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A vehicle device system that combines the functionalities of integrating vehicle controls, monitoring systems, location tracking and wireless communications into a device with module receptacles to receive insertable modules that are replaceable, transferable, and upgradeable for performing one of a plurality of telematic functions. FIELD OF THE INVENTIONThis invention relates generally to the field of telematics processing, and to a system that combines the functionalities of integrating vehicle controls and monitoring systems with location tracking and wireless communication.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONGenerally, a telematic control unit refers to a system that combines telecommunications and information processing. An auxiliary power system for providing electrical power and heat to an indoor area includes an external combustion engine, such as a Stirling cycle engine, for generating mechanical energy and thermal energy. Wiegman, et al., “Battery State Control Techniques for Charges Sustaining Applications,” SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI, Feb. Hochgraf, et al., “Engine Control Strategy for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Incorporating Load-Leveling and Computer Controlled Energy Management,” SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI, Feb.
Fleming, et al., “Rapid Recharge Capability of Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries for EV & HEV Applications,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. Anderson, et al., “The Effects of APU Characteristics on the Design of Hybrid Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” SAE International Congress and Exposition , Detroit, MI, Feb. Oman, H., “New Energy Management Technology Gives Hybrid Cars Long Battery Life,”SAE 34 Intersociety Energy Conversion Enginnering Conference, Vancouver, BC, August 2-5, 1999, Paper 1999-01-2468. Dickinson, et al., “Performance, Management and Testing Requiremants for Hybrod Electric Vehicle Betteries,”SAE Future Transportation Technology Conference and Exposition, Costa Mesa, CA, Aug. TECHNICAL FIELDThe present invention pertains to auxiliary power units for the co-generation of heat and power for indoor use wherein the auxiliary power unit includes an external combustion engine and in particular, a Stirling cycle engine.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONAn auxiliary power unit (“APU”) consists of an engine and an electric generator.
The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein the rear view mirror includes a user interface, wherein the user interface includes a microphone configured to receive user voice input and a speaker.
The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein the processor is coupled to at least one speaker and at least one microphone.
The vehicle device of claim 1, further comprising a communication component configured to communicate with a destination over a network, wherein the communication component communicates wirelessly. The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein the one or more modules comprises at least one of a processing module, a positioning module, a cellular device module, or a wireless network communication module. The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein the one or more removable modules are insertable into one or more devices remote from the vehicle. The vehicle device of claim 6, wherein the one or more devices remote from the vehicle is a hand-held device.
The vehicle device of claim 6, wherein the one or more devices remote from the vehicle is a home computer. The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein a function performed by at least one of the one or more removable modules is at least one of a cellular radio function or a global positioning receiver function.
The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein a function performed by at least one of the one or more removable modules is a central processing function for processing user initiated transactions.
The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein a function performed by the one or more removable modules is digital signal processing. The vehicle device of claim 1, wherein a function performed by the removable modules is wireless transmission of data. The vehicle device of claim 14, wherein the user interface includes a microphone configured to receive user voice input and a speaker. The vehicle device of claim 14, wherein the one or more modules comprises at least one of a processing module, a positioning module, a cellular device module, a global positioning receiver, or a wireless network communication module.
The vehicle device of claim 14, wherein the at least one function performed by at least one of the one or more removable modules is at least a central processing function for processing user initiated transactions. The vehicle device of claim 14, wherein the at least one function performed by at least one of the one or more removable modules is digital signal processing.
The vehicle device of claim 14, wherein the one or more removable modules are insertable into one or more devices remote from the vehicle.
The term has evolved to refer to automobile systems that combine global positioning system (GPS) satellite tracking and wireless communications for automatic roadside assistance and remote diagnostics. If you’d like to share your own brain sheet with the Scrubs magazine community, or would like to have a Word version of any of these brain sheets, please contact us!
The external combustion engine burns a fuel with substantially complete combustion such that exhaust emissions from the external combustion engine are below a predetermined exhaust level.
A system according to claim 1, wherein the output signal is a signal representing the battery voltage and current.
An auxiliary power system according to claim 3, wherein the housing may be mounted in a window, the system further including an air conditioning module, coupled to the Stirling cycle engine, the air conditioning module for cooling the atmosphere surrounding the housing.
An auxiliary power system according to claim 3, wherein the electrical power is direct current power. An auxiliary power system according to claim 3, wherein the housing may be mounted in a window or on a wall in a room of a building.
A system for controlling the power output of a thermal engine having a heater head, the system comprising: a. A system according to claim 8, wherein the input for receiving a signal further includes a slow rate limiter. A system according to claim 10, wherein the external combustion engine is a Stirling cycle engine. A system according to claim 10, wherein the generator is a permanent magnet brushless motor.
