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Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient.
They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly. It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies.
To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation.
The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals. Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries. Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army.
Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed). As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar.
The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa.
Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children. Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either. Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B. Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D. For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions.
When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness.
Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination. For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism. Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system. It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire. Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire.
The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long. Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate.
Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings. Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan. The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below. Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy.
Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies. Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome. A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority.
Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus.
Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt.
The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide. The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD.
Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England.
Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C.
Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana.
The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45.
The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world. Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city.
While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son. Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. The Walsh Family of Bantry Bay - The Reese River Water DisputesWe will try to give you an understanding of the conflict from the point of view of the Walsh Family, via the notes of Patrick Walsh Jr., since we cannot speak for the others involved in this case. Frozen Fiefdom - Who Is, What Is?A The names and places of those appearing in this story are real; except for the few which will be noted in parenthesis or quotation marks. According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface. As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position. Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber.
The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore.
The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners). The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence. In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage. A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him. Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there. This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus. It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian. Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed.
To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony! The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture. The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem. Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls!
He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives.
Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor.
This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar.
February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years. Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also.
Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek. After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors. Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops.
He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome.
When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death. Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra.
Start of Pat Jr.'s notes In order to give a more complete picture of the early use of water in the large valleys of Nevada, I will go back to the days of the earliest settlers. Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes. When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry.
Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there.
To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated. This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms.
Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan. Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate.
The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls!
He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem. He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother.
Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority.
In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave.
When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold. But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life. Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources. There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English. He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus. But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering. Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. These people when first coming to this country found vast expances of land that were level or nearly level, and invariably were to be found on a stream system that as a matter of course overflowed it's banks or spread where the natural channels leveled out on flat land.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7.
The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change. The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C.
Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate.
They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes.
The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems. Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome. The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey.
Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem.
These natural meadows were very valuable to the stockman and farmer since they not only provided hay to stack for winter feed but also supplied a great deal of pasture that was good at any time of year, providing it was not covered with snow.
A  Why fictionalize the life and times of someone who appears to be so incredibly fascinating to so many? When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome. The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria. In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass. Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra. The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.


They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency. The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other. The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death. Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. There was also an entirely different type of early settler, usually of foreign birth and more often, Italian. Seriously; when was the last time you boarded a commercial carrier flight and the counter attendant staff (with their name badge either removed, or turned to hide their name) said as you offered to show ID, because they had not asked to see it (sniff sniff, wouldn't that be considered a slip in following TSA or FAA regs?): "Oh, We know who you are! A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy).
General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants. Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.
Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire.
People who were accustomed to small plots of land or garden spots in their native land and in coming to this country, as a usual thing, sought out small plots of land in more sheltered places such as in the canyons of the great mountain ranges of the west and at places where the mountain streams were more constant over the entire summer period.
It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak. First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future.
These truck farmers, or raisers of garden produce did not to any great extent reduce the normal flow of mountain streams, but from the produce they raised and sold to the mining camps, they obtained a comfortable living and in most cases were able to build up a substantial savings account.The foregoing paragraph is, I am sure a concise statement of facts regarding the situation that once existed throughout the most of the new west. She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season.
All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
As was previously stated in this story, my father had acquired through purchase, a considerable area of natural meadow land and this was during normal years, sufficiently irrigated from the stream system called the Reese River. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances.
Ordinarily, this river flowed a considerable volume of water during the spring months of the year.This water accumulating from a vast water shed of great area and consisting of many mountain canyons of comparatively high elevation.
During years following winters of normal precipitation in the form of snow, the waters of Reese River were fully ample to supply the needs of what was then a limited number of settlers, such was the situation during the period of time preceeding the hard winter of 1890, and for a few years following it.As time went on, new settlers acquired lands above the holdings of my father, the land they possessed was very rich soil and especially adapted to the raising of alfalfa and hardy grains. I've made light of such an invasion, and asked my "contacts" to send the Royalty Checks to the P.O. As a consequence of this new cultivation and the appropriation of water from the rivers and mountain creeks to irrigate the new farm lands, the old holdings such as the natural meadows gradually began to dry up.This state of affairs continued to get worse, as the new settlers from year to year put more land into cultivation and thereby absorbing more water. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. The contestants held the empty sacks and the attorneys representing the clients were considerably enrichened by the whole procedure. He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. Maybe that "Landscaping" scene in the shower might do something for you; it was just ordinary grooming for me. Later settlers physically diverted the waters of the Reese to irrigate their lands, and in doing so reduced the amount of waters accessible to ranches & farms down stream.
Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young.
