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What would Drake’s Views have sounded like if it wasn’t an Apple Music exclusive? The company launched its consumer subscription service last month, SoundCloud Go, but has quickly returned its attention to uploaders. SoundCloud's announcement comes a day after Spotify unveiled, like Apple Music two months before, a partnership with the digital distribution company Dubset that would enable users, by way of some proprietary analysis software, to listen to and upload full, single-track DJ mixes and everyone — the rights holders and the DJs — would get compensated.
Chart Attack is dedicated to sharing great music and getting to know the people who make it. In conventional computers, wiring between transistors is required to enable the execution of Boolean logic functions.
The concept of encoding multiple signals with different frequencies was originally pioneered in optical fibre networks to increase their capacity1, 2, 3.
Among the 12 independent electrical contacts, a single two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) contact is used for binary information input with a frequency around 2f0, and the gate located directly above (gate 1) is used for injecting an excitation around f0.
The first programmable computer was pioneered in a mechanical architecture almost two centuries ago14.
The big streamers are using whatever artillery they can muster to attract users: exclusive releases, family plans, licensing options, free trials, extended free trials, Tidal will probably come wash your car.
In partnership with the online mastering service LANDR, all SoundCloud users — free or paid — will soon be able to have their tracks optimized for the streaming platform.
Mixsets used to be SoundCloud's bread and butter, but battles negotiating for major label catalogues have come in the way. Old social orders were being swept away, monarchies becoming republics and the United States of America was emerging as a world power. This has resulted in processors in which billions of transistors are physically interconnected, which limits integration densities, gives rise to huge power consumption and restricts processing speeds. The mechanical oscillator has Schottky Au-electrodes (orange) located above both clamping points, below which a 2DEG is located (red). To achieve this, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) was developed, which enables a single optical fibre to operate as if it were a bundle of fibres. Henceforth, these excitations are termed pump and signal, respectively, in analogy with frequency conversion in optical parametric amplifiers11. The frequency response measured via gate 2 and shown in Figure 2c (along with the corresponding theoretical response in Fig.
However, mechanical computation was rendered obsolete with the advent of the transistor15, which gave rise to an electrical binary-unit (bit) for Boolean logic4. Now, SoundCloud, which has a long history of catering specifically to creators, says it'll master your music for free. This isn't LANDR's tippy-top HD service, but an enhancement designed especially for the platform.
In all cases, the experimental response is broader than the numerical simulations because of an experimental resolution band width (RBW) of 50 mHz. In physics too, revolutions were taking place, none more potent than that which resulted in the emergence of quantum mechanics as a model for the behaviour of sub-atomic particles.It was Newton who first suggested that light was particulate but during the nineteenth century this view had fallen into neglect. A method to eliminate wiring amongst transistors by condensing Boolean logic into a single active element is thus highly desirable.


State-of-the-art WDM can enable more than a 1,000 different wavelengths of light to propagate in parallel through a single fibre, yielding a dramatic increase in signal throughput in an optical fibre network. The signal can directly excite a mechanical oscillation and is necessary for functionalizing logic operations. To achieve maximum fidelity for this logic circuit, the idlers must only intersect with each other and their visibility will be maximized at f0. With the recent emergence of electromechanical resonators5, 6, the concept of a mechanical computer has been revived as this offers the tantalizing prospect of low power consumption16.
The mechanical response was measured using standard low-frequency lock-in and amplification techniques.The signal, pump and reference (for the lock-in measurements) excitations were generated via six signal generators (NF Wavefactory 1974), which were coupled and synchronized via their internal 10 MHz reference clock.
Indeed a number of experiments, for example the classic Young's slits experiment, demonstrated quite conclusively that light was a wave motion.
Here, we demonstrate a novel logic architecture using only a single electromechanical parametric resonator into which multiple channels of binary information are encoded as mechanical oscillations at different frequencies. In contrast, the pump cannot directly excite mechanical motion as its amplitude is below the parametric resonance threshold7. The realization of a universal electromechanical logic gate in a single device with AND, OR and XOR functions can enable the construction of any other logic gate.Logic circuitsBeyond the implementation of fundamental two-bit logic gates, we also investigate the prospect of multibit logic circuits in a single mechanical resonator. In spite of some recent experimental effort, a universal electromechanical logic gate based on Boolean algebra has remained beyond reach7, 17, 18, 19, 20.The parametric frequency conversion demonstrated here not only permits the realization of all the primary logic gates in an electromechanical resonator for the first time16, 18, 19, 20, 21 but it also enables multibit logic circuits to be executed in a single mechanical resonator as well as providing an architecture in which parallel logic circuits can be easily constructed.
The parametric resonator can mix these channels, resulting in new mechanical oscillation states that enable the construction of AND, OR and XOR logic gates as well as multibit logic circuits. In both cases, the mechanical parametric resonator was sampled via a spectrum analyser with an RBW=12.5 mHz. This novel approach allows a single device to not only operate as if it were a fully integrated logic circuit but also to operate as a parallel logic processor enabling the simultaneous execution of multiple Boolean functions where crucially all interconnects have been eliminated. However, the interaction between signal and pump results in the excitation of mechanical motion as shown below.
To do this, a third pump is injected into the system at fpC=2f0+2Δ, which is used to encode a third-bit labelled as C.
Consequently, a mechanical computer based on these concepts offers the prospect of unrivalled integration density, low power consumption7, 16 and potentially high speed, as information does not have to be passed between multiple transistors as in conventional sequential logic circuits. However, the experiments on the photoelectric effect demonstrated just as conclusively that light energy was carried in packets, or quanta, and that a continuous wave description was not applicable.This ‘wave or particle’ dilemma was not unique to the behaviour of light. Moreover, the mechanical logic gates and circuits can be executed simultaneously, giving rise to the prospect of a parallel logic processor in just a single mechanical resonator. All the spectra are offset for clarity and are numbered (roman numerals) to correlate with the numbered truth combinations in their corresponding truth tables where the various inputs and circuits have been colour coded. Within the resonance bandwidth, multiple oscillations at different frequencies can be simultaneously excited by injecting multiple pumps with slightly different frequencies. The complete set of idlers created when all the signals and pumps are activated is shown in Figure 3a. The resulting response of the system measured as above via gate 2 as a function of fs is shown in Figure 4a along with the corresponding theoretical response in Figure 4b (Methods).
All logic operations including multibit logic circuits can be reproduced by numerical simulations, thus enabling more advanced logic circuits to be easily designed (Methods).