A system according to claim 10, wherein the desired battery condition is a constant battery charge.
A system according to claim 13, wherein the constant battery charge is in the range of 80-100% of full charge.
A method according to claim 17, wherein the external combustion engine is a Stirling cycle engine. A method according to claim 17, wherein the generator is a permanent magnet brushless motor. A method according to claim 17, wherein the desired battery charge is a constant battery charge.
A method according to claim 20, wherein the constant battery charge is in the range of 80-100% of full charge.
A system according to claim 23, wherein the heater head includes a region of an exterior surface shadowed from flow of the exhaust gas.
A system according to claim 24, wherein the head temperature sensor is disposed in the region of an exterior surface shadowed from flow of the exhaust gas. A mobile auxiliary power unit according to claim 30, further including a platform coupled to the set of wheels, the platform for supporting a user. A mobile auxiliary power unit according to claim 30, wherein the external combustion engine is a Stirling cycle engine. Thermal energy of a burning fuel is converted to mechanical energy in the engine of the APU and mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy in the generator of the APU. This combination provides consumers with a multitude of services not previously available.Although the telematic unit produces acceptable results, the technology of the unit fails to provide consumers with an ability to extend the life cycle or shelf life of the unit. A generator is coupled to the external combustion engine and converts the mechanical energy produced by the external combustion engine to electrical power. One advantage of an APU is that it is a portable size such that it can be easily transported and used in a remote location, such as a construction site, cell tower or cabin, that is not connected to the local power grid. APU's are also important for providing emergency backup power for businesses and homes during a power outage.Small and portable APU's using an internal combustion engine are widely available.
Moreover, a telematic unit produced for a variety of fleet vehicles consists of common functions and implementations. The external combustion engine and generator are disposed within a housing such that the external combustion engine, generator and housing combination is a portable size. Ultimately, consumers must pay the higher costs of upgrading and implementing newer technological advances. The thermal energy generated by the external combustion engine may be used to heat the atmosphere surrounding the housing. However, APU's which use an internal combustion engine cannot be used in a closed environment because of the toxic emissions generated by the internal combustion engine.
Even if the exhaust fumes were vented to the outside air, the noise generated by the internal combustion engine makes it very unappealing to a user.
The modules include functions for performing one of a plurality of telematic functions.The vehicle device includes a communication component, one or more removable modules, one or more module receptacles, memory, and a processor. The venting of the exhaust fumes also reduces the overall efficiency of the system by about 35% due to the loss of the thermal energy carried away by the exhaust gases.
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. Internal combustion engines are further disadvantaged by their high maintenance costs and short lifetimes of the order of 100 operating hours.Also known in the prior art are co-generation units and heat pumps which use external combustion engines, such as Stirling cycle engines. However, these co-generation units are typically quite large (and therefore not portable) as dictated by the size of the external combustion engine. As discussed above, venting of the exhaust fumes reduces the overall efficiency of the system due to the loss of the thermal energy carried away by the exhaust gases and requires additional hardware.One type of external combustion engine which may be used to power an APU is a Stirling cycle engine. 1 is a system overview of a telematic control unit in accordance with the present invention;FIG.
The history of Stirling cycle engines is described in detail in Walker, Stirling Engines, Oxford University Press (1980), herein incorporated by reference. The principle of operation of a Stirling engine is well known in the art.One disadvantage of a Stirling cycle engine in comparison to an internal combustion engine is the longer response time of a Stirling cycle engine to sudden changes in the load placed on the engine. 5A and 5B are a front and a rear view of the telematic control unit housed within a rear view mirror; andFIGS.
The response time of a Stirling cycle engine is limited by the heat transfer rates between the external combustion gases and the internal working fluid of the engine and may be on the order of 30 seconds.
6A and 6B are a front and rear perspective view of the telematic control unit secured within an in-dash housing.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTThe present invention provides a telematic control system with upgradeable modular components to combine the functionalities of integrating vehicle controls and monitoring systems with location tracking and wireless communication. The response time of an internal combustion engine, on the other hand, is very short because the combustion gas is the working fluid and can be directly controlled by the fuel flow rate. Prior attempts to increase the responsiveness of a Stirling cycle engine provided a variable dead space for the working fluid as described in U.S.