This set up the conflict between residents of the Reese River Valley.The words below are the legal reasons that set in motion the reversal of a lower court case decision in favor of Patrick Walsh. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal. Former State of Alaska employee, former salesperson of retail tourist items and fine collectibles, currently unemployed but extremely busy uncovering the "stiffs and stashes" and countless other dirty lowdowns which were rumored to only be dusty old stories from the early days in the Mini Fiefdom and the Big Berg.
Judging by the amount of "unusual activities" and oddities surrounding my life; there just might be more than one ugly little something being hidden, or covered up. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. And those who would know the full story and detailed truths are either dead, or have snapped their lips shut tighter than a clam in a low tide. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. Wallace ( daniel tuttle wallace )  " For the reasons given, the order denying the motion for a new trial will be reversed, and the cause remanded for further action in accordance herewith "Walsh  v. A Currently and temporarily ensconced in the warmth of sunny Los Angeles, until the job offers roll in. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career.
Finds inner peace by practicing Reiki, meditating, humming, gong banging, and any other "Higher Self" reaches; whatever the name of the day is. Those methods of achieving relaxation, spiritual enlightenment, or whatever one needs to feel well and in tune with themselves, are referred to as "Wand Waving" in our historical family vernacular. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. 1 and 2 of a touching note she mailed to me on August 6, 2007, here for page 3, which was handed to me by one of the other women who also rented from Jewel, a few days later as it arrived in the mailbox, via the USPS. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite.
He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. Laws, 3292), after the filing of the notice of intention, was not changed by the stipulation, and therefore, the statement not having been filed within five days after filing and serving the notice of intention, it should be disregarded and stricken out.It is a general rule that stipulations between parties should receive a fair and liberal construction, in harmony with the apparent intention of the parties and the spirit of justice, and in the furtherance of fair trials upon the merits, rather than a narrow and technical one, calculated to defeat the purposes of their execution, and, in all cases of doubt, that construction should be adopted which is favorable to the party in whose favor it is made. One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way.
5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed.
In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. One of many 3 lettered agencies which forms a staggeringly huge, yet relatively unsophisticated, branch of the United States government. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years.
Should be right next to my photo that I submitted later; attached to one of "those other emails" that I sent to you.
From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life.
657, et seq.)Under this rule it is clear to us that the construction contended for by respondents is too narrow and technical. Box is still my current permanent address, in case something has opened up; or how many Royalty Checks shall I be expecting to receive? In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. The appellants were not bound to perform any one or all of the acts covered by the stipulation at any specified time. A I'm guessing that employment prospects for me there are looking less than likely; perhaps a short term contract for Fund Raising might be offered?
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland.
They could, we believe, under a liberal construction in the order named, perform any or all of the acts at any date within the time limited.
To hold as contended by respondents would, it seems to us, necessitate the interpolation of language not found in the stipulation; and, if such had been the intention of the parties, it was useless and absurd to have included in the stipulation any matter relating to the time of filing and serving the statement on motion for a new trial.
By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis.
The intention of the parties, manifest from the language used, was that the stipulation should stand in lieu of the provisions of the statute regulating these matters.The case of State v.
She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. I have not mentioned this book or odd events to her, other than a few questions about Eric's behavior when she and I spoke briefly in a bedroom at Christmas in Anna's home, and were repeatedly interrupted by Anna. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. An outstanding resource for drumming up dates, finding living quarters, meeting other artists, selling a futon; I've used many of their sections with fantastic results.
She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". Maestretti and his predecessors in interest were, and had been since said date, the owners and in the possession of certain tracts of land containing 800 acres; that the respondent Mrs. By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out. I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! A motion for a new trial was interposed and denied, and this appeal is taken from the order denying the motion.The court found, among other matters, that Reese river had from time immemorial, and until the diversions by appellants, flowed over, through, and across the lands of respondents; that on the 15th day of March, 1863, the respondents and their predecessors in interest had appropriated and used the waters of Reese river ?in sufficient quantity? I appreciate your service to our country.) married our Mother, and produced 4 offspring, like good Catholics did. The court did not find the quantity of water appropriated by any or all of the respondents, or that respondents had appropriated all the waters of the river. The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic.
Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets.
We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
How about those telling tunes, dead air moments, and skips which fired frequently over the airways of the Juneau radio stations during the 1960's and 1970's? By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall. When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities. The respondents' lands lie along or upon the East and West Forks of the river, and the lands of the appellants are several miles south and above the lands of respondents, and along the channel of the river above and near where it divides into two forks.The appellants and their predecessors in interest settled upon the lands mentioned in their complaint in 1862 and 1863. The predecessors in interest of some of the respondents settled on lands along the river a little later, but about the same time that the lands of appellants were settled.
Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. The settlers upon the lands claimed by respondents had their several holdings surveyed, marked the boundaries thereof, and protected the same to some extent by making so-called ditch fences.The ditches thus made were not for the purpose of irrigation, and were not so used for many years after and until other rights of both respondents and appellants had been acquired to the waters. The settlers upon respondents' land found wild grasses growing thereon at the time of their settlement, suitable for hay and grazing, and cut and grazed the same for a number of years. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure.
Up to 1869 whatever hay and grass grew upon these lands was produced by the natural overflow of the waters of Reese river, and waters flowing from springs upon part of the holdings.No attempt was made to divert any of the waters of Reese river for the purpose of irrigation until 1869, when the ditch marked on respondents' map by the figures 1, 2, and 3, taken from the so-called West Fork, above the lands now held by Ryan and Maestretti, was commenced.
Once a conversation with him is fully underway; it's amazing how much knowledge he has, on many subjects. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. This ditch was not completed until many years after its commencement, and it appears from the evidence that no water has run through a part of this ditch since 1891.As to the Walsh lands, it appears from the testimony of the respondent, Walsh, that no diversions were either made or attempted until 1870, and that the diversions made for the purposes of irrigating his lands cover the period from 1870 to 1884.
He's doesn't fit the profile of a neighborhood BusyBody, but he has the knowledge base of one. I thought now was perfect opportunity to ask him a few questions regarding some words my Gramma shared with me over the years; particularly about the perhaps not so good old days in the Mini Fiefdom, and the Big Berg.
I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? Formerly a self contained and fully operational Production Unit featuring its own school, Mt. Jumbo (teach you a lesson!) and the sounds of children and adults long since passed over, still echo thoughout its hollowed halls today. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. A Catholic Church (pray to excuse your daily sins), cold storage facility (kill 'em and chill 'em), laundromat (wash and dry those stains bye-bye!), fuel and service station (bring 'em in, take 'em apart), fire department (sound the alarm!) water reservoir (beaver water, anyone? In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find.
A favored description used by my Gramma of the water coming from the tap) public works equipment (rigs to dig), public library (shhh!!
It's a Secret!) boat harbor (what floats your boat?), beauty shop (as my brother would say "no help for some")full service grocery store (everybody's got to eat), a couple of bars (drink your pour, say no more), at least one restaurant, a building referred to as "The Indian School" which was apparently the school for Natives (non-whites) when my Mother was young. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. The local Native children attended public school by the time I was enrolled in the late 60's. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Wallace, the former owner of this tract, after he and Bircham had divided their holdings, in 1869, constructed two dams and turned water onto his meadow land, but it is uncertain whether this water had its source in the river or in certain springs.
A quiet little community, which also featured at least three cemeteries, which are still in existence; if not in current use.
Some things have changed in the last 40 years, different businesses closing and opening, new owners, and Douglas being hooked up to the citywide water and sewer system. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. Shucks, I sorta miss seeing the toilet paper bits, and other assorted chunks of unidentifiable materials floating in Gastineau Channel. Wallace purchased the so-called McQuitty place, above respondents' lands, in 1870, and by means of dams and ditches diverted water for irrigation.
A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help.
Whether these dams and ditches had been made and so used before his purchase of the land is uncertain.In 1873 Wallace located another ranch higher up on the river, and started to construct a ditch for the purpose of irrigating this ranch. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. In 1877 he transferred his diversion of water, under the advice of counsel, from the McQuitty place to his upper ranch, as it appears that the amount of water used on the McQuitty ranch would irrigate much more land upon the upper ranch.Fred Ahlers, whose administrator is one of the appellants, settled upon Reese river in 1864, and commenced farming that year.
Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication.
He made diversions of the water of the river for the purpose of irrigation, but the dates of such diversions and the amounts of water so diverted are not shown by the testimony.
A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? McMahon started farming on Reese river in 1864, and that year put under cultivation eight acres, but the dates and amounts of diversions made by him are not shown by the testimony.The above facts are sufficient, as above stated, to illustrate the question considered and determined by this court, and furnish a sufficient basis for its conclusion. Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work. It is well to note here that the record does not disclose the quantity of water diverted at any time, by any means, by any one or all of the parties to this action. He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr.
Neither does it show the quantity sufficient or necessary to irrigate the lands, or any part of the lands, of respondents, as found by the court. I believe that I would be an outstanding employee for them; although my sense of humor might be a bit over the top for some staff.
