary Tudor, and the following year Cardinal Pole became her principal adviser.
That line was drawn from pole to pole at ninety degrees west longitude, giving the Portuguese the right over all the territory of Africa, but only a small portion of South America which projects beyond that line.
The latitudes are found by the aid of a brass meridian, the Tropic of Cancer being called A†TIVVS, and Capricorn HYEMALIS. The principal adverse critic of Verrazano frankly concedes that the Globe of Ulpius affords indubitable evidence that the maker had consulted the map (Murphya€™s Verrazano).
There is a Terra Gigantum and a Terra de los Fuegos, as well as an immense Terra Australisa€”a great southern continent below the Strait of Magellan (the initium freti Magellanici is carefully noted)a€”but with regard to this southern continent the globe tells us that it had not yet been explored, perhaps not yet actually found, for the Latin words are ad hue incomperta. It was on Verrazanoa€™s discoveries and voyage, authorized and financed by the French king, that the French based their claims to this part of North America.
Upon some of our best maps may be found such islands as Jaquet Island, Three Chimnies, Mayda, Amplimont, and Green Rock. Brendana€™s Island, without any great stretch of the imagination, might be referred to as a burning insular peak, so far as the etymology may be concerned; while, again, as the Irish monks were abroad upon the sea at an early period, some of them may have landed upon an island that afterward disappeared. Ulpius, who seems to copy Ruyscha€™s basic outline, leaves the space between Greenland and the west as unexplored; while Ruysch, on the other hand, makes Greenland, together with Newfoundland, part of Asia, Gog and Magog being in close proximity. These facts, however, are consistent with one another, even on the supposition that the globe was made at the Vatican under the direction of the Cardinal-Presbyter Cervinus. The belief was shared by Ulpius in common with Verrazano, the latter being as positive on the subject as Frobisher himself, both having committed the belief to maps.
Of course, the sea serpent finds a place here, but then the sea serpent has been seen many times, ever since, without scientists being able to locate him. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. Through him the globe might easily have found its way into England at this time, and an interesting question would be to trace the relations of friendship between Reginald Pole during his sojourn in Rome and Cardinal Cervinus before he became Pope, so as to discover how this globe could have come into Polea€™s possession and be taken to England.
Nevertheless attention has been called to the fact that, in an appendix to his work, the same critic refers to what is called an a€?authority,a€? which says that the map of Verrazano was originated sometime after 1550.
In the case of the monks, it would have received due embellishment, since they were as fond of the marvelous. It remained for the Zeno Map, published sixteen years after the Ulpius globe, to show the position of Greenland more distinctly, and at the same time to reveal the sites of the eastern and western colonies of Greenland, so erroneously supposed in later times to have been situated on the opposite coasts of that country. That person, though loyal to the Papal throne, which he was destined to occupy, was not over friendly to Spain, having three years before refused a pension of ten thousand piastres from Charles V., who wished to win his support. Lawrence was supposed to lead directly into the a€?Sea of China.a€? When Champlain went to Canada in 1608, he declared that he would not return until he reached that sea. It certainly went to Spain, and there, the instrument upon which perhaps more than one Pope read the decree of his predecessor, Alexander, was finally banished to the realm of worthless antiquities.
Even with that problem settled, however, the question as to how the globe found its way back to Spain, would remain. A brass hour-circle enables the student to ascertain the difference of time between any two given points, while the graduated path of the Ecliptic is a prominent and indispensable aid. If this were so, it would appear that the Verrazano map was based upon the Globe of Ulpius in connection with certain maps, and that, instead of having influenced the production of other maps, it is itself a composition made up of early material. On Coltona€™s Atlas these islands lie in the track of navigation between France and Newfoundland. Germano, both Verrazano names, the former being Longueville, near Dieppe, and the latter St.
Therefore, while recognizing the decree of Alexander, he might have been fair with the French, and thus conceded what they had accomplished in the New World by the aid of his countryman, Verrazano. If there were a replica, one could easily understand that one of the two should find its way there since Marya€™s husband was Philip II of Spain, and he doubtless would have been very much interested in this globe which, better than almost any other map of the time, set forth the Spanish possessions on the other side of the water. It is said that they originated with icebergs in the fog-banks, or possibly in the fog-banks themselves.
However this may be, the French are recognized, and the most of the region now occupied by the United States was claimed for France as New Gaul.
But Hakluyta€™s reference is to Elizabeth, perhaps thirty or forty years after Marya€™s death, and when there was no possibility of any such communication between England and Spain as would account for the globe reaching Spanish dominions. It should be noticed, however, that this part of the ocean is volcanic, and that islands of considerable magnitude have risen from the sea at different times. It stands connected with its maritime enterprise and adventure, and with its naval and geographical romance. The earliest eruption on record in the north Atlantic is that mentioned on the Ruysch map in the Ptolemy edition of 1508. Between Iceland and Greenland is the legend Insule hac 1456 anno Dno fvit totaliter combusta [This island was entirely burned up, A. Especially does it prove to the student how the exploration of our continent tried the courage, tested the endurance, baffled the skill and dissipated the fortunes of some of the noblest of men. Cartiera€™s voyage of 1534 is not mentioned, as he made no discoveries, but the Gulf of St.
Porto Reale follows, when suddenly we reach the river intended for the Penobscot or Norombega, which, as on the Allefonsce map, which is positioned too far south. Ribero on his map (#346) indeed closes the Gulf, yet it was well known to the French at a very early period.
Next is Refvgivm Promont, intended for the Cape of Refuge of the Verrazano map, which afforded Verrazano a land-locked harbor, today identified with Newport, RI.
It must be observed again, however, that the outline of the Ulpius globe is a bit confusing. The next name is Corte Magiore, unless indeed Magiore belongs with the succeeding inscription. The signification is obscure, like that of Flora, though the latter occurs in several of the Ptolemaic maps of the period, including the Maggiolo map (#340) of 1548, and in Ramusioa€™s Verrazano sketch. Finally, Cavo de Brettoni is reached, or Cape Breton, a name usually referred to the French, but which may have been given by the Portuguese.
The reading may be cdmeri, and thus refer to the Cosin de mer annano, or Oceanus on the SchA¶ner globe of 1520 (#328), signifying the Ocean Cape. With Terra Laboratoris we reach, not Labrador, the Portuguese a€?Land of the Laborers,a€? but Newfoundland.
By mistake, Laboratoris is applied to Newfoundland, as later to Cape Breton, the inland waters of which are today called a€?Bras da€™or,a€? previously lengthened from Brador, which, according to the fancy of someone, signified a€?the Arm of Gold,a€? Thus easily are names emptied of their original signification.
By mistake, Laboratoris is applied to Newfoundland, as later to Cape Breton, the inland waters of which are today called a€?Bras da€™or,a€? previously lengthened fromA  Brador, which, according to the fancy of someone, signified a€?the Arm of Gold,a€? Thus easily are names emptied of their original signification.
Frio [the Cold Cape of the Portuguese] represents Newfoundland, one part of which is marked Terra Corterealis. Yet, whatever name may be given to Newfoundland by the old cartographers, that of Bacca laos always adheres, being derived from Baculum, a stick, often used to keep fish spread open when drying. As in several other maps of the period, the name is repeated on an island lying westward as Grovelat. The greater portion of the region around the Pole is shown as land, but north of Asia is an immense lake, Mare Glaciale, also found on the Nancy globe (#363).



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