1, the system 10 of the present invention includes a user system 20 in wireless data communication with a server system 80 via a wireless data channel 90. User system 20 includes a wireless communications device 22 for transmitting and receiving wireless information between user system 20 and server system 80, and a telematic control unit (TCU) 30 for allowing the user to perform various interactive functions. User system 20 is preferably implemented in a mobile environment, such as in a car or other vehicle. The TCU may consist of a separate, stand-alone unit, or be integrated as a component in a car radio or other vehicle-based device. 5A and 5B).Server system 80 includes a server 82 for housing user system information, as well as processing and responding to requests for information from the user system and information sources 84, which may be integral with or independent from server system 80. In the preferred embodiment, the server includes a processor, a memory, and a database (not shown). However, both these approaches tend to increase the complexity, size, and weight of the engine design.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIONIn accordance with one aspect of the invention, in one of its embodiments, a method for providing auxiliary electrical power and heat to an indoor area of a house includes generating mechanical energy and thermal energy using an external combustion engine, the external combustion engine burning a fuel and having substantially complete combustion and converting the mechanical energy generated by the external combustion engine into electrical power using a generator coupled to the external combustion engine. Server system 80 further includes a means for sending and receiving information to and from vehicle 20, discussed below. The external combustion engine and generator are placed in the indoor area such that the thermal energy generated by the external combustion engine heats an area surrounding the external combustion engine. Server system 80 processes and responds to the requests for information it receives from TCU 30.Wireless data channel 90 facilitates communication of instructions and information between vehicle 20 and server system 80. In a preferred embodiment, the wireless data channel may include a satellite system 92 in combination with a satellite dish 94 along with or in the place of an access point 96, the latter as part of a cellular or other wireless transmission network.
In operation, instructions are transmitted from vehicle 20 via communication device 22 to either the satellite system or access point, which in turn communicate the instructions to server 82, in the former case via satellite dish 94. In other embodiments, the fuel burned by the external combustion engine may be propane or natural gas. Conversely, information may be communicated from the server to the user system along a reverse direction of the identified route.As further shown with reference to FIG.
In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the electrical power may direct current power or alternating current power.In accordance with another aspect of the invention, in one of its embodiments, an auxiliary power system for providing electrical power and heat to an indoor area of a house includes an external combustion engine for generating mechanical energy and thermal energy, the external combustion engine burning a fuel and having substantially complete combustion and a generator, coupled to the external combustion engine, the generator for converting the mechanical energy of the external combustion engine to electrical power. 2, TCU 30 includes a processor 32, a built-in global positioning system (GPS) unit 34, a cellular device 36, such as a cellular modem, for transmitting and receiving wireless information via wireless communications device 22, a vehicle information component 38, a user interface 40, and a module device 50 (discussed below). The system further includes a first power output for providing electrical power and a portable housing containing the external combustion engine and the generator. The thermal energy generated by the external combustion engine heats the an area surrounding the portable housing. User interface 40 includes one or more of a microphone 42 for capturing the user's voice, a speaker 44, a display 46, such as a touch sensitive screen, and interface entry 48 for allowing the user to perform various interactive functions. The housing may also be mounted in a window or on a wall of the indoor area.The auxiliary power system may further include a battery for providing starting power to the external combustion engine and for providing power to the first power output.
3 is a block diagram of an exemplary embodiment of TCU 30 in accordance with the present invention, describing more specifically module device 50. The charge level of the battery may be determined based in part on the output signal of the sensor. More specifically, module device 50 consists of a case with receptacles 52-56 for receiving various modules.
It also includes electronic circuitry for connecting the different insertable modules to processor 32, to each other, and to other devices and buses included in TCU 30.
In another embodiment, the auxiliary power system further includes an inverter coupled to the first power output for converting direct current power to alternating current power and a second power output for providing alternating current power. Alternative embodiments of module device 50 include a Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector, microphone and speaker amplifiers, and a Hall effect sensor to implement a magnetic compass.In an alternative embodiment, TCU 30 may include less than all components shown in FIG. In yet another embodiment, the auxiliary power system further includes an air conditioning module for cooling the atmosphere surrounding the housing.In accordance with yet another aspect of the present invention, a system for controlling the power output of a thermal engine having a heater head, includes a burner for delivering heat to the heater head of the engine and having an exhaust gas product, a fuel supply regulator for delivering fuel to a burner at a specified rate of fuel delivery and a blower for delivering air to the burner.