A A "Feeders:" Those who were on the receiving end of the wire worn by at least one person who interviewed me in June of 2007. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. It was not specified who they were, or what Branch they represented, but they were informed on my past and present activities with amazingly accurate details.
His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt. 13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. Based on what I've read, the questions and MO used sounds like a branch of the US government; some say the CIA. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time.


Could be; I don't know, and they have elected to not communicate via email other than replying to the one back door tactic I used of sending a few questions to their Entertainment Industry Liaison.
Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet).
Younger sister of mine (by 11 months) and is the epitome of "Spy Struck." She can quote you a line from almost any James Bond flick, has "The Avengers" on DVD, and when she made a reference to "Matt Helm" and I asked who he was, she whipped out a videocassette and popped it into the machine! The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers".
Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando?
15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure.
Even I recognized ol' Dino, and someone in movies or TV has to be a very prominent person if I know who they are.
Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior.
I wasn't CONvinced of that reply, and when I pressed her for details, she claimed to be too busy to "OOOMMMM" over that puzzler in Automotive Physics again; so I emailed the guys at Car Talk for an expert opinion. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues.
Litvinenko, the wife of the former KGB Spy who died in London in November 2006, from poisoning with a peppering of polonium-210; before the book was written, or published!!"The wife of Litvenyenko is writing her own book I read sometime ago. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums.
I was just thinking last week I needed to tune in and tap into that again." February 14, 2008 email from Gail.
Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence.
17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier. The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number.
Their rights were not initiated by settlement upon the land, by having the same surveyed, or by marking the boundaries thereof. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work". No actual diversion was made on that date, or attempted on that date, and for a period of several years after, as appears from the facts stated.
A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Cutting wild grass produced by the overflow of the river, or, as expressed by the witnesses, by the water of Reese river coming down and spreading over the land, was not an appropriation of that water, within the meaning of that term.Neither was the grazing of the land an appropriation of the water, under the facts. A According to my sibs, she was the first to raise the alarm that I was "Missing." Given her line of work, I'm not buying that. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator. She'd be keeping the cops away from the barn; although technically speaking, I don't think that providing Fetish Services is illegal. It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. She has a pleasant voice, was also answering her own Fantasy Fone Line through one of the services available; might still be.
On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues. Other diversion made by himself and Crowley after his purchase of Crowley's rights, if he purchased those rights, were made at intervals from 1870 to 1884.As early as 1870 the appellant D.
Attractive, with a dramatic flair.A She didn't bring work home, and the house was usually tidy. I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday. It did not determine all the rights of either of the respondents, or any of the rights of the appellants. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. It left undetermined the quantity of water sufficient to irrigate respondents' lands, and to that extent it left undetermined respondents' rights, and thereby all the rights of the appellants. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. It's been an amazing cross section who have replied, and I seem to have quite a following of readers; even if I didn't date them. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive".
A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.
A Taxpayers, please note: It is worthwhile to state that any "employees" on the public payroll who I chose to meet, had decent writing skills, or exhibited something which compelled me to have a coffee date with them.
Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement.
You might not feel as if you are getting your monies' worth as you fork over that chunk o' cash out of your earnings every year, but it's got to be going somewhere once you've kissed it goodbye.
Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map. After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it.
We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus.
20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds.
He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum. The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected. A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered. The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design. In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose. A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity. The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site. She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth.
That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation.
The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance.
By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. Wallace ) had won the court case, sold his holdings to Patrick Walsh after finding that the Walsh land was better than his for ranching.   After Reese River, Dan Wallace moved to ranch near Bishop, California. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often.
Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others.
21, 1917 in Bishop and is buried in the West Line Cemetery in Bishop " The Wallace FamilyLeft to Rightdella - daughter, george - son, emma - wife, daniel - husband, arthur - son, emma - daughter--------------------------Damiel had a younger brother ( John ) who ran a Livery Stable in Austin, Nev. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier.
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding.
Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt.
Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high.
The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22.
In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits. A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased.
The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple.
In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner.
HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw? It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight.
It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed.
This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple.
Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center.
It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler.
The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it.
A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls.
In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues.
As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse. Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions. A I'm guessing that employment prospects for me there are looking less than likely; perhaps a short term contract for Fund Raising might be offered? I'd appreciate the Press and others exercising some good sense, and to not contact her. How about those telling tunes, dead air moments, and skips which fired frequently over the airways of the Juneau radio stations during the 1960's and 1970's? The local Native children attended public school by the time I was enrolled in the late 60's.
Even I recognized ol' Dino, and someone in movies or TV has to be a very prominent person if I know who they are.



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