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What began as a sideline business selling polished metal mirrors to pilgrims in Germany (to capture holy light) evolved into an enterprise that altered the course of art, religion, politics and industry: Johannes Gutenberga€™s movable type and printing press.
We judge ourselves by our noblest acts and best intentions, but we are judged by our last worst act.
There are 10,000 species of ants, and for several million years they have coved the earth, except Antarctica [no pun intended]. Credit has existed globally since the early days of trading and mercantilism, but it wasna€™t until the 1920s that oil companies issued a physical card to repeat customers who purchased fuel for their new-fangled automobiles. Therea€™s nothing so hollow as the laugh of the person who intended to tell the story himself.
CHALLENGE #111: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)?
English belongs to the very large Indo-European language family [Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Latin, Hellenic, Iranian, Sanskrit et alia, which led to Polish, Welsh, French, Greek, Kurdish, Punjabi, and English, to name a few].
The real test of character comes when doing the right thing may not be in our self-interest. In the past 5,000 years the human genetic code changed 100 times faster than it had in any prevous period. In the 1880s, Samuel Augustus Maverick was a Texas cattleman who refused to brand his cattle, seeing it as cruel. CHALLENGE #111 was: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)? Researchers gave cash to experimental subjects who were instructed either to spend it on themselves or on others.
BIG Q #26: Pericles argued in his Funeral Oration that democracy stimulates excellence because all citizens are stakeholders with public responsibilities. When intensive-care units at Michigan hospitals followed a 5-step checklist for how to insert intravenous lines in patients, infections were virtually eliminated, saving the hospitals $175 million over 18 months. The peace symbol began as the emblem of the British anti-nuclear movement 50 years ago on Good Friday: a combination of the semaphore positions for N and D [Nuclear Disarmament] within a circle [the earth].
CHALLENGE #114: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. BIG Q #27: Since poverty is deeper among children than the elderly, why does public spending on the elderly vastly outstrip spending on the young? E-mail and Web searches consume 1.5% of the nationa€™s electricity last year, and if current trends continue, by 2010 the power bill to run a computer over its lifetime will surpass the cost of buying the machine. Biologically speaking, humans have changed little in the 100,000 years [or 3,000 generations] since modern humans emerged on the African savanna--not enough time for serious adjustments. Rembrandt was a master of chiaroscuro (kee-ahr-uh-SKYOOR-oh), the use of contrasts of light and shade to enhance the depiction of character and for general dramatic effect.
CHALLENGE #114 was: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. CHALLENGE #115: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms? BIG Q #28: Why do girls, on average, lead boys for all their years in school, only to fall behind in the workplace? Only 11% of CEOs of top 500 companies have an Ivy League degree, but 20% of the top 60 women in Forbes a€?most powerful womena€? list did.
The hormone oxytocin is naturally released in brain after a 20-second hug from a partner, triggering the braina€™s trust circuits.
CHALLENGE #115 was: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms?
CHALLENGE #116: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail.
Featured Quote: a€?The truth of the matter,a€? is that a€?we havena€™t sacrificed one darn bit in this war, not one. BIG Q #29: Why are the most powerful people in the world old white men and pretty young women? When lima bean plants are attacked by spider mites, they release volatile chemicals that summon another species of mites to attack the spider mites.
Funeral directors promote embalming: replacing body fluids with formaldehyde, a carcinogen that eventually leaches into the environment when the buried body decays [800,000 gallons annually]. In 2001, President Bush exempted some 3,500 plants that spew toxic chemicals from the Right-To-Know law. Consultants get paid up to $500,000 to name a drug, and insist that letters are imbued with psychological meaning: P, T, and K, they claim, convey effectiveness. CHALLENGE #116 was: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail. CHALLENGE #117: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. Spoken language is instinctual, the brain collects the phonemes and abstracts the rules from what it hears, but written language must be taught.
Busha€™s tax cuts for the rich have reduced annual tax revenue avaiable for public needs by $300 Billion each year. CHALLENGE #117 was: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. FACTOID: Unusual English spelling shows the way the words were pronounced 100s of years ago. Chinoiserie (sheen-WAH-zuh-ree) is a style of ornamentation using motifs identified as Chinese.
CHALLENGE # 118 was: If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there, does it make a sound?
CHALLENGE #119: Which a€?booka€™ won the Pulitzer Prize for literature and drama, in successive years? Chapter Summary: Speech is controlled in your mind by feedback from your hearing and mouth position as much as it is from your memory.
If you want to learn to speak English fluently, it will help you reach your goal in less time if you understand how the human mind produces speech.
However, before looking at the way humans produce speech, I want to draw an analogy from machine control because the analogy closely parallels neurological responses in spoken language. Wikipedia describes an open-loop control system as follows: An open-loop controller, also called a non-feedback controller, is a type of controller which computes its input into a system using only the current state…of the system.