In one embodiment, the system further includes an input for receiving a signal related to a specified temperature of operation of the burner, a sensor for monitoring an oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas product of the burner and a controller for governing the rate of fuel and air delivery based at least on the input related to the specified temperature of operation and the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas product. The input for receiving a signal may include a slew rate limiter.In another embodiment, the system for controlling the power output of a thermal engine further includes a head temperature sensor for measuring the temperature of the heater head and a controller for governing the rate of fuel and air delivery based at least on the temperature of the heater head. 4, TCU 30 may be operable as a component system, and include only user interface 40 and module device 50, connected to communications device 22. The system may further include a sensor for monitoring an oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas where the controller includes a controller based at least on the temperature of the heater had and the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas product.In a further embodiment, the head temperature sensor is disposed in a region of and exterior surface of the heater head shadowed from flow of the exhaust gas. In this embodiment, processing, memory, GPS location information, and cellular communications is provided solely through upgradeable modules. The system may also include an air mass flow sensor for measuring the mass of air delivered to the burner where the controller for governing the rate of fuel and air delivery includes a controller based at least on the temperature of the heater head and the mass of air delivered to the burner.In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, a system for controlling the power output of an external combustion engine having a crankshaft includes a generator for regulating the speed of the external combustion engine, an amplifier for transforming power form the generator to a power output and providing a load on the generator and a battery for storing power and providing power to a power output. The system further includes a fuel supply for providing a fuel to the burner at a specified rate of fuel delivery, a generator for converting the mechanical energy produced by the external combustion engine to electrical power and a battery having an input and an output, the battery input coupled to the generator and the battery output coupled to the wheel motor, the battery for storing electrical energy provided from the generator at the battery input and for providing power to the wheel motor at the battery output.A mobile auxiliary power unit, in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention, includes an external combustion engine having a crankshaft characterized by a velocity and a heater head characterize by a head temperature, the external combustion engine for generating mechanical energy and thermal energy, the external combustion engine burning a fuel and having substantially complete combustion such that exhaust emissions from the external combustion engine are below a predetermined exhaust level.


Alternatively, CPU module 60 comprises a digital signal processor (DSP) in addition to the above-mentioned items.In yet another alternative embodiment, module device 50 uses a pre-existing cellular phone, which connects via a special adapter to the module device. A generator having an output, is coupled to the crankshaft of the external combustion engine and converts the mechanical energy produced by the external combustion engine into electrical power, the electrical power provided to the output of the generator.
The adapter may be in the form of a cellular radio or it may connect via a USB port (not shown). The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! The battery characterized by a state of charge and provides starting power to the external combustion as well as power to the battery output. CPU module 60 performs some or all the in-vehicle processing, and may use cellular device module 58 to send the in-vehicle processing results to server system 80. The mobile auxiliary power unit further includes a controller in signal communication with the external combustion engine, the generator and the battery. The controller governs the velocity of the crankshaft and the temperature of the heater head based at least on the state of charge of the battery. A single module may integrate more than one function, such as a combined cellular radio and GPS receiver. A wheel motor is coupled to the battery output and to a set of wheels, including at least one member such that the wheel motor when powered by the battery, drives the set of wheels causing the locomotion of the mobile auxiliary power unit.
The digitized voice is then sent to CPU module 60, which performs further sound processing.
1 is a schematic block diagram of an auxiliary power unit in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention.FIG.
Replaceable modules allow a user to receive up-to-date sound processing software or other more advanced modules without having to replace any hardware components already installed in the vehicle.In an alternative embodiment, CPU module 60 is removable from module device 50 and usable in a separate module device remote from the vehicle, such as a data reader or a display unit. 2 is a schematic block diagram of an auxiliary power unit in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the invention.FIG. Moreover, the removable modules are insertable into one or more devices remote from the vehicle. 3 is a cross section view of a Stirling cycle engine in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention.FIG.
Alternative devices remote from a vehicle include but are not limited to hand held devices, home computers, and personal data assistants (PDA), etc. 4A is a schematic block diagram of the power control system for the engine of the APU of FIG. This allows the user the flexibility of using CPU module 60 (or other modules) outside the vehicle.
4B is a schematic block diagram of a method of control for the power control system of FIG. Thus, users can transport personalized settings from one vehicle to another, or from one device to another.In yet another alternative embodiment, the user can remove or replace a small plug-in memory module (not shown), for example in MMC (Multi-Media Card) format, from within CPU module 60.
The memory module is also used as a security device to enable or disable features of TCU 30.
Moreover, the memory module can store credit card information, personal identification, and memory storage for the CPU's programs.Included within or electrically coupled to module device 50 or processor 32 are one or more controllers for communicating with various vehicle data buses, such as the HBCC (Hosted Bus Controller Chip) 70, the UBP (Universal Bus Protocol) 72, the CAN (Controller Area Network) 74, the ACP (Audio Control Protocol) 76, or other data buses.
HBCC 70 is a chip that implements Ford's J1850 in-vehicle bus standard, called SCP (Standard Corporate Protocol). CAN 74 is a common bus interface used in most vehicles, and ACP 76 is a different vehicle bus protocol.
Processor 32 is coupled to multiple controllers 70-76 and to one or more module receptacles 52-56. 1 including the burner controller in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the invention.FIG. Module device 50 preferably connects to the user interface 40 (microphone 42, speakers 44, monitor 46, and keyboard 48).FIGS.
8a is a side view in cross section of the burner and exhaust heat recovery assembly, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.FIG. 5A and 5B show front and bottom views, respectively, of an embodiment of the present invention wherein at least a portion of TCU 30 is housed within a rearview mirror. 8b shows a perspective top view of a heater head including heat transfer pin arrays in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.FIG.
9a shows a cross-sectional view from the side of a fuel intake manifold for a Stirling cycle engine in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention.FIG. Housing 100 is connected to a stand portion 102 that is secured to the vehicle windshield or to structural components within the vehicle. Receptacles 104-110 receive various modules and provide coupling of the modules to processor 32 (not shown) located within housing 100 or elsewhere in the vehicle via a cable connector 112. Located on the front side of mirror housing 100 are a microphone 114 and various user interface buttons 116. 10 is a cross section of the burner and heater head assembly showing the placement of a flame detection thermocouple in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.FIG.
11 is a cross section of the burner and heater head assembly showing the placement of a flame detection thermocouple in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the invention.FIG. Mirror stand portion 102 includes one or more communication devices, such as antennas (not shown) for receiving various signals, such as radio or GPS signals.FIGS. 12 is a front view of an APU where the front panel of the enclosure has been removed for interior viewing in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.FIG. 6A and 6B show a front and rear perspective view, respectively, of an alternative embodiment of the present invention wherein at least a portion of TCU 30 is secured within an in-dash housing 120. Housing 120 is secured within the vehicle dash or to another structural component within the vehicle. 14 is a schematic block diagram of an auxiliary power unit and air conditioning system in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.FIG.
15 is a schematic diagram of a scooter utilizing the auxiliary power unit in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTSFIG. Receptacles 122-128 receive various modules and provide coupling of the modules to processor 32 (not shown) located within housing 120 or elsewhere in the vehicle via a cable connector 130. 1 is a schematic block diagram of an auxiliary power unit (“APU”) 100 in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention. The front side of housing 120 may also include various user interface buttons 132, along with other user interface connectors 134, which may be used to connect the TCU to additional external user interface devices, such as a speaker, microphone, or keyboard.
The TCU may also be coupled to user interface devices located in other parts of the vehicle via cable connector 130.
The outputs of the Stirling cycle engine 101 during operation include both mechanical energy and residual heat energy. Housing 120 further includes one or more communication devices, such as a GPS antenna 136 and a global system for mobile telecommunications (GSM) or cellular communications antenna 138 for receiving various signals. Heat produced in the combustion of a fuel in a burner 104 is applied as an input to the Stirling cycle engine 101, and partially converted to mechanical energy.
Housing 120 may also include a subscriber identity module (SIM) slot 140 to receive an electronic card for use in authorizing GSM communications.While the preferred embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described, many changes can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
The unconverted heat or thermal energy accounts for 65 to 85% of the energy released in the burner 104.
Accordingly, the scope of the invention is not limited by the disclosure of the preferred embodiment. This heat is available to provide heating to the local environment around the APU in two forms: a smaller flow of exhaust gas from the burner 104 and a much larger flow of heat rejected at the cooler 103 of the Stirling engine. The exhaust gases are relatively hot, typically 100 to 300° C., and represent 10 to 20% of the thermal energy produced by the Stirling engine 101. The heat is rejected to either a flow of water or, more typically, to the air via a radiator 107. A portable APU that provides both electric power and heat to indoor areas is typically less than 5 kW. For additional information relating to preferred embodiments of a Stirling cycle engine, see pending U.S. 17, 1999, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.As shown in FIG. Burner 104 combusts a fuel to produce hot exhaust gases which are used to drive the Stirling engine 101. The burner controller 109 also delivers a measured amount of air to the burner 104 to advantageously ensure substantially complete combustion. The fuel combusted by burner 104 is preferably a clean burning and commercially available fuel such as propane.
A clean burning fuel is a fuel that does not contain large amounts of contaminants, the most important being sulfur. Natural gas, ethane, propane, butane, ethanol, methanol and liquefied petroleum gas (“LPG”) are all clean burning fuels when the contaminants are limited to a few percent. One example of a commercially available propane fuel is HD-5, an industry grade defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers and available from Bernzomatic.
In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, and as discussed in more detail below, the Stirling engine 101 and burner 104 provide substantially complete combustion in order to provide high thermal efficiency as well as low emissions. The characteristics of high efficiency and low emissions are key to using the APU 100 indoors.Generator 102 is coupled to a crankshaft (not shown) of Stirling engine 101. It should be understood to one of ordinary skill in the art that the term generator encompasses the class of electric machines such as generators wherein mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy or motors wherein electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy.
A rechargeable battery 113 provides starting power for APU 100 as well as direct current (“DC”) power to a DC power output 112. In a further embodiment, APU 100 also advantageously provides alternating current (“AC”) power to an AC power output 114. An inverter 116 is coupled to the battery 113 in order to convert the DC power produced by battery 113 to AC power.
1, the battery 113, inverter 116 and AC power output 114 are disposed within an APU enclosure 120. 2, the battery 113, inverter 116 and the APU power output 114 may be separate from the APU enclosure 120.In the course of operation, Stirling engine 101 also produces heat 117 from, for example, the exhaust gases of the burner 104 as well as the supply and extraction of heat from a working fluid. Accordingly, when used inside of a building, the excess heat produced by the Stirling engine 101 may be used to advantageously heat the atmosphere surrounding the APU 100.
In this manner, the APU 100 may be used to provide both electrical power and heat to an indoor area such as a building or a residence.The operation of Stirling cycle engine 101 will now be described in more detail with respect to FIG.
3 which is a cross-sectional view of a Stirling engine in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
3 is referred to as an alpha configuration, characterized in that a compression piston 300 and an expansion piston 302 undergo linear motion within respective and distinct cylinders: compression piston 300 in a compression cylinder 304 and expansion piston 302 in an expansion cylinder 306.
The principle of operation of a Stirling engine configured in an “alpha”configuration and employing a first “compression” piston and a second “expansion” piston is described at length in pending U.S.
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The alpha configuration is discussed by way of example only, and without limitation of the scope of any appended claims.In addition to compression piston 300 and expansion piston 302, the main components of Stirling engine 101 include a burner (not shown), a heater heat exchanger 322, a regenerator 324, and a cooler heat exchanger 328. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later.
Compression piston 300 and expansion piston 302, referred to collectively as pistons, are constrained to move in reciprocating linear motion within respective volumes 308 and 310 defined laterally by compression cylinder 304 and expansion cylinder liner 312. The volumes of the cylinder interior proximate to the burner heat exchanger 322 and cooler heat exchanger 328 will be referred to, herein, as hot and cold sections, respectively of engine 101. The relative phase (the “phase angle”) of the reciprocating linear motion of compression piston 300 and expansion piston 302 is governed by their respective coupling to drive mechanism 314 housed in crankcase 316.
Drive mechanism 314 may be one of various mechanisms known in the art of engine design which may be employed to govern the relative timing of pistons and to interconvert linear and rotary motion.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.
The volume of compression cylinder 308 is coupled to cooler heat exchanger 328 via duct 205 to allow cooling of compressed working fluid during the compression phase.
Duct 205, more particularly, couples compression volume 308 to the annular heat exchangers comprising cooler heat exchanger 328, regenerator 203, and heater heat exchanger 322.
The burner (not shown) combusts a fuel in order to provide heat to the heater heat exchanger 322 of a heater head 330 of the Stirling engine. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. The expansion cylinder and piston are disposed within a heater head 330 such that the working fluid in the expansion cylinder may be heated via the heater heat exchanger 322. For additional information relating to a preferred configuration of a burner, regenerator 203 and heater head 330, see co-pending U.S.
1, the Stirling cycle engine 101 and generator 102 are disposed within a pressure vessel 118. The pressure vessel 118 contains a high pressure working fluid, preferably helium or nitrogen at 20 to 30 atmospheres pressure. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. 3) of the Stirling engine 101 extend through the pressure vessel 118 and a cold collar (or cooler) 103. The end of the expansion cylinder (including heater head 330) is contained within the burner 104. The cold collar 103 circulates a cooling fluid through cooling lines 106 and through radiator 107.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. A fan 108 forces air past the radiator 107 thereby heating the air and cooling the cooling fluid. The heated air 117 may then be forced through openings in the APU enclosure 120 to heat the surrounding area such as the room of a building. In alternative embodiments, the excess heat 117 created by the combustion within burner 104 may be directly provided to the surrounding ambient air.The pressure vessel 118 has a pass-through port for an electrical connection 119 between the generator 102 contained within the pressure vessel 118 and an APU controller 111.
The APU controller 111 supplies power to the cooling pump 105, fan 108, and the burner controller 109 through power supply lines 115.


The APU controller 111 also controls the power output of the APU as well as the charge level of the battery 113 by varying the speed and temperature of the Stirling engine. APU controller 111 provides command signals to the burner control unit 109 in order to control the temperature of the Stirling engine 101.
APU controller 111 also provides command signals to generator 102 in order to control the speed of the Stirling engine 101.The power output of generator 102 and Stirling engine 101 are controlled using APU controller 111 so as to maintain the optimal charge and voltage levels in the battery 113. Electrical loads will reduce the charge and voltage of the battery 113 causing the APU controller 111 to command additional power from the engine. 4A is a schematic block diagram of the power control system of the APU included in the APU controller 111 (shown in FIG. The power control system controls the speed and temperature of the Stirling engine in order to provide the necessary power to meet the demand (or load) placed on the APU and maintain the charge level of the battery. The Stirling engine provides mechanical power (Pmech) to the generator 402 which in turn converts the mechanical power to three-phase electrical power.
Generator 402 also, as discussed in more detail below, acts as an adjustable load on the engine in order to control the speed of the engine. Motor-amplifier 405 transfers electrical power produced by the motor generator 402 to a high voltage DC bus (Pamp). Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. The power provided to the high voltage DC bus (Pamp) is delivered to a DC to DC converter 406 (Pdcdch) which steps down the power to a low voltage DC bus for delivery to the battery 413 (Pbat). We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. The DC to DC converter 406 may also be used to step up the power to the high voltage DC bus used for power control and AC power conversion.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products.
Alternate embodiments may omit the DC to DC converter and connect the high voltage DC bus directly to the battery 413. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. As described further below, battery 413 acts as an energy reservoir during the operation of the APU.An emergency shunt 407 may be used to remove excess power from the high voltage DC bus in the case of an overvoltage condition in either DC bus. In one embodiment, the emergency shunt resistors are located in the water of the radiator 107 (shown in FIG. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The inverter 416 draws power (Pinv) from the DC bus.The charge level of the battery 413 reflects changes in the output load 410. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
4A attempts to keep the battery 413 at its optimum charge, without overcharging, in response to changes in the output load 410. The optimum charge is a tradeoff between keeping the battery ready for extended periods of discharge and increasing the battery cycle life.
Charging the battery to nearly 100% of full charge maximizes the availability of the battery for extended periods of discharge but also stresses the battery, resulting in a shorter battery cycle life. Charging the battery to less than full charge reduces the stresses placed on the battery and thereby extends the battery cycle life but also reduces the energy available in the battery for sudden load changes.
The selection of the optimum charge will depend on the expected load variations placed on the APU and the battery capacity and is well within the scope of one of ordinary skill in the power management art. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. Another goal of the power control system is to reduce the fuel consumption of the engine by maximizing the efficiency from fuel input to power output. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. 4A adjusts the engine temperature and the engine speed in order to produce the desired battery charge and thus, the required power output.The charge of the battery 413 may be roughly estimated by the battery voltage. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem.
As described above, differences between the load power (Pout) and the power generated by the Stirling engine (Pmech or Pamp) will result in power flow to or from the battery 413. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
For example, if the engine does not produce enough power to meet the demand of the load 410, the battery 413 will provide the remaining power necessary to support the load 410. If the engine produces more power than required to meet the demand of the load 410, the excess power may be used to charge the battery 413. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. The power control system determines whether it is necessary to command the engine to produce more or less power in response to changes in the load. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The engine speed and engine temperature are then adjusted accordingly to produce the required power.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. The demand from the load 410 is greater than the power produced by the engine for extended periods of time), the engine temperature and speed are adjusted so that the engine produces more power. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. Preferably, when more power is needed, raising engine temperature is given preference over raising engine speed. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Typically, the engine temperature and speed are adjusted to decrease the amount of power produced by the engine. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
Preferably, when less power is needed, reducing engine speed is given preference over reducing engine temperature.Once the power control system determines the desired engine temperature and speed based on the desired battery power, the power control system sends a temperature command to the burner control unit 109 (shown in FIG.
1) indicating the desired engine temperature and a speed command to the generator 402 indicating the desired engine speed. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
When the generator 402 increases demand on the engine, the load on the crankshaft increases and thereby slows down the speed of the engine.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. The power control system, therefore, is designed to account for the lengthy response time of a Stirling cycle engine. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. For a sudden increase in the load 410, the torque load applied by the generator 402 on the crankshaft of the engine is reduced, thereby allowing the crankshaft to speed up and temporarily maintain an increased power output of the generator 402 until an increased temperature command sent to the burner control unit 109 (shown in FIG.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. For a sudden load decrease, the torque applied by the generator 402 on the crankshaft of the engine may be increased in order to slow down the crankshaft and decrease the power output until a decreased temperature command sent to the burner control unit takes effect. The excess charge or power produced by the generator 402 may be used to charge the battery 413.
As discussed above, any further excess electrical energy may also be directed to the emergency shunt 407.
The process of controlling the temperature of the engine using the burner control unit 109 is described in more detail below with respect to FIGS. 4B is a schematic block diagram of a method for determining the desired engine temperature and speed in order to provide the required electrical power to maintain the optimal charge for the battery and meet the applied load. First, at block 420, the power control system estimates the state of charge of the battery. When the engine is first started, the initial estimated state of charge (Qest) is set to a preselected value. The adjustment current is then used to correct the battery current such that Qest approaches a value near the actual state of charge. By selecting a low initial value for Qest at startup, faster correction is achieved because a lower value for Qest allows for a higher charging current.The adjustment current may be selected based on the known V-I characteristics of the battery. The determination of the V-I plane for a particular battery is well within the scope of one of ordinary skill in the art.
4A) may be divided into operating regions where the state of the charge of the battery is reasonably known. The measured battery voltage, VB, and battery current, IB, are used to identify the current state of the battery in the V-I plane.
The estimated charge Qest is then compared to the identified state of charge corresponding to the region of the V-I plane in which the measured battery voltage and current fall. The adjustment current, Iadj, is estimated by taking the product of a constant, which is a function of the measured voltage and current of the battery, and the difference between the estimated state of charge Qest and the state of charge estimated using the V-I plane and the measured battery voltage and current.At block 422, a power error Perr is determined by comparing the desired battery power Pbatdes and the actual battery power PB. The power error Perr is indicative of whether the APU must produce more or less power output. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling.
The first method is based on the charging voltage of the battery Vchg and the second method is based on the estimated state of charge Qest of the battery. In the following discussion, the desired battery power estimated using the first method will be referred to as Pv and the desired battery power estimated using the second method will be referred to as PQ.The first method estimates a desired battery power, Pv. 2).The charging voltage Vchg is the optimum battery voltage to keep the battery charged and is typically specified by the manufacturer of a particular battery. Vchg is multiplied by the larger of either the measured battery current (IB) or a predetermined minimum current value (Imin) Imin may be selected based on the known characteristics of the V-I plane of the battery. For example, in one embodiment, when the measured battery voltage VB is much less than Vchg, Imin may be set to a high value in order to quickly increase the voltage of the battery, VB, up to Vchg. If VB is near Vchg, Imin may be set to a low value as it will not require as much additional energy to bring the battery voltage VB up to Vchg. If VB is greater than Vchg, however, an overcharge current Ioc may be subtracted from the greater of IB and Imin in order to avoid an overvoltage condition.The second method estimates a desired battery power PQ based on the estimated state of charge (Qest) of the battery (as determined in block 420). 4A) between the motor amplifier and the battery.The desired power PQ is based on the difference between the desired charged state QG of the battery and the estimated charge state Qest of the battery. QG is a predetermined value between 0 (fully discharged) and 1 (fully charged) and represents the state of charge the controller is trying to maintain in the battery.
In a preferred embodiment, the desired state of charge of the battery is 90% of full charge.
The farther away the estimated battery charge Qest is from the desired charge state QG, the more power which can safely be requested to charge the battery.
The closer Qest is to QG, the less power that is needed to bring the battery voltage, VB, up to Vchg.The estimation of the desired battery power PQ is also adjusted to account for possible load changes.
The excess power represents the worst case additional power that could flow into the battery if the load were suddenly removed from the system.
Accordingly, it is desirable to select a desired battery power which leaves room in the battery to absorb the excess power produced by a change in the load. The excess power is subtracted from PQ in order to leave additional room in the battery to absorb the excess power. The excess power may be determined by comparing the power generated by the engine to the power entering the battery and is represented by the term ?IbusVbus?IBVB in Eqn. The power generated by the engine is estimated using the bus voltage Vbus measured at the motor amplifier and the bus current Ibus measured exiting the motor amplifier.
The power entering the battery is the product of the measured battery voltage and current (IBVB).At block 422, the minimum of the two estimated desired battery powers PV and PQ is used to determine the power error Perr. 4)The measured power PB flowing into the battery is the product of the measured battery current IB and the measured battery voltage VB. As mentioned above, the power error Perr is indicative of whether the APU must produce more or less power output. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. In a preferred embodiment, the engine temperature T is proportional to the engine speed and the integral of a function of Perr. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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