Moreover, this concept contributes significantly to the beyond transistor-based computation debate22.To translate this proof-of-principle prototype into a more practical device, both room temperature and atmospheric operation is a necessary prerequisite. In all cases, the motion was electrically detected via gate 2, that is, this gate is used for the readout of Boolean functions as shown in Figure 1b.Mechanical idler generationParametric frequency conversion has an essential role in the execution of logic functions in this architecture and its operation is first described here12, 13. A generalized formulism to implement multibit logic circuits for arbitrary Boolean functions will be reported elsewhere.
Although the present device can operate at room temperature23, the viscous damping present at atmospheric pressure degrades its performance.
All the spectra are offset for clarity and are numbered (roman numerals) to correlate with the numbered truth combinations in their corresponding truth tables where the various inputs and gates have been colour coded. The effects of viscous damping could be reduced by utilizing on-chip vacuum packaging24 or by employing nanomechanical resonators25. Thompson showed that cathode rays were charged, had a well defined mass and had all the properties expected of a beam of particles. The frequency response measured via gate 2 is shown in Figure 2a as a function of fs and the corresponding theoretical response is shown in Figure 2b (Methods). The use of nanomechanical resonators would also result in higher operation frequencies and integration densities, for example, a 1 GHz mechanical beam oscillator could be realized with a length and width of 1 μm and 100 nm, respectively, leading to integration densities as high as 108 oscillators per cm2 (ref. Nevertheless, Davisson and Germer showed that diffraction of electrons could take place, an effect made visually much more dramatic by G. In addition to the input signal (blue arrow), an additional oscillation with a negative slope (green arrow) is observed.
The mechanical frequency response obtained at a fixed signal frequency (along line 1 in Fig. 3a) as a function of pump excitation is shown in Figure 3b and it clearly demonstrates the AND and OR operation. The outstanding obstacle in the realization of the above mechanical computer is a 1 GHz piezoelectric nanomechanical resonator with Q sufficiently high to yield good signal-to-noise ratios and the ability to host the parametric amplification functionality. It should be emphasized that the two logic outputs can be obtained in parallel with only a single device in contrast to conventional logic devices where only sequential operation is available. Nowadays, electron diffraction is used as a routine analytical tool in all advanced metallurgical and materials science laboratories (Fig. Using a state-of-the-art computer word size of 64 bits with 64 parallel processes would result in 5×106 64-bits logic operations per second with only a single nanomechanical device. If such nanomechanical processors were assembled on to a chip with the above described integration density, it could result in data-processing capacity of 1014 Hz cm−2.
Even higher processing capacity would be available in graphene membrane resonators with dimensions of a few nanometers, in which resonance frequencies as high as 400 GHz could be achieved28.
A nanomechanical computer realized in this mould would yield unprecedented data-processing power making it a highly tantalizing prospect, which merits further investigation.



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