For example, a sprinkler system, programmed to turn on at set times could be an example of an open-loop system if it does not measure soil moisture as a form of feedback. Wikipedia then describes closed-loop control as follows: To avoid the problems of the open-loop controller, control theory introduces feedback.

Wikipedia’s definition of a closed-loop system subsequently becomes too technical to use here. If the soil is already moist, the sprinkler will remain off whether or not the timer is open. Human speech is a complex learned skill and is dependent on a number of memory and neurological functions. Because you have spoken your own language all of your life, all of this control is automatic—you do not need to think about it. Auditory and proprioceptive feedback are combined in the mind for essential speech control. Thus, in Figure 4, human speech is represented as the interaction between the mind, the mouth, and its related organs (represented in the figure by the tongue), two feedback systems, and conscious calibration as the speaker constructs each sentence.
When children learn their mother tongue, their natural ability to hear and mimic adult speech builds complex proprioceptive response patterns. If you are learning English as a new language, all of its unique sounds and syntax must be learned.
If you doubt that the proprioceptive sense is an important part of speech, try this experiment.
Did you also notice a difference between the two readings in terms of your mental intensity?
You may be able to learn simple vocabulary-related memory skills with equal effectiveness by using either verbal or visual training methods. However, it is impossible for you to retrain your proprioceptive sense without hearing your own voice at full speaking volume. Surprisingly, it will take far less time for you to learn both fluent spoken English and excellent English grammar by studying only spoken English first, than it will for you to study written English grammar lessons before you can speak English.
Inasmuch as spoken English involves multiple areas of skill working cooperatively in real time, it is mandatory that effective spoken English teaching methods simultaneously train all of these areas of speech. It is the important area of the proprioceptive sense which has been the most overlooked in current grammar-based teaching methodology. Furthermore, to properly retrain the proprioceptive sense of the mouth, the combined feedback from the mouth and hearing must be simultaneously processed in the mind. Without simultaneous involvement of all skill areas of speech, it is impossible for you to effectively retrain your proprioceptive sense in order for you to speak fluent English. Grammar-based instruction has hindered English learning by segregating individual areas of study. Grammar-based English training has not only isolated proprioceptive training areas so that it prevents simultaneous skill development, it has replaced it with visual memory training by using written assignments.
Grammar-based English language instruction teaches as though spoken English is primarily a function of memory. The only way you can effectively learn spoken English is by using spoken English as the method of instruction. Spoken Language Study - Spoken Genres is a detailed teaching resource which includes an 87 slide PowerPoint presentation and 24 worksheets. English teachers can preview the resource by clicking on the images at the bottom of the page. First and foremost increase your understanding of who your students are, this help you understand your student needs.
Secondly every teacher should understand skills of each student and as a result teacher should organize every lesson depending on their weaknesses.
If learners of english language are kids, teacher should find an easy way which help kids learn english more easily. In the better sets, the traditional flaws of plasma (burn-in) and LCD (limited viewing angle, weak blacks, weak fast motion) have been largely eliminated.
In 1958, Dinera€™s Club launched the first card available for payment to general merchants: 27 participating NYC restaurants. Kugel, an Orthodox Jew and author of a€?How to Read the Biblea€? says that there is essentially no evidence--archaeological, historical, cultural--for the events in the Torah. Koerner which he said depicts: a€?a horseman determinedly charging up what appears to be a steep and rough traila€?--representing his own political journey against steep odds and naysayers. The rope was not strong enough to carry them all; they decided 1 had to leave, or all would fall. According to the Energy Department, vampire gadgets account for about 25% of total residential electricity consumption in the U.S. Guppy submitted a fish to the British Museum that was already classified, but the name stuck [and the fish is still in a jar at the museum]. If you want to speak fluent English, it is just as important to retrain your tongue as it is to train your memory.
A characteristic of the open-loop controller is that it does not use feedback to determine if its input has achieved the desired goal. Even if rain is pouring down on the lawn, the sprinkler system would activate on schedule, wasting water.
However, as Wikipedia suggests above, a sprinkler incorporating a soil moisture sensor would be a simple closed-loop system. Irrespective of whether it is a soil moisture sensor on a sprinkler, or a counter on a machine, there must be some way of setting the control so that it will respond in a predetermined way. Speech is a closed-loop system because sensors within the system itself give feedback to the control portion of the system. But when you learn to speak English, you must retrain all of these processes so that they will all work together at the same time. Unlike an open-loop control system, a closed-loop control system monitors feedback and corrects the process as the machine is running. In human speech, the mind must constantly monitor the feedback information from both the speaker’s own hearing and the proprioceptive senses which enable the mind to control muscles and create the desired sounds.
This is why we can misuse a word, verb tense, or some other part of the initial sentence, and still make corrections in the remaining words of the sentence so that the listener does not hear our mistake.
However, because it is acting on feedback from hearing and the proprioceptive senses, I am showing calibration as acting on the source of the feedback.
The neurological feedback and resulting control of the muscles involved in speech is extremely complex. The first reading would elicit the mental activity required when you do a written grammar-based English assignment. The first is memory (which is involved in both vocabulary and syntax) and the second is proprioceptive responses (which are involved in both pronunciation and syntax). That is, you may be able to learn pure memory skills equally well with either spoken drills or written exercises.

Thus, in my opinion, it is a waste of your time to do written assignments for the purpose of learning spoken English. This does not mean, however, that grammar is not a necessary part of spoken English instruction. When any student over the age of about 12 attempts to learn a spoken language, his or her proprioceptive sense must be consciously retrained for all of the new sounds and syntax.
Yet, this is exactly what grammar-based English instruction has traditionally done by introducing grammar, listening, writing, and reading as segregated activities. Grammar-based language instruction teaches English as though spoken English was an open-loop system.
Consequently, grammar-based English lessons emphasize non-verbal (written) studies of grammar, writing, reading, and listening. All of your study (including English grammar) should be done by speaking English at full voice volume for the entire study period.
But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. No man spoke, but the woman said she would voluntarily let go of the rope, because, as a woman, she was used to giving up everything for her husband, kids and men in general, and was used to always making sacrifices with little in return. To be effective, however, you must retrain your mind, tongue, and hearing at exactly the same time because they must work together when you speak English.Why have you studied English so long in school without learning to speak fluently?
This means that the system does not observe the output of the processes that it is controlling. However, after the sprinkler is on, if the soil becomes moist enough, the valve will close even if the timer is still open. In a machine application, the calibration function could be a counter which is set so that the machine will produce a certain number of finished parts. Your hearing is also an important part of the control because your ears hear everything your mouth says. The mind uses both auditory and proprioceptive feedback to monitor and calibrate speech in real time. Imagine the complexity of pronouncing even a single word with the need to coordinate the tongue, breath control, and jaw muscles. The reciprocal path between the control, the feedback sensors, and the process itself is instantaneous. The mind is involved in a far greater task than simply remembering vocabulary and organizing words into meaningful sentences.
Each of these new sound and syntax patterns requires retraining your entire mind, the nerve feedback in your tongue, mouth, and breathing (which is proprioceptive feedback), and the auditory feedback (your sense of hearing). Just as important, however, is the observation that proprioceptive feedback demands that a question evoke a different sequence of feedback than a statement.
The second would result in the same kind of mental activity required when you study English using spoken drills. It is impossible to speak English—or any other language—without correct use of its grammar. It is not surprising that you have studied English so long in school without learning to speak fluently.
The result for the student is that gaining English fluency requires far more study time, pronunciation is often faulty, and grammar becomes more difficult to learn. All of these activities may increase recall memory for written examinations, but they have little benefit in teaching you to speak fluent English. For example lots of times children need from their teacher to support them and not to shout them.
So, plasma has truer color and does better in darker rooms, and LCD has more vivid color and does better in bright rooms. It is because your teachers have tried to train your mind with written exercises without retraining your tongue at the same time.
Either could operate independently, and either could shut the water off, but both would need to be open in order for the sprinkler to operate.
In this case, the mind is in control of the closed-loop system, the mouth produces the desired product (speech), and auditory feedback from the ears and feedback from the nerve sensors in the mouth allow the mind to coordinate the speech process in real time.
Therefore, what you say next is partially dependent on the vocabulary and other information stored in your mind. You must retrain your mind to use all of the new sounds your ears will hear, as well as the new movements of your tongue, mouth, and breathing.
Now multiply this complexity exponentially as sentences are constructed in rapid succession during normal speech. A Chinese-speaking child learns to mimic the important tones which change the meaning of words. This is why I have identified partial syntax control in Table 1 as being a shared function of both the mind (memory) and the mouth (as a proprioceptive sense).
How quickly you learn to speak fluent English will be directly proportional to your mental involvement when you study. My statement simply means that the best way to learn English grammar is through spoken English exercises.
But what you say next is also dependent on what your ears are hearing your mouth say and on the feedback that is coming from the nerves in your tongue and mouth. Yet, since all of these things must happen together for you to speak fluent English, all retraining of your memory, hearing, and the nerves in your mouth must be done simultaneously. But, therea€™s no such thing as a 1080p TV broadcast (cable, satellite, anything), and wona€™t be for years. Actually, it was an illustration for a Saturday Evening Post short story, a€?The Slipper Tongue,a€? about a slick-tongued horse thief fleeing a lynch mob.
All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. Athens, to honor god of wine & drama, Dionysus [Baccus], where comic actors wore padded phalluses as part of their costumes. However, it has been shown that the human brain does many things using both open- and closed-loop control. Your mind will respond to the first way of reading as simple information which is primarily a memory function, but will respond to the second way as speech because of the proprioceptive feedback from your mouth